There has been a serious problem in the past regarding how to manage the corporate activities. Many executives after having a long research have come to an agreement that project management technique will be an appropriate solution for the above problem. Project management is a systematical organization of resources which includes material, equipment and the man power for the final completion of the project. The development of project management is from different fields of activities. The activities may include construction, defense and engineering. Project management mainly considers with project planning and project monitoring. The project planning comes out with schedules from the initial step to the final one. Generally these schedules are made by using the Gantt charts. Also the project planning consists of activities like the estimation of cost, proper utilization of resources, network diagrams, critical paths, proper work break down. Here all these activities are well organized by a project planning manager. (Kerzner, 2009)
A project manager should have knowledge on all the aspects of the project. He should be familiar with different operations, for instance in order to manufacture a product like a gear or shaft, we need to come across the different operations like the hardening, turning, milling, grinding and finally the important one is the testing. So, in order to get the final finished product the manager should have enough knowledge to at least guide or assign his sub ordinates. For better interaction with the team members, the project manager should have good communication and interpersonal skills. Organization of tasks is also an important role of the project planning manager. (Kerzner, 2009)
Project monitoring is another important part of project management. Project monitoring mainly considers with tracking the progress of the tasks, comparing the actual activities to the predicted ones and finally taking the deviation between them and adjusting variance to gain the actual one.
In a line process, series of steps takes places from the raw material makeup to the finished product. The output from step 1 will be the input to the step 2 process and the output to the step 2 process will be the input to the step 3 process , this continues until the final finished product. Here one thing to be taken into consideration is the monitoring of the step by step outputs. The reason for monitoring the outputs step by step is to keep a track of the outcome and do some adjustments in order to minimize the errors in the initial stages.
One of the approaches for the project management is the traditional approach. Several stages are included in this approach. The first stage is initiation, in this stage the scope of the project development. This stage should be considered carefully as it shows impact on the further stages. The second stage includes planning and design, here the description of individual as well as the whole tasks of the system should be designed carefully and also should be well planned. The third stage of project management is executing, this consists of different processes to complete the tasks which are mentioned in the in previous stage. These activities are called planned activities because they are already in the process line. These activities must be implemented accordingly with respect to the time and the funds released. The fourth stage of project management is monitoring and controlling. Here this stage is purely dependent on the attention and knee observation of the technicians. The manager should give the technician proper information like the final specifications so that there will be proper monitoring on the product in a timely manner which controls the errors and makes some adjustments to give the final product with the required specifications. The final phase of the project management is closing which includes the completion of the required product filing the documents and submitting the reports accordingly. This phase gives the completion of each phase of an activity and also the total completion of the activity. There will also be a closing to the contract depending upon the type of contract; hence the final phase shows us that the project is completed successfully. (Greer, 2009)
A project manager should have equal knowledge on technology. In the past days, the equipment and the methods used in the firms were not updated, like the work is totally manual not automatic. But as the technology is updating day by day the management of the industries are using updated versions of techniques. The manager should have knowledge on these updated versions so that he can be a good supervisor for his subordinates and this will result in high quality of the product. For example, in an automobile industry the assembly of different parts is done manually by using different tools which takes much time for finishing the final assembly of the product. The manger at that level has no need of having enough technical knowledge but in the present days everything is automated and programmed. (Cleland & Gareis, 2006) This automation reduces much of the total estimated time as well as the estimated cost, hence the manager at this level should have proper knowledge on the technical skills to update himself as well as the his subordinates. (Ltd, n.d.)
Success of the project depends upon the project manager. The project manager is responsible for the successful completion of the project; proper completion of the project with respect to the time, cost and quality gives the ultimate definition of the project success.
There may also be some chances where the project fails. Some of them include the decision making. (Greer, 2009)
Consider the example of the repair of a DC motor. In the first stage of project management the project manager must define the repair specifications such as Repairing of low voltage induction motors of many phases and these motors will be more and more useful in increasing efficiency of the motor and also the design characteristics of the motor must be mentioned.
The general tendency of repair would be that it reduces the efficiency of motor, and there by the original characteristics of the machine are going to be declined and efficiency gets decreased for which a proper supervision should pass through so that there will be an enhancement in the efficiency of motor. In the second stage the project manager should plan the general repair of a motor. All the data that was required for the maintenance and repair of the motor must be collected and should be properly observed by the technicians. At this stage he should lead the project to monitor the work and communicate with the technicians at work which would not be present at the normal repair of a motor without managing skills. The data collected is studied so that the best methods of repair were obtained and thus the survivability of induction motor is maintained in potential inverter applications and this process is all done without affecting the efficiency of motor. The repair specifications thus obtained are used by the repair centers of electrical motors especially induction motors so that the end users can utilize these specifications at the possible application level and VFD applications. It was a revealed secret that millions of dollars are lost in every year in the name of energy costs and the time that was wasted for down time and mostly repair costs.
The data specifications that were collected at the time of repair must be made applicable such that these results would be useful for the maintenance of all induction motors of low voltage and must be determined as the landmark for the repair standards at the utmost point of view. And thus the role of project management is completing even the feedback from the end users and thus the output to the input ratio must be improved at the highest degree and the task once accomplished should be such that they can be used as the baseline documents and thus the initial project serves as the reference in the future repair of a motor and any changes that are made in regard of the repair of same type of motor is to be properly enhanced.
Project management involves various problems and these problems are thus undertaken to obtain a more efficient output. And in prior Project can't begin on time: In this particular case the repair of a motor may not be done on time due to the non availability of technicians or due to the non availability of proper parts that are to be replaced and for many other reasons. Project has vague requirements the availability of proper parts which are to be replaced in the place of spoiled parts are to be pre identified. Project managers can't stay within project parameters for the successful completion of the project. Lack of strategic alignment leads to unsuccessful of project. The breakdowns in communication between the technicians may create a blur idea regarding the goals of project and even the objectives of the project management brings gaps between technicians and should be carefully handled by the Project managers and check to minimize the staff gaps. (Yager, 2001)
Distortion of harmonics and how the distortion t effects the normal working of a motor and even due to this abnormal working of motor there will be a change in working of other electrical and mechanical equipment related to it, minimum operating speeds and motor cooling are the two different problems involved in the repair of a motor, at this stage of project fulfillment there should be proper synchronization between a technician that deals with harmonics and the technician who deals with operating speed of the motor which is in turn concerned with the load. Even in case of replacement of parts the project management places a vital role so that the end user will be given an efficient work. In this particular event "The replacement of a gear can also be taken as criteria of repair. During the spoilage of original gear system even the replacement of the gear should be accurately placed. Suppose a gear is replaced by another system at a pretty less distance away even that costs much and the motor efficiency will be drastically reduced and thus the life of the motor will be affected. Even if the gear system is adjusted on a lower side, it is not accurate with the original one the cooling required for the efficient working of a motor is not vulnerable. Thus we can conclude that a careful supervision should be taken in the fulfillment of each and every step of project. The landmarks that will affect the downstream landmarks and even them effect the total time in the ultimate completion of project and thus enhances the time limit of project. Even a small thread of mistake at lower level will create a menace problem at the higher level of the project.
In the view of an end user the problems involved in the completion of a project doesn't matter much and rather the budget involving in the project, the maintenance cost of the output after the delivery and the time taken for the completion of the project play a vital role and even these aspects are to be undoubtedly fulfilled by the manager through the project management techniques.
The most significant reasons for the success of a project are the sponsorship of project at the stage of execution, charter of a good project, a management with strong and efficient technician and even the exact collaboration of the team members and even the decision making of the leader leading the whole project or some part of it as they all work towards a common objective. (Field & Keller, 2007)
The Project management also estimates the maximum and minimum time required for the completion of a project. The end user will be more particular regarding the time limit of the project as it will have a direct impact on the end user. In general none of the major projects will be executed on time, in the limit of budget and with the same technicians who started it. Most of the Projects progress quickly at the initial stages and later during the execution or debugging of the project problems arises and the thing is that whenever a problem is tried to rectify newer and newer problems arises which will be more critical than that of the previous ones. Thus from the above it is inferred a carefully planned project will be more advantageous when considered to that of a normal project with regard of time, efficiency, and budget allocation. Leadership, Organization, Communication, Finance, Technical savvy, Politicking, Team building, Praising, Punishing are the key jobs of a project manager which satisfies the end user at the utmost level.
The project management is not an abrupt change that be done for every work after normal completion of project but it is a step by step procedure in fulfilling the needs of end user. In the conclusion project management skills and techniques prove to be the need of the hour for the successful functioning, scrutinizing, verifying and also not only in bringing an efficient output but also in satisfying the end consumer in every point of view.
- Cleland, D. I., & Gareis, R. (2006). Global project management handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.
- This book was really good and helps to learn successful international project management techniques and also how to apply them. It also explained how the project management is carried in various countries all over the world. This book also shows how the project management is successfully applied in different fields. It bought the case studies from all over the world related to project management.
- Field, M., & Keller, L. (2007). Project management. London: Thomson Learning.
- This book gives the basic principles which are applied in the industrial projects and also gives information regarding issues that will be taking place in the project. Proper inspection of the project in each and every stage in the line process is well described. The roles of project manager are also given in detail.
- Greer, M. (2009, September 20). 14 Key Principles of Project Management. Retrieved December 08, 2009, from michaelgreer.biz: http://michaelgreer.biz/?p=125
- This web site provides the principles for the project management success. It also provides the information about the planning, execution, initiation and monitoring of the projects in the units.
- Kerzner, H. (2009). Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controllin. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- This book deals with basics of the project management. The author is mainly concerned with each and every component of the subject. This book described the different stages of the project management and the roles of the manager in different fields. It gives the information regarding the success and failure of the project. The information provided in this book is useful for both students as well as professionals in different shells.
- Ltd, M. T. (n.d.). Project Management Techniques from Mind Tools. Retrieved December 07, 2009, from Mindtools.com: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_PPM.htm
- In this web site tools related to project management are discussed. Estimating time,
- Planning of the large projects, Scheduling the projects are explained which are important components for the project management.
- Yager, S. (2001, 10 03). Top 10 Project Management Problems. Retrieved December 08, 2009, from dssresources.com: http://dssresources.com/papers/features/yager10032001.htm