The task management

Introduction:

Task management is specified for any special task which need to be carried out in fixed time and within a budget and need to be adhere with set standard. The whole management process can apply here in a short form where planning, testing, tracking and reporting can take place. A task manager is responsible for carry out the task and accountable to top management. In other word it can say that task management specifies the task that are assigned for and all the management process establish here to run the task smoothly.

Task 1

Attributes of specifying Task objectives

Task is a piece of work assigned to some one in order to carry on a certain period of time. The objective of a task will be as follows:

  • Task should carry on within timetable that assigned for
  • Task should carried out by a specific person that assigned for
  • Task should be done in order to meet standard which has set by ISO or others
  • Task should meet the purpose of the job
  • Task should carry on within budget
  • May need to work with all other small group in order to achieve common goal
  • May need to work under some one's supervision
  • May need to work under pressure

If the entire objective has met on demand then it is easy to complete the task. Attributes of task objectives are interrelated and are as follows:

Stage I: Planning of the project

  1. Need to do all analysis of the task such as job analysis, task analysis, etc.
  2. Need to do other analysis which will be thorough and defensible.
  • Step 1: Scoping of Project
    • Preliminary materials specifications
    • A detailed project schedule
    • The budget and/or cost estimation
    • Appropriate planners, managers, and sponsors review
  • Step 2: Organizing the Project
    • Materials specifications, schedule, and budget need to confirm.
    • A list of team members including their roles and responsibilities.
    • Create and keep a project diary for all documentation.
    • Need to organize an introductory meeting to discuss everything relate task.
    • A detailed project schedule
    • Vendors or contractors need to provided a formal request
    • Vendors need to select in a fair and impartial manner.
    • Clear mechanisms for handling all necessary vendor's paper work

Stage 2: Development stage

  • Step 3: Gather Information
    • Set an information gathering strategy
    • Specify target
    • Need to know the enough of audience
    • specific tasks or skills need to define clearly
    • Adequate technical details
  • Step 4: Develop the Blueprint or Specification
    • A briefing session need to conduct.
    • A blueprint or set of design specifications need to create
    • Review the blueprint.
    • Review feedback
  • Step 5: Develop Draft Materials
    • The design team needed formal approval
    • Need clear specifications for draft development.
    • Reviewer need review the draft materials
    • Review feedback.
  • Step 6: Test Draft Materials
    • Need formal approval (sign-off).
    • Plan for test run
    • Need revision specifications
  • Step 7: Produce Master Materials
    • Need a production strategy for clear statements of expectations and deadlines.
    • High-quality master materials

Stage 3: check the progress

  • Step 8: Reproduce
    • A reproduction strategy
    • High-quality copies of all course materials
  • Step 9: Distribution
    • A distribution strategy needs to discuss with appropriate distribution personnel.
    • Copies of materials need assemble and properly store
    • An effective distribution system need to be establish
  • Step 10: Evaluation
    • Need a strategy for evaluation
    • Need to approve by the management.
    • Need to submit training records of staffs who were engaged with the task.
    • Next is to recommendation

Technical and non-technical issues of task objectives

  • Technical issues of task objectives are as follows:
    • Review existing recommendation for specific task
    • Develop a research and individual agenda
    • Work with government and other related agencies for ease of task
    • Development of information technology
    • Identification of economic and non-market variables that can affect task
    • Create and run pilot test
    • Keep good relationship with trade union
    • Implement the recommendation etc
  • Non-technical issues of task objectives are as follows:
    • Supervise the team for achieving objective
    • Motivate team if necessary
    • Discuss possible mechanism to all task members
    • Allocate job to all task member
    • Inform all about task objectives
    • Develop communication
    • Maintain quality of work
    • Run acid test for the task etc

Consequence of task objective for not to following properly

If the task objectives are not followed properly then there is a chance to happen following things:

  • Task will be incomplete
  • Employee will become frustrated
  • Chance to declare redundancy of staff and possible job cut
  • Increase worse relationship between employee and management
  • Increase budget
  • Increase worse relationship with supplier or party or customer etc

Task 2

Techniques for resource management

Resource management is needed to smoothly run of a business. Resources include financial resources, human resources, information resources, suppliers and customers etc.

One resource management technique is resource leveling. It aims at smoothing the stock of resources on hand, reducing both excess inventories and shortages. Resource leveling ensures resource demand does not exceed resource availability. The ideal scenario would be a build up of resource usage at the beginning of the project and a reduction at the end of the project. However, the approach to resource leveling will also depend on whether resources are dedicated to a particular project or shared across several projects and whether there is a need to keep all resources fully utilized.

Techniques for time management

Time management is where time is important for specifying a task or implementing a task. It refers to a range of skills, tools, and techniques used to manage time when accomplishing specific tasks, projects and goals. This set encompasses a wide scope of activities, and these include planning, allocating, setting goals, delegation, analysis of time spent, monitoring, organizing, scheduling and prioritizing. It business or work activities, and eventually the term include personal activities as well. It can say that a time management system is a combination of processes, tools and techniques.

Sometimes time management considered as a project management and it is well known for project planning and project scheduling. Time Management also acts as a core functions in project management. The common time management techniques are as follows:

  • Need to recognize that everyone can't do it all.
  • Basically people are stretched too thin because they've an idea that people can do everything and can do full time work and can spend with their friends and family as well or can do social or community work and also can go to gym for staying healthy and fit. It doesn't matter that someone healthy and happy with how they're spending their time. Need to realize that everyone can't do everything in their life at a time.

  • Prioritize
  • Need to prioritize the work on life. Need to know which one should do first or which one can do later if not create problem or mess. It is not wise to think that every thing in life is equally important. Some are more important and some are less. Is it important to clean someone's cloth daily? If not then have to choose which one should do first or can do later. It's not good to rush from task to task throughout the day. Need to review the list of what they have to do that day at the day's start and then need to pick out the things that they 'must do' that day. At the end of the day people can have a satisfaction to run their day successfully with prioritize job.

  • Need to say 'YES' or 'NO'
  • People need to say 'yes' or 'no' straight way. No need some ambiguity between them. It doesn't matter who upset or not to listening the answer. But it makes the task easier rather than complex. Need to make this as simple as it is and avoid saying 'Maybe' at all time when people are asked to commit to something. Need to express thinking positively or negatively. And no need to get hung up on elaborating. No one have to give extensive reasons for their decision. The person people are speaking to will appreciate their honesty.

  • Unplug.
  • Another modern idea that people have to disregard if they want to manage their time effectively is the idiotic idea that they have to attach with every thing. They can do the work what comes in front of them rather than receive a phone call or read email. For instance, if some one's child is telling them what happened on their school on that day or they are doing an estimate for a potential customer, they have to give their attention in front of them, not the ones calling or sending them email. So need to recognize this and 'unplug' themself when appropriate. And make them self the manager of their technology rather than being managed by it. No need to read or reply all email and personally answer every phone call. It is not wise to let incoming texts or Twitters interrupt them when they're working. It is wise to fix a particular time to check email and phone calls for business purposes or personal.

  • Take time off.
  • People need to take time off at least weekend as it freshen up their mind and give spirit to work weekdays. Before they start up of their day they need cool brain for whole day and need to be cool at all time where it not necessary to work seven days a week where most important thing is what they done during the week and done properly So it will better to incorporate time off into their schedule. When they have time off they can relax and enjoy themselves and back to work with a good mood.

The way that resource and time management technique can help to develop a project plan

Motivation is a key aspect for all management process and so also for task management. Company depends on its financial stability. A successful management is that who can run their project within budget. There was a high demand for expert project manager as they know better how to run a project in a cost effective way. A project manager needs to make sure that they do timely delivery, go according to budget and managing quality towards its set standard. Project manager should have the all qualities to run the project successfully. Within resource and time management technique motivation is essential element of a successful project. A project manager needs to motivate his project team to get the most output from them. If the project team is highly motivated then they can achieve project's goal and reduces complications.

Project manager should stand with his own and have capability to run a project with out facing any difficulties and by this can achieve goals while implementing project plan which is critical to the success of any company. This technique can help in project plan that increase team motivation and create a happy motivated team which can help to achieve project objectives.

Resource management and time management technique are playing a great role to make a project team happy. All the management functions need to adhere here but specially need to follow the motivation technique through human resources strategy and time management technique to follow the guidelines of it to reach the objectives of the project

Task 3

Definition of leadership

Leadership is the quality that enables a manager to exert a positive influence over the behavior of subordinates. It is difficult to definition but is, nevertheless, important to the success of any group activity whether this is a small group in a department or the whole of an undertaking.

Different types of leadership styles

Leadership is concerned with the human aspect of management. It therefore follows that the style of leadership has a direct bearing on the overall management style. It is therefore necessary to know and understand the variety of different leadership and management styles available.

  • It is first necessary to understand the effects of particular situations on leadership style. This must not affect the fundamental integrity of the approach
  • Within all situations, and given the vagaries of departmental management, there must be a guiding set of core principles on which the leadership style, both of the organization as a whole, and also of its departments, is based. This is in turn, reinforced through: procedures and manual; relations between staff and managers; relationships between departments, divisions and functions; and direction from the top.

Within these confines, it is possible to define the following:

  1. Authoritarian leadership
  2. This is the traditional view of a leader where power is in the hands of one authority whose word is law. Orders are issued and are expected to be obeyed within question. This rarely works; it creates a resentful work-force, which in turn, leads to low productivity and output.

  3. Other forms of autocracy
  4. It is true that autocratic forms of leadership do exist, and can be more effective. However, their continued effectiveness is dependent upon: the extent to which those in charge continue to be prepared to take an enlightened view of the world; and their capability not to become corrupted by the very position of their own autocracy. For example, Richard Branson runs the Virgin group as an autocracy, and the reason why he remains so successful is because he continues to surround himself with expert advice, guidance and direction on the business initiatives that he proposes and undertakes. On the other hand, Robert Maxwell created a publishing empire through surrounding himself with similar expertise; and it then, in turn, became ruined due to lose of principles and integrity.

  5. Paternal leadership
  6. Common chiefly in small concerns, paternal leadership endeavors to create a family atmosphere where the leader likes to be regarded by the workers as a parent figure, in a suitable organization, this style works very well and in most cases, motivation of staff is excellent. Staff generally becomes very loyal to the management, and people who do not like this form of working generally move on.

  7. Democratic leadership
  8. A great weakness of the democratic style of management is the propensity of those supposedly in charge to advocate their responsibilities. In operational terms, democracy- management by people for the people, and management by vote-may not is the recipe necessary for long- term success and effectiveness. As with all votes, greatest resentments arise where the vote is very narrow, for example, where 53 percent of those voting want one thing and 47 percent want another. Moreover a majority of people may simply vote for the wrong course of action in the circumstances.

  9. Participative leadership
  10. Participative leadership exists where everyone involved is kept informed of decisions and progress at every stage. People therefore understand why those responsible for the long-term future and success of the organization have taken the decisions that they have taken. It also becomes very much easier to understand unpleasant decisions (e.g. those concerned with redundancies), even on the part of those directly affected. The participative style is also the most effective vehicle for change currently discovered; and this is of especial value in the current state of the business and management world.

  11. Leadership by committee
  12. The great weakness of the committee approach to leadership is that decisions tend to get diluted or delayed. It also happens that the decision is taken is the one that nobody did not want- and this also tends to lead to organizational inertia. Also when things go wrong, there is a tendency to blame the other members of the committee for not having done what was necessary, rather than accepting responsibility one's self (this is also a weakness of all democratic forms of leadership)

Leadership styles that help managers to improve motivation within their project teams

In relation to task management autocratic leadership style is more fruitful than the other types of leadership styles to complete a specific task.

The work situation where autocratic leadership found very useful are as follows:

  • A project where time is very short, complex in nature and technology involved.
  • When manager has a short period of time and his span of control is bigger.
  • When employees doing repetitive tasks and are low skill and generally receive low levels of motivation.
  • Where a project has a dead line and need to work under pressure.
  • A project where employee turnover is too high and happens due to lack of leadership quality.

On other hand it is fruitful to implement democratic leadership for motivation employee for any types of business. Leadership styles of democratic are benefited when:

  • Work environment where it is positive- a place where junior employees are treated fairly and given same responsibility as they are supposed to and enjoy the environment without fair and anxiety.
  • Initiative which turns to a great success- Democratic environment where decision making involved and response of feedback is high what make this style more effective. A company who run under democratic leadership can do fewer mistakes as their motivation level is high. In simple when there is something wrong happen people call that is the result for democratic leader but not autocratic.
  • Thinking when it is creative- the thinking of freely and its environment are most important to think creatively. Creative thinking needs for an organization to go smoothly without any obstacles.

Values, interests, fear, and worthy causes motivated people where some of these forces are internal such as needs, interests, and beliefs. And some other others are external such as danger, the environment or pressure. There is no simple formula for motivation- management must keep a open viewpoint on human nature.

Task 4

Definition of mentoring

The word originates from Greek mythology. In practice and in business, mentoring has by and large come to be used interchangeably with coaching. All the experts and communicators appear to agree that it has derived from concept of apprenticeship; it takes place with an elderly fellow who is knowledgeable and experience and can share his experience while mentoring some one.

According to Eric Parsloe and his book 'Coaching, Mentoring and Assessing', mentoring is concerned directly with the immediate improvement of performance and development of skills by a form of tutoring or instruction. Mentoring is always one step removed and is concerned with the longer-term acquisition of skills in a developing career by a form of advising and counseling.

Definition of coaching

According to Oxford Dictionary coaching means to coach as to 'tutor, train, give hints to, prime with facts'. Coaching is the way of things done as about what is done. Coaching delivers a great result in large measure because of the supportive relationship between the coach and the coachee, and the types and style of communication that used in the process. The coachee acquires the facts not only from the coach but from within himself, stimulated by the coach.

To use coaching successfully management have to adopt a far more optimistic view than usual of the dormant capability of people, all people. Coaching can apply on the following for better output:

  • Staff of motivation
  • Delegating of staff
  • Solving a problem
  • Where relationship issues arises
  • Where team building required
  • The situation for appraisals and assessments
  • To measuring task performance
  • In the case of planning and reviewing
  • The program of staff development
  • Team working etc

The list is endless, and opportunities can be tackled by using a highly structured approach, the formal coaching session.

Difference between mentoring and coaching

There are lots of differences between coaching and mentoring. Though the processes are similar but it is helpful to understand these differences as they are delivered by individuals with different qualifications and different relationships with their client.

The way to use mentoring and coaching in Task management

There is a crystal clear importance of mentoring and coaching in task management. Coaching plays a major role than mentoring in task management where coaching focuses generally on development or issue at work and mentoring focuses on career and personal development. But in long term mentoring plays a great role on task management as it train employee with experience and skills at work place during working time in order to carry on the project task. Mentor create belief for others and values in a positive way; often a career relationship exists for longer term who was work same field before.

Task 5

Definition of communication

Communication has been defined in many ways, and there is no simple, all-embracing definition. It could, however, be said to be the transmission and reception of a message or idea from one party to another in such a fashion that it is mutually understandable. The key words here are 'mutually understandable', because unless both parties to a communication are of one mind as to what communication means there is no communication at all.

Effective communication is a vital tool of management because without it all attempts to carry on the activities of an organization must fail. Without communication nothing can happen. No instruction can be given, no orders taken, no contact made with superiors or subordinates and no information provided or received

There are two types communication exists in an organization which are vertical and horizontal communication. Vertical communication is that which flows downwards from the top and upwards from the bottom of the organization, and horizontal communication is that which flows across and between departments at more or less the same management level.

Barriers of communication

It is necessary to understand the obstacles in order to achieve an effective communication throughout an organization that. In doing this it becomes possible to reduce or avoid these barriers and so lessen the risk of breakdown. There are some barriers of communication which are as follows:

  • Perception problem- a successful communication can't be conducted where perception problem happens. If someone who does not speaks clearly or who talks too fast and in a flustered way cause dismiss them or anything they say treated as unimportant. Similarly, most people value those of high status and dismiss those of low status.
  • Problems of culture- A communicator some itself a barrier for communication when his culture, back ground, belief comes between them which cause interruption of a communication process.
  • Problems of noise interference - there is lots of noises occurred during communication process. Sender and receiver can't communicate properly due to noise. It needs to be more concentrated by the both parties when there is a strong environmental atmosphere presents.
  • Problems of personal attitude- No one should express their personal feeling during communication process as it is a common barrier for communication process.
  • Problems of environment -environmental problems such as noise, bright lights, unusual sights, other stimuli or even attractive people nearby can provide unwelcome distractions which interfere with the effectiveness of the communication process.
  • Problems of the message- A message itself some times a communication barrier. This is due to the facts of the message instead of giving the ideas behind the message. It can also happen when words are not used properly.
  • Problems of stress- If people are under stress it adversely affect communication process . when people are under stress their behaviour and attitudes can change drastically and differs what they may receive in one way when calm and content may be completely different when they are under pressure.

Barriers of communication to impact on Task management

Communication barrier itself create problem to establish a network with sender and receiver especially on task management to achieve its goal. In task management or project management a job always assigned which to be complete within a specific period of time. If the other dominant factors on task management remain same, then only can communication create obstacle on his way to meet the target.

If the two party's perception was not clear, cultural difference happen during communication, if internal and external noises happen during communication process, anyone's personal belief and feelings came during conversation, ambiguity of message occurred, stress at work place etc create problem to complete a job. Barriers of communication increase budget and time for implementing any task, increase bureaucratic problem etc for which some time its not possible to implement the task.

Ways of overcoming barriers of communication

In short term- It is not wise to reject a particular policy instrument simply because there are barriers to its introduction. Use of groups of policy instrument is one of the key elements in a successful strategy to overcome these barriers. The financial and political and cultural barriers where one policy instrument can generate revenue to help finance another or one can make another more publicly acceptable. Effective participation is the second important element which can help reduce the severity of institutional and political barriers, and encourage joint action to overcome them. Finally, implementation with effective approach can reduce the severity of many barriers.

In long term- Legal, institutional and technological barriers happens in a long run where is harder to overcome in the short term. Some institutional and political barriers may get worse over time. However, strategies should ideally for 15-20 year timescale to ease its operation. Many of these barriers will not still apply twenty years hence, and action can be taken to remove others. For example, if new legislation would enable more effective instruments such as pricing to be implemented, it can be provided. If split responsibilities make achieving consensus impossible, new structures can be put in place. If finance for investment in new infrastructure is justified, the financial rules can be adjusted. Barriers should thus be treated as challenges to be overcome, not simply impediments to progress. A key element in a long term strategy should be the identification of ways of resolving these longer term barriers.

Conclusion

The topic of the subject named task management have been discussed so far here is interrelated and have tried to establish a short description for all of it and showed specifying and planning task, the importance of task management to overcome the barriers of communication and importance of mentoring and coaching and how leadership styles impact on it. Task management has a great impact on daily life. People have to complete some task for some reason. To complete a task some one should follow the procedure which is defining task objective, implement resource and time management technique with leadership approach and train people with great communication where needed. By this a task can be complete and reach to it targets for what it has assigned.

Bibliography

  1. Eyre E. C. and Pettinger R (1999) Mastering basic management,3rd edition, Macmillan master series, England
  2. Whitmore J (2002) Coaching for performance, GROWing People, Performance and Purpose, 3rd edition, Nicholas Brealey Publishing

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