AN INTRODUCTION: TRAINING
Training is the most effective tool for changing the organization to keep pace with developments in the external environment. The need for training for the sake of company as well as for personal development is felt strongly at every level. Not only new entrants but the existing employees also need to be trained continuously.
Training is the process of imparting new skills and improving the existing skill in the employee so he can perform his work perfectly.
Training is a learning experience in that it seeks a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve his or her ability to perform on the job. We typically say training can in involve the changing of skills, knowledge, attitudes, or social behaviors. It may mean changing what employees know, how they work, their attitudes toward their work or their interactions with their co-workers or their supervisor.
Training is an organized activity for increasing the knowledge and skills of people for the definite purpose. It involves systematic procedure for transferring technical know how to the employees so as to increase their knowledge and skills for drag specific jobs with proficiency.
After the newly appointed employees have joined the organization the next phase of the personnel programmed is to impart necessary training to them to make fully fit for the jobs they are supposed to handle.
NEED OF TRAINING
In modern industrial organization, the need for training of employees is also widely recognized so as to keep the employees in touch with the new technological developments. Every company wants to have a systematic training programmed for the development and growth of its employees.
Training is essential input in providing learning opportunities to employees of an organization to enable them to optimally contribute towards meeting the short and long-term objectives of the organization.
Training programmers are conducted on the basis of what they know rather than what the trainees need. The second most important role of a trainer is to concentrate on the identification of the real training needs.
There is need, therefore, to develop realistic plans for training and development of employees, execute them and follow them up with continuous monitoring and evaluation.
The first phase in the planning process is the identification of training needs which evolves the following:
The organizational analysis include the following steps:
Analysis of objectives: Analysis of organizations objectives provides a clear understanding of short and long-term objectives as well as the priorities that are accorded to various objectives. Resource utilization Analysis: The second step involves evaluating the process of allocation of various human and physical resources and the extent of their efficient utilizations in meeting the specific operational targets across the organization. Environmental Scanning: This involves analysis of the enterprise as an organization or a subsystem operating in a distinct socio-cultural, economic and political environment. Organization Climate Analysis: The climate of an organization is a reflection of its members attitude toward various aspects of work, supervision, and company procedures, goals and objectives ands membership in the organization.
It requires an orderly, systematic collection of data about the job, role or position, and its purpose is to sellouts, in as much detail as possible, what tasks constitute the job, how they are to be have to perform certain specified tasks.
In the collection of job information are available such as: questionnaires, interviews, personnel records, observation, business and production reports, tests, etc.
The focus of this analysis is on the individual in a given job, rather than on the job itself.
Three basic issues are involved in a manpower analysis for training purpose:
First, through appropriate observation, supervisory evaluation and diagnostic Testing we need to determine whether performance is substandard and training is needed.
Second, we need to know whether current employees are capable of being trained, and the specific areas I which training is required.
Finally, we need to ask whether current employees with substandard performances can improve their work through appropriate training or should be transferred to make room for those who can already do the job.
ROLE OF THE CHIEF TRAINING MANAGER
The conventional view about the role of a trainer is to conduct training programmers. A good trainer must necessarily be able to take sessions in different training courses. His ratings in these training programmed would mostly determine his success or otherwise as a trainer.
Personnel managers and manpower Development managers working in the manufacturing culture of organizations took a manufacturing approach to development of human resource. This approach starts with the belief that as a raw material by processing is converted into the final product, so is a human resource, which when put through different management development programmed, is converted into a good management resource. Thus, the trainer became a manufacturer of training programmed. In the office of the CTM, each form is thoroughly scrutinized and the training needs of various departments are noted.
The process that takes place after that comprises of the following stages:
A statement incorporating the needs of a given department or division is sent to Director in charge. At a mutually convenient time these are discussed with each Director/ Manager by the CTM and priorities are mutually agreed on. A tentative time schedule is also drawn up for each programmed. When needs are not quite clear, a dialogue is a arranged between the appraise and the appraise by the CTM.
Finally, after discussion with every director of the company, a corporate training plan is formulated and in a very broad form, sent to the Managing Director for approval. The plan includes a budged proviso of expenditure for each divisional and corporate programmed.
Jorge Chapiro, a management Consultant, who works in Buenos Airs, Argentina and Sao Paulo, Brazil, has done excellent work in this area. He has developed what has come to be referred to as the supervisory Skill level survey, also known as SSL Technology. It is a method of measuring objectively the training needs of a companys supervisors through well designed psychometric tests. This was developed through tests on 5000 supervisors in 75 of Brazils largest companies including General Motors, Fiat, and Norton.
Well planned well executed training programmed should result in:
- Reduction in waste and spoilage
- Improvement in methods of work
- Reduction in learning in time
- Reduction in machine breakage and maintenance cost
- Reduction in accident rate
- Improvement in production rate
- Improvement in quality of products
- Improvement of morale and reduction in grievances
- Improvement in efficiency
- Personal growth
PROCESS OF TRAINING
The training programmed in IOCL Mathura not only in that but also in each concern is a costly affair and a time- consuming process.
Therefore, it must be devised very carefully so that it achieves its objectives with least possible cost. In order to make a training programmed effective, it should proceed through a sequence of steps as written below:
- Training needs identification
- Preparing Training programme
- Preparing the learners
- Implementing training program
- Performance tries out
- Follow-up action
TRAINING NEED IDENTIFICATION
The basic aim of training is to induce a suitable change in the individual concerned. It can be useful in improving tine transformation process that takes place in the organization in terms of processing of input to output.
Therefore training needs have to be related both in terms of the organizations demand and that of individuals.
Hence to identify the training is very essential which head of the department of every department does.
PREPARING TRAINING PROGRAMME
In this step yearly calendar for training programme is prepared and they are after monthly calendar is prepared.
PREPARING THE LEARNERS
Before starting the actual training exercise, there should be preparation of the learners. So that they may derive maximum benefits out of the training programmed. E.g. explaining the importance of the job and its relationship to total workflow and arousing their motivation to learn.
IMPLEMENTING THE TRAINING PROGRAMME
This is the most crucial stage of a training programme. When the learner are ready for the training. They should be expose to various training programme.
PERFORMANCE TRY OUT
At this stage the learners are advised to perform the job on their own albeit with slow speed. Initially, there is likelihood that they commit mistake. Such mistake may be overcome with the help of trainer. After certain period of time, the learners become more efficient in performing the job through continuous practices, as the job involved is a repetitive one.
FOLLOW UP ACTION
This stage is ensuring that the trainees have learned the job fully and they can work independently without the help of the trainer.
TYPES OF TRAINING GIVEN IN THE IOCL MATHURA
- GIVING TO THE NEW HIRE EMPLOYEES:
- GIVING TO THE ALREADY EXISTING EMPLOYEES
Engineer/ management trainees may be posted at any of the units for undergoing intensive training fiord 12 months which period may be extended, if necessary. On successful completion of the training, engineer/ management trainees are observed in the regular scale of pay in Grade A and posted in various units of R& D division, depending upon manpower requirements.
Applicability of CDA rules
During the period of training as also on completion there of Engineer/ Management trainees will be governed by the CDA Rules of the corporation as applicable to the regular officers. The corporation is statutorily obliged, under the apprentices (Amendment) Act, 1973, to make available apprenticeship training to engineering graduates for a period of 12 months. Graduate appendices Engineers are selected by the corporation through written test and interview along with Engineer trainees.
Functional Training: related to the work.
Development Training: For the development like Creativity, work ethics, and work culture.
Others: Seminars, Presentation.
TRAINING NEEDS MAY APPLY TO
- Training needs must apply to individuals, at whatever level in the organization, but the scope and grouping of application will vary considerably. As a consequent the scale and characteristic of the related training will also vary.
- Survival of an organization depends on a much greater willingness on the part of its managers and workforce, generally it accept changes where the whole business is moving to a new site.
- The second category relates to specific groups of people within an organization. They may be in a Particular section, department or unit; they may be at a certain level, such as supervision. The categories relates to a particular individuals.
- Sometimes HRD specialists may find it helpful to think of two classes of training: - Macro & Micro. Micro training exists for one person, or for a small population. Macro training needs exists in a large group of employees frequently. In the entire population with the same job classification
WHY DOES A TRAINING NEED OCCUR
The answer to this question is for one of three reasons(or some combination of the there):
- Job Changes
- Person Changes
- Performance Changes
- JOB CHANGES:
Many managers and their staff have to be retrained for entirely new kind of work. These changes may occur as a result of:
- New Plants
- New products
- Changes in Standards
- New Equipment
- New Technology, Method, Systems or Procedures
The changes in themselves may not be new, what is new been the frequency and pace with which may are now taking place. IN this context a workforce whom is flexible and responsive to change is very much required.
Individuals changing jobs or preparing for future changes in their work are potentially in need of training, the needs may occur because of: -
- Special Assignments
- Initial Induction program
- Career Planning programs
These are routine maintenance needs as follows but of equal importance are not more indications of such needs are:
- Operator Faults
- Customer Complaints
- Quality Control Record
- Key reports from Managers
- Measures existing competency level of individual and groups.
- Identify the gaps compared to short term and long term plans and future requirements of skills and knowledge.
- Identify weak and strong areas of individuals / groups and their respective training needs.
- Organize training in the house and external and improve competency level of every employee.
- Bring excellence in quality of training and its process, content and results.
STRATEGIC PURPOSE OF TRAINING AT IOCL
DEPARTMENT OBJECTIVE TO ENHANCE QUALITY:
Tomorrow belongs to the society which is trained and motivated today.
At Mathura Refinery training centre in association with HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT group, would continuously endeavor to build such society by imparting knowledge, skill and technology along with human values.
TRAINING AN INSIGHT:
- Training department of Mathura Refinery is fulfilled set up headed by chief training manager. The team of trainees is drawn from various section of refinery namely P & U, Production, Quality Control, Maintenance, etc. to give wider thrust of knowledge base.
- The basic function of the training centre is to impart knowledge and skills to the employees of Mathura Refinery so that individual and organizational benefits occurred through systematic learning and experience sharing.
- Training department in association with HRD conducts several in-house training programs, both of functional and developmental in nature. The functional courses are designed to make the trainee to perform the given task in his/her work area. The development courses take into consideration the ever-changing business environment and these are aimed at equipping employees for sustained prosperity.
In Compliance with the quality procedure manual for training department, the following two feedbacks are obtained from every person who has attended any specialized out company training programme.
- Feedback immediately on return from training.
- Feedback after six months of training attended
This system is over and above evaluation sheet obtained from participants immediately at the conclusion of every in-house training programme.
Besides only officers in each department have been nominated as training coordinator whose responsibility is to maintain effective coordination with training department.
It is the broadening focus of a simple concept of training needs. Recently training need assessment is seen as an integral part of broadly focused human performance technology.
This technology takes its conceptual framework mush from cybernetics, system theory, Organizational behavior, industrial/organizational psychology and cognitive psychology as it dues from educational psychological pedagogy and instructional practice and theory.
In Mathura Refinery, performance gap analysis between expected performance and real performance is considered. If it exists, a training need is observed.
The training needs matrix summary of why training needs occur and for whom. It is used in providing a synoptic map off needs across an organization.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TRAINING FROM RESPONDENTS:
- Practical demonstration of methods and machines should be included in training schedules. There should be more emphasis on ON THE JOB TRAINING.
- Duration of training should be according to the subject. And the subject should be relevant to the job for which the trainees are assigned.
- Every individual should be made aware of the training needs and interested people should be given more training.
- There should be given more training style, pattern & schedule.
- Post training activities should be judged by feedback.
- Training should be job related
- Training should be provided to all deserving people. There should be no by passing
- Suggestions should be implemented.
TRAINING PROGRAMS UNDERTAKEN BY MATHURA REFINERY
- FOR EXECUTIVES:
Operational/ functional technology assimilation:
- Advanced PC applications.
- Contract labor management.
- Workshop on CRU.
- Corrosion Control.
- Energy conservation.
- Environmental management.
- Loss prevention & control.
- Emergency handling in process units.
- Furnace operation and emergencies.
- Hydro cracker operation.
- Process control in refinery operation.
- FCCU operation and maintenance.
Development / Awareness:
- First Aid.
- Occupational health and hazards.
- Needs & importance of productivities.
- Quality circle.
- Values system.
- Work Ethics.
- Post APM scenario
- Bench making
Operational / functional technology assimilation:
- MS-OFFICE 97
- Loss prevention & control
- Energy conservation
- Emergency handling in process units.
- CRU operations
- Pumps maintains & emergencies
- Furnace operation and emergencies.
- Environmental management.
- Electrical safety
- Maintenance of Pumps and mech. Seal.
- Motor maintenance
- Corrosion Control.
- Hydro cracker techniques
- Cooling town operation
- Different type of analysis and its maintenance
- Safety in petrol refining
- Safety operation & maintenance in LPG plant
Developmental / Awareness:
- Needs & importance of productivity
- PM & IR
- Inter personal skill
- Time management
- Value system
- First aid
- Health & hygiene
- Safety in petroleum refining
- Safety in petroleum refining for CISF
- TQM managing change
- Bench marketing
- Post APM scenario