Path-goal theory has the meaning to the leadership which is leaders can increase subordinate satisfaction and performance by clarifying and clearing the paths to goal in increasing the number and kinds of rewards that available for goal attainment (Williams & McWilliams, 2010). Every leader may choose different styles in doing their jobs. Some of them may choose to lead strictly but others may choose different styles. Each style may be able to help leaders to survive in their business. The purpose of the essay is to describe how leaders can improve their employee's performance to achieve the goals. There are four leadership styles in path-goal theory which are directive leadership, participative leadership, supportive leadership, and achievement-oriented leadership.
An influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes is reflecting their shared purposes which define as leadership (Daft, 1999). Leadership requires the influence of those who holds a significant change that is a leader. In most of the companies in the worldwide, a leader has the most important role in managing the employees to do any tasks that necessary to accomplish the project. Leadership is the most important skill that a leader must have because a leader has the most important part in managing and organizing their employees in order to get any projects to be accomplished. Furthermore, leadership has the most impact that involves people to carry out expected changes in the future.
The first type of leadership is directive leadership which has its definition as well. The definition of directive leadership is to involve letting employees know precisely what is expected of them, gives them specific guidelines for performing tasks, schedules work, sets standards of performance and makes sure that people follow standard rules and regulations is defined as directive leadership (Williams & McWilliams, 2010). For instance, Eric Schmidt, CEO and Chairman of the Google Inc, before joining Google, Eric was the CEO and chairman Novell and Chief Technology Officer at Sun Microsystems, Inc. In Novell, he tried to get know about what their employee wants. He tried with all manner of questions to ask his employees constantly in meetings until there is a man who dared to give advice to be given the opportunity to present the result of his work which gives an example of a new product. So Eric knew that there is an employee who has brilliant idea that had been buried that afraid of promoting his ideas.
The second type of leadership styles that leader use is supportive leadership. It is to involve being approachable and friendly to employee, shows concern for employees and their welfare and treats them as equals and creates a friendly climate (Williams & McWilliams, 2010). This leadership style can improve employee performance like increase the employee confidence. For instance, in Novell Eric Schmidt engage their employees to participate in providing their aspiration. Novell has a program which is the President's Award Program that is performed every year. They invited 20 people from their employees. This program is held to recognize the personal achievements of the employee. Novell employees has been inviting them for dinner and giving them gifts such as plaques and stock option grants to get some benefits on their accomplishments. Novell wants to show his concern for employees and their welfare and increase confidence between leaders and employees.
The third type of leadership styles that leader use is participative leadership. It means characterised by consultation with employees, encouraging their suggestions and carefully considering their ideas in decision making (Bartol et al. 2008). For instance, in Google Inc, Eric Schmidt found a new motivation those newspapers can make money online. He believes that newspapers could make money by utilizing an extensive network from the internet. He invites the news editor or his employees to dare about experiment in everything of the virtual world from the social networking media until a more personalized content to attract readers (Tessler, 2010). This technology also allows you to communicate with your business partners. If he succeeded in implementing this new motivation to use one of the four leadership styles like participative leadership, it may take as many advantages as possible.
The last kind of leadership styles is achievement-oriented leadership. It means to set the challenging goals, has high expectations of employees and displays a high level of confidence in them (Bartol et al. 2008). For example, Eric Schmidt joined Novell. He got the biggest challenge to the company location strategically. The smart people always give a new motivation. If the company does not have smart people, the company will be losing the goal. The key to retaining talent which he said that smart people is a big challenge. That's mean a company can survive if the company loses a lot of employees. However, if a company loses the biggest challenge, the company cannot survive anymore or in other words, the company would go bankrupt.
From my point of view, to be a perfect leader, the leader must have four leadership styles which are very essential in company or organization to accomplish the goal. If one of the four leadership styles cannot be used and applied in the real works, any of the goals would not be achieved. However, it will be hard to attain the goal. As the real example, Google Inc. can become a big company because the leader like Eric Schmidt has a lot of experience how to lead the company and he understands how to use all the four leadership styles to lead the company. Eric also helps a lot to develop Novell to become a big company that provides leading infrastructure software. In my opinion, Google should continue to develop the company in order to make more progression in the future.