The aforementioned project was carried out on "Women as leaders: current scenario and challenges". This is a term paper undertaken towards the partial fulfillment of two years full time course of Master in Business Administration.
In today's market place it is no longer the dominance of males. The success of modern business lies in the upliftment of fair sex in all forms of business.
I have put my best attempt to complete this term paper. This report includes various factors that affect the changes happening in the society towards women. A questionnaire has also been framed to know the attitude of different people regarding business point of view.
Any report or analysis cannot be completed without the guidance, assistance, impression and cooperation from various quarters. This report also bears impressions of many persons. The words at my command are very less to render my gratitude to all who helped me in the completion of this term paper.
At the outset I express my sincere thanks to Ms. Manbir Kaur Gill, lecturer, Lovely Institute of Management, Phagwara for extending her help and experience.
Last but not the least, I would thank all the respondents who filled my questionnaires and answered my queries.
INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC
The topic is regarding the finding if the condition of women as leaders has deteriorated or has been uplifted or is the same. The various types of research methodologies are being needed to be conducted in order to find the accurate data. But due to lack of time and money it was very difficult to find enough information regarding the topic. But sincere efforts have been given towards the study to gather relevant information.
This study is being carried out to determine the evidence that if the condition of women leaders has improved or not. This study needs a lot of data collection from various data which is a very difficult task. I have given my best efforts to give the most relevant information to give a clear picture of the study.
Research Methodology is a careful investigation or enquiry in a systematic method and finding solution to the problem in a research.
Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done systematically.
It is said that "A problem well defined is half solved".
It is important for the researcher not only to know the technique but also the methodology. So under research methodology we will study the following:-
Scope of the study:-
Whenever a study is being conducted there has to be sound basis and logic for conducting such studies because these studies take a lot of toll in terms of time, money and effort. The survey I will undertake will be on "Women as leaders: Current scenario and challenges", in Jalandhar. This will be done because not a lot of work has been done in regarding this field before.
Decisions regarding what, when, where, how much, by what means, concerning an enquiry constitute a research design. A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. The research type for this survey will be exploratory because of the flexibility of the research design. To get the true feedback from the respondents," The questionnaire Survey" technique is selected. The questionnaires carry the closed ended, open ended and ranking order type of questions.
TYPE OF RESEARCH
Exploratory research will be conducted for this study.
The data is being collected by both primary and secondary sources.
- Primary data: - Primary data are those which are collected from the fresh and first time and thus happen to be original in nature. So the questionnaire method and interviews are used for collection of primary data by visiting various types of people, college and wherever the data can be collected.
- Secondary data: - Secondary data refers to the information which has already been collected. So the sources of secondary information would include various newspapers, magazines, journals, websites, books and reports etc.
A sampling design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. It refers to the technique or procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting the items from a sample and is determined before data are collected.
All items in any field are considered a universe. The universe has to be very clear. Sample universe in the study will be only in Jalandhar.
Sample size refers to the number of items to be selected from the universe to constitute a sample. Due to constraints like time and money, the sample size drawn for the research is 40 only and the scope of study is limited to Jalandhar.
After collecting the data, the analysis of data would be done through various statistical tools and techniques. The analysis of data requires a number of closely related operations such as establishment of categories, applications of these categories into raw data through coding, tabulation and then drawing statistical interferences.
After tabulation of data, the analysis of work of our project is based on the computation of various statistical formulae, percentages, values, pie-charts, graphs and bar diagrams.
Sampling unit refers to individuals, state, village, industry, institution etc. to be surveyed. In this survey, various inputs are taken.
In this, convenience sampling will be taken because every type and every age of persons are related to women in any form of the society.
WOMEN IN THE CORPORATE WORLD
I remember vividly my first job in California as an Account Executive. I had been at home with my children for five years, so going back to work was a huge shock .My first day at work found me hovering over the fax machine and copier, quite perplexed. All the technology had changed. Five years out of the job market and I felt like a beached whale.
A few days later, my boss came into my office and announced cheerfully that I was going to be in charge of the computerized accounting system. "Get yourself some classes." he said and handed me a catalog of computer courses.
I waited till he left and looked at the catalog in sheer horror. I understood nothing - it was all gobbledygook to me, I realized I was illiterate. I held up the catalog to cover my face and wept. The fact that I held three degrees paled into insignificance. That was fifteen15 years ago.
Today I am Vice president of Jayco Interface Technology, Inc. in California, United States. Jayco is a leading supplier of control panel assemblies and components for professional electronic equipment applications in the medical, military, avionics, industrial, communications, and security and GPS industries. Jayco also serves the high-end appliance industry and other commercial applications. Jayco's primary strength is in developing cost-effective solutions for complex applications. Thus Jayco plays an important part in the evolution of its clients' products by designing and engineering products to fit each client's needs, and then manufacturing them in volumes from a few parts to hundreds of thousand. Among Jayco's control panel components are membrane switches, rubber keypads and touch screens. It takes these products and many other components such as displays, encoders and other electronic devices to produce complete assemblies often including sheet metal and plastic molded cases and bezels.
My role is to build, develop and maintain the infrastructure of the company. My specific areas of responsibility are in policy and resource allocation, finance, human resources, legal issues and administration.
Today the same technology that made me weep all those years ago fills me with excitement.
Each time I use my computer to write reports or to analyze numbers, I am still in such amour at the capability of Technology.
Town Hall Meeting
Recently I was invited to a historic Town hall meeting on Terrorism with Mr. Colin Powell, the US Secretary of State and Mr. Kofie Annan the UN General Secretary.
10 Cities were linked together via video conferencing to enable a joint meeting to ask questions of Mr. Annan. This could not have been accomplished without current state of the art Information Technology. In an instant it was possible to simultaneously communicate ideas and share opinions across the nation on a very critical current event. We sat in pin drop silence as history was being made. It was quite amazing.
On a personal note, although I had barely any notice to prepare, I was able to do the background research and collect the facts easily by tapping into the vast information available in cyberspace. And again upon my return from the meeting, in a matter of hours my analysis and evaluation was complete.
FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION
Women leaders are more assertive and persuasive, have a stronger need to get things done and are more willing to take risks than male leaders....Women leaders were also found to be more empathetic and flexible, as well as stronger in interpersonal skills than their male counterparts....enabling them to read situations accurately and take information in from all sides....These women leaders are able to bring others around to their point of view....because they genuinely understand and care about where others are coming from....so that the people they are leading feel more understood, supported and valued.
The Caliper study findings are summarized into four specific statements about women's leadership qualities:
- Women leaders are more persuasive than their male counterparts.
- When feeling the sting of rejection, women leaders learn from adversity and carry on with an "I'll show you" attitude.
- Women leaders demonstrate an inclusive, team-building leadership style of problem solving and decision making.
- Women leaders are more likely to ignore rules and take risks.
The studies also reveal that they have a willingness to reinvent the rules; an ability to sell their visions; the determination to turn challenges into opportunities; and a focus on 'high touch' in a high tech business world.
"Entering the new Century, I strongly believe that more efforts should be undertaken in order to ensure greater opportunities for women, who nowadays take the main burden of doing most of domestic work, supporting their families financially and morally, and often having not enough time and energy left for doing what they want to do most. I hope that in the 21st century, there will be a just and democratic society, where women and men can participate equally in all aspects of social, political and economic life. I hope, that the civil and political interests of women will be protected, women's economical independence, loans to women entrepreneurs, etc.) Will be increased, women's political participation will be strengthened, discrimination against women (violence against women, trafficking in women and children, etc.) will be eliminated, women's access to education will be expanded. I think that it is very important for women of diverse countries to consolidate efforts and get more international visibility for the purpose of uplifting the status of women in our communities and, indeed, in the whole world."
"Harmony of Mankind and Earth."
Challenges for Women Leaders
If women are going to achieve balance in their lives and be able to have a career and a meaningful life outside of work, they will only achieve it with the good support around them, especially that of their partners. (I'm not even going to try and talk about those extraordinary superwomen called sole parents for whom my admiration has no bounds!)Many men are changing quite considerably around these issues. They are reassessing whether work is the be-all and end-all of everything. They have often learnt it the hard way after a relationship break-up because in the greatest majority of break-ups it is the woman who leaves. She leaves because her needs weren't given sufficient weight in the relationship. There are also many young men today who saw their baby boomer fathers make absolute commitments to their jobs only to be retrenched in the later part of their lives by the companies to whom they had given their all. They have learnt from that - work isn't everything.These men are much more team players with their women. They understand they are in a partnership and want to work on the work/family balance challenge together, taking their individual and respective needs into consideration.
There are, however, still men around with 1950s masculinity, They are "happy" for their women to work if they can manage it around all their other commitments at home! They expect their working wives to do everything that their stay-at-home mothers did. They expect to have, outside of work, the freedom that their fathers had to do whatever they wanted to do - "because they've worked hard all week". Their work is real work. They are the breadwinners. The work their women do is not real. It provides grocery money or school shoe money. When their women get overwhelmed by the responsibility of looking after everyone and everything, these men offer no support except to tell their wives that they will have to leave their job if they can't cope.
Many women do because relationships are important to women. But there are other ways around this. We have to learn how to have those important conversations with our men about teamwork, partnerships and helping one another achieve our respective dreams.
We need to have direction and a strong Action plan implementing accessibility to life long learning and to ensure the success of women at all levels.
- We do understand that there are many who simply do not even have basic access to technology. Something needs to be done to open up that population to IT education.
- Some women feel IT is something that they simply cannot learn. We need to understand that and then take steps to rectify it.
We need strong impetus from the policy makers in Education, Corporations, Government and even from Voluntary organizations. We need joint action
- Formulate specific IT Education that serves women the corporate world.
- Develop partnerships with corporate leaders to formulating such education programs.
- Have discussions with HR professional who daily witness the dynamic of technology changes and how it affects the work force.
- We need to reach women at all levels.
- Girls in school
- Moms at home
- Women returning to work
- Middle managers
- Women in senior positions
- Encourage community learning: link those who "know" with those that do not.
- Voluntary Organizations should partner with Info Technology Companies to educate and start with humble beginnings for the usage of email technology.
- We used to have Bingo. Let us now have cyber café meetings.
We should provide opportunities for discussion and learning amongst informal social groups such as PTA's or Pensioner groups or Mom and Me classes
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Although I have done sincere efforts to collect authentic and relevant information, the study may have the following limitation:-
Difficult to get information:-
It was very difficult for me to get fulfilled the forms because of respondents busy schedule and not providing me sufficient time to fill the form seriously.
Scope of study is limited to Jalandhar only because of limited time and money. So results of study may not be generalized. So complete knowledge about subject is not possible.
Output may be inaccurate:-
This study is based on the assumption that responses are true and factual although at times may not be the case.
Another factor could be the existence of biasness in the respondents mind. Many times this biasness has greater bearing on the responses forwarded by respondents.
- Why the Best Man for the Job is a Woman: The Unique Female Qualities of Leadership, author Esther Wachs.