Billions of rupees

INTRODUCTION

The billions of rupees spent per year on celebrity endorsement contract that celebrity like Amitabh Bachchan, Sachin Tendulkar, Shah Rukh Khan, Hrithik Roshan, Mahendra Singh Dhoni, Saurav Ganguly & Female celebrity Aishwariya, Shweta Tewari, Kajol, Rani Mukherjee, Divya Dutta.

The under lining question is impact of celebrity threw T.V. advertising . Celebrity is directly effect the children mind because they have lack of maturity and they do not know his actual effect on him.

Young children lack the cognitive skill and abilities of the older children and adults. They do not competed commercial message in the same way as do more mature audience and hence are uniquely susceptible to advertising influence. A substantially body of research evidence documents age related difference in how children understand and are affected by television advertising this evidence has formed the basis for a wide range of the policies in the united states designed to protect children from advertising that would take unfair advantage of youngsters .

Television has longer been the predominant medium that advertiser have choose for marketing product to the children. It is currently estimated that the average child lees more than 40,000.

CHILDREN AND TV ADVERTISING

Children from ethnic minority families are likely to see even greater numbers of advertising given that group tends to have heavier exposure to television than white families 9huston &Wright 1998. advertiser spend more then $12 billion per year to target the youth market because of its strong contribution to the consumer economy ( Lauro,1999, Rice,2001) according to one estimate children age 14 year old and under make $24 billion in direct purchase and influence $190 billion in family purchase underscoring the high stake involve ( Mc Neal 1998).

The increasing commercialization of the childhood certainly advertiser who really upon television commercials have targeted several generation of the children. Yet in the recent year a number of convergent factors have contributed to an unprecedented level of growth in both amount and type of advertising directly at children. First and foremost among these factor changes in the media environment most advertising is delivered media channel and there have been radical shift in the technological capabilities for deliver information into the home during the past decade or two.

The number of television channel received in the U.S. home has escalated with the diffusion of capable television and directed broad cast satellite technologies. The natural result of this technology shift has been the growth of niche program service that target narrow segment of the public.

Television targeted to children was limited in amount and relegated to time slot unpopular with adult such as Saturday morning (Turow, 1981) yet in this new multi channel era there are numerous national program services primarily or exclusively devoted to children including Nickelodeon abc family Disney channel cartoon network and noggin naturally these channels deliver significant amounts of child oriented marketing message . this include not only traditional commercial segment but also product sponsorships that are linked to programs and programs characters such as licensing agreement with food companies toy companies and fast food restaurant

Example : In recent year Kraft Macaroni and Cheese products have used popular characters from such shown as Rugrant Pokeman blues clues and Spongebob square pants in their advertising aimed at children although parents may be pleased that their youngster can now watch children programming at any hour of the day they may not recognize that such viewing opportunities entail Much greater expose to child oriented advertising then any previous generation of youth has experienced.

Another critical change in the nature of the media environment has been the growth of the internet. a nationally representative survey of children media use found that nearly (48%) of 8-18 years olds live in a home with a computer linked to internet access while household with younger children aged 2-7 years are just slightly likely (40%) to be on line (Roberts, Foehr, Rideout & Brodie 1999) roughly one in five (19%) of 8-13 year olds reported visiting a web site 53% of all children agreed 2-18 year have a television in their bed room with substantial proportion of 2-4 years olds (26%) and 5-7 year olds (39%) enjoying such privilege (Roberts 1999),Children are targeted by advertiser not only in the home but in other context as well most notable in the class room advertising in schools has grown so extensively that we have prepared a separate report to document these change and explore the issue they raise .

Television commercials shown daily in channel one, newscasts which are seen in the more than one third to us middle and high schools.

CHILDREN EXPOSURE TO ADVERTISING

The average child is expected to more then 40,000 television commercial a year approx 80% of all advertising targeted to children fall with in four product categories----

  • Toys
  • Cereals
  • Candies
  • And fast food restaurants

Advertising to children is to associate the product with fun happiness rather then to provide any factual product related information (Barcus 1980. Doolittle and pepper.

Example : A commercial featuring Ronald Mc'Donald dancing singing and smiling in Mc'Donald restaurant without any mention of the actual food product available reflect a fun happiness them . This strategy is also found frequently with cereals ads which often include spokes characteristics (Tony the tiger, cap n crunch) to help the children identifiably the product.

The consistent use of Sachin by Adidas seems to have paid off for the brand with a high recall of 76%.

CHILDREN COMPREHENSIVE OF TELEVISION ADVERTISING

Children must acquire two key information process skills in order to achieve mature comprehensive of advertising message first they must be able to discriminate at a perceptual level commercial from noncommercial content and second they must be able to attribute persuasive intent to advertising and to apply a degree of skepticism to their interpretation of advertising message consistent with the knowledge.

COMMERCIAL DISCRIMINATION

Below the age about 4-5 years exhibit low awareness of the concepts of commercial frequently explaining them as if they were scene in the adjacent program Impact of Celebrity on children threw TV advertisement Once this confusion diminishes children first recognize the difference between programs and commercial based on their affective cues.

CHILDREN UNDERSTANDING OF PERSUASIVE INTENT

The primary purpose of all television advertising is to influence the attitude and subsequently behavior of viewers.

For adults the recognition that a given piece of television content is a commercial triggers a cognitive filter that likes into account factor such as the following factors such as-----

  1. the source of the message has other perspective and other interests than those of the receiver
  2. the source intends to persuade
  3. persuasive message are biased
  4. biased message demand different interpretive strategies than do unbiased message

Children below the age of approx 7-8 years by virtue of their limited cognitive development typical lack the ability to apply such as consideration to their understanding of television.

Children in this age range trend egocentrism and have difficulty taking the perspective of another person. it is true that role taking ability is a progressively developing the skill and even preschoolers aged 3-5 years can demonstrate some modest competency in simple role taking task that emphasis highly young children role taking skills several limited .

IMPACT OF ADVERTISING ON CHILDREN

The impact of television advertising on preschool and elementary school aged children occur at multiple level including the relatively immediate product persuasion effect intended by the advertiser as well as broader and more cumulative tubes of the influence that accrue from expose to large number of commercial over time.

Example : A cereal advertisement may have 5th immediately effect of generating product purchase request and increasing product consumption but it may also contribute to out comes such as misperceptions about proper nutrition habits or parents -child conflict should a child purchase influenced attempt be rejected by the parent.

COMMERCIAL RECALL AND PRODUCT PREFERENCE

Children's recall of television commercial has been examined from a verity of prospective. when examined measure recall of advertising immediately following viewing more then a half of the children studied tend to remember an ad such product as toy 's cereals and ice cream even when each ad is shown just once during a program .

MATERIALISTIC ATTITUDES

Although each ad may have as its primary purpose the promotion of sales of its featured product the cumulative impact from the totality of advertising seen by children may exert far broader sociological influence.

Material possession becomes the source of judgments by other as well as source of one's own evaluation. The extent to which the development of materialistic values contribute to psychological good.

UNHEALTHY EATING HABITS

One of the most heavily studied areas of advertising cumulative effect is the impact of commercial on children eating hobbits. Commercial for candy snacks and fast food are mainstays of the advertising targeting children. it is well documented that such ads are typical effective in persuading children to like and request the product .

MEANING OF CELEBRITY

Celebrity draw this power full meaning from the role they assume in their television, movie military athletic and other careers. Each new dramatic role being the celebrity into contract with a range of objectives, person and contexts. Out of these object, person and context are transferred meaning that then reside in the celebrity.

Example : Akshay Kumar and Salman Khan (Movie star) have acquired the image of tough person because of their role in action movies. Aishwarya Rai (former miss world and famous film star) is the beauty queen and Sachin Tendulkar is an all time great cricketer .Mccracken suggests that celebrity endorse bring their image into him ad and transfer them to the product they endorse.

Example: Thums up commercial have used Salman Khan, Akshay Kumar as spokesperson and taking advantage of their image of being rugged and though because of their action roles in movies. The meaning of the celebrity, Celebrities are people who enjoy public recognition by a large share of certain Group of people. Whereas attributes like attractiveness, extraordinary lifestyle or special skills are just examples and specific common characteristics cannot be observed, it can be said that within a corresponding social group celebrities generally differ from the social norm and enjoy has given to the product gets transferred to the consumer. A Slot of youngster is Consuming Thums up because it gives them a feeling of being 'grown up.

Reebok Explorers:

A 24% recall for the above ad is exceptional, considering that the ad has no outstanding distinguishing feature.

Reebok - Rahul Dravid :

Again, the absence of the product in the ad has taken a toll on its recall with a mere 16% recalling the brand correctly and 18% confusing it for Castrol, another brand endorsed by Rahul Dravid.

DEFINITION OF 'CELEBRITY'

High degree of public awareness. This is true for classic forms of celebrities, like Actors (e.g. Meg Ryan, Pierce Brosnan), Models (e.g. Naomi Campbell, Gisele Buendchen), Sports & Athletes (e.g. Anna Kournikova, Michael Schumacher), Entertainers (e.g. Oprah Winfrey, Conan O'Brien) and Pop Stars (e.g. Madonna, David View Forbes (2002) - but also for less obvious groups like Businessmen (e.g. Donald Trump, Bill Gates) or Politicians (e.g. Rudy Giuliani, Lee Kuan Yew).

Celebrities appear in public in different ways. First, they appear in public when fulfilling their profession, e.g. Pete Sampras, who plays tennis in front of an audience in Wimbledon? Furthermore, celebrities appear in public by attending special celebrity events, e.g. the Academy Awards, or world premieres of movies.

In addition, they are present in news, fashion magazines, and tabloids, which provide second source information on events and the 'private life' of celebrities through mass-media channels (e.g. Fox 5 news covering Winona Ryder's trial on shoplifting, In Style).

But not least, celebrities act as spokespeople in advertising to promote products and services (Kambitsis et al. 2002, Tom et al. 1992).

A hands-down win for Hyundai Santro, an unadulterated example of a well-executed celebrity endorsed campaign with a 94% correctly identified recall.

SOURCE

A key source the endorser in an ads can be a celebrity, announcer, spokes person or a common consumer etc .who endorses or demonstrates the product in an ads.

SOURCE CREDIBILITY

Means the extends to which the audience perceived the source as having relevant knowledge expertise, or experience. And believe that the source will provide unbiased and an objective information about the product or service. The element of credibility has to important dimension s - expertise and trust worthiness.

Example: A motorcycle ad should Ajay Jadeja as the endorser he is a popular and hand some cricket player but as far as expertise about motorcycle goes, the consumer are not sure. They may also wonder if Ajay j would really we using motor cycle stated of a good car. Many may ignore the advertisement presuming that the advertisers paid money to get the endorsement.

EXPERTISE

A credible sources message influence s beliefs, opinions, attitudes, and behavior because the audience believes that the information coming from such a source is accurate and this become integrated in the belief .belief system of individuals and may be maintained even after .

SOURCE ATTRACTIVENESS

The message source is forge ton the sources can be scientists, doctor professors, engineers, athletes famous musicians, artist Attractiveness of a source refers to similarity, familiarity, and like ability. Similarity is an assumed resemblance between the source and the members of the audience and familiarity means the knowledge of the source though exposure.

Consumers often admire the source looks and other personality traits and thus the source attractiveness become persuasive through a process of identification. Marketers think that a popular celebrity can't only influence audience feeling, attitude and purchases behavior positively but can also enhance product image.

LIKEABILITY

The relevance and suitability of the model depend on the nature of the product.

Example: Candy Crawford appear in Revlon ads; Aishwarya has appear for

Lux skin care. Since physical appearance is quiet relevant for cosmetic and fashion clothing, attractive females model are more appropriate for such product. College age student were more like to have a positive attitude towards a celebrity endorse product than older consumer.

COMMERCIAL DISCRIMINATION

Below the age about 4-5 years exhibit low awareness of the concepts of commercial frequently explaining them as if they were scene in the adjacent program. Once this confusion diminishes children first recognize the difference between programs and commercial based on their affective cues.

CHILDREN UNDERSTANDING OF PERSUASIVE INTENT

The primary purpose of all television advertising is to influence the attitude and subsequently behavior of viewers. For adults the recognition that a given piece of television content is a commercial triggers a cognitive filter that likes into account factor such as the following factors such as-----

  1. The source of the message has other perspective
  2. And other interests than those of the receiver the source intends to persuade
  3. Persuasive message are biased
  4. Biased message demand different interpretive strategies than do unbiased message children below the age of approx 7-8 years by virtue of their limited
    cognitive development typical lack the ability to apply such as consideration to their understanding of television.

Children in this age range trend egocentrism and have difficulty taking the perspective of another person. it is true that role taking ability is a progressively developing the skill and even preschoolers aged 3-5 years can demo striate some modest competency in simple role taking task that emphasis highly young children role taking skills several limited .

CELEBRITY ENDORCEMENT

CELEBRITIES AS SPOKESPERSONS:

Celebrities as spokespersons are discussed. Companies frequently use spokespersons to deliver their advertising message and convince consumers of their brands. A widely used and very popular type of spokesperson is the celebrity endorser (Tom et al. 1992).

According to Friedman and Friedman (1979, p. 63) a "Celebrity Endorser is an individual who is known by the public (...) for his or her achievements in areas other than that of the product class endorsed." The cosmetics manufacturer Elizabeth Arden uses the actress Catherine Zeta-Jones to endorse its perfume.

The reason for using celebrities as spokespersons goes back to their huge potential influence. Compared to other endorser types, famous people achieve a higher degree of attention and recall. They increase awareness of a company's advertising, create positive feelings towards brands and are perceived by consumers as more entertaining (Solomon 2002). Using a celebrity in advertising is therefore likely to positively affect consumers' brand attitudes and purchase intentions. To ensure positive results, however, it is critical for advertisers to have a clear understanding of the 'black box' of celebrity endorsement. Companies frequently use spokespersons to deliver their advertising message and convince consumers of their brands.

By proving in her study that each source has different effects on consumers' brand perceptions, Ohanian (1991) however warns, that these source dimensions of the celebrity endorser could be treated distinctive. She therefore urges to pursue a systematic strategy of celebrity-spokesperson-selection. This raises the question which famous person to select to promote a company's brand.

The next paragraph examines whether, and under what conditions celebrities are appropriate in endorsing products Simply assuming that a person just has to be famous to represent a successful spokesperson, however, would be incorrect, with a considerable number of failures proving the opposite (Solomon 2002). Very well accepted and attractive super stars like Bruce Willis and Whitney Houston failed in turning their endorsements into success.

Among the possible reasons identified by several authors (e.g. Tom et al. 1992, Daneshvary and Schwer 2000), including overexposure and identification, the 'match-up hypothesis' specifically suggests that the effectiveness depends on the existence of a 'fit' between the celebrity spokesperson and endorsed brand (Till and Busler 1998).

Empirical work on the congruency theory often has concentrated on the physical attractiveness of the endorser (e.g. Kahle and Homer 1985). According to Kahle and Homer (1985) attractive spokespersons are more effective in terms of attitude change when promoting brands that enhance one's attractiveness.

Though Ohanian (1991) acknowledges a popular person's ability to create awareness and initial interest for an advertisement, she concludes that this may not necessarily change consumer's attitude toward the endorsed brand. The author rather states, that "for celebrity spokespersons to be truly effective, they should be knowledgeable, experienced, and qualified to talk about the product." A deeper insight in the complex process of celebrity endorsement is provided by the meaning transfer model that has been explained.

TRANSFER MODEL

McCracken (1989) explains the effectiveness of Celebrity spokespersons by assessing the meanings consumers associate with the endorser and eventually transfer to the brand.

This perspective is shared by Kambitsis et al. (2002, p. 160), who found the athletes' personality as being an important factor in influencing "specific target groups, to which such personalities are easily recognizable and much admired." McCracken suggests a meaning transfer model that is composed of three subsequent stages. First, the meaning associated with the famous person moves from the endorser to the product or brand.

Thus, meanings attributed to the celebrity become associated with the brand in the consumer's mind. Finally, in the consumption process, the brand's meaning is acquired by the customer. The third stage of the model explicitly shows the importance of the consumer's role in the process of endorsing brands with famous persons.

Meaning transfer in the endorsement process (Adapted from McCracken 1989) McCracken's model is based on the concept of meanings. Celebrities contain a broad range of meanings, involving demographic categories (e.g. age, gender, and status), personality and lifestyle types. Madonna, for example, is perceived as tough, intense and modern women, and is associated with the lower middle class (Walker et al. 1992). The personality of Pierce Brosnan is best characterized as the perfect gentlemen, whereas Jennifer Aniston has the image of the 'good girl from next door'. McCracken (1989) emphasizes that a famous person represents not one single meaning, but expresses a number and variety of different meanings.

According to Martin (1996, p.29), celebrity spokespersons are useful in marketing because they provide a "set of characteristics" that supports consumers in valuating the presented brand. In contrast to anonymous endorsers, celebrities add value to the image transfer process by offering meanings of extra depth and power, what is complemented by their lifestyles and personalities (McCracken 1989).

Having determined the brand's symbolic features by considering consumers' needs, the advertising company has to select the celebrity who contains the appropriate set of characteristics, and "who will best be able to produce the most favorable response from consumers."

L'Oreal decided to promote its lip color brand 'Shine D'elice' as "Sheer,

Sumptuous, sensual" with "juicy shades...for luscious lips." (L'Oreal USA 2002) French model and actress Laetitia Casta with her fresh and sexy look best matched the cosmetic McCracken (1989, p. 315) further explains, that "celebrities draw these powerful meanings from the roles they assume in their television, movie, (...), athletic, and other careers."

Martin (1996), p. 28. However, besides such constraints as availability or budget, there are further limits in finding the 'perfect' match, with no data collection of celebrities (and their meanings) available at present (McCracken 1989). Brand's properties and was therefore selected to portray this brand line of L'Oreal. Pairing the model and the beauty product in an advertisement allows the transfer of Casta's meanings to the consumer good, thus her meanings (e.g. youthful, fresh, appealing) become associated with the L'Oreal brand 'Shine Dlice' in the mind of the female consumer.Using a different character, for example the actress Andie McDowell, to endorse 'Shine Dlice', would affect the meaning of the brand in the minds of consumers (Walker et al. 1992).

The meanings associated with her, like sophisticated, moral, mature woman, and family-type, are completely different to those of Casta, thus, when transferred, resulting in different associations with L'Oral's lip color brand, for example, less youthful, more introverted, and safe. These findings prove that it is crucial to select the appropriate celebrity endorser, i.e. a spokesperson that is able to promote the desired attributes of the brand.

ENDORSEE ADVERTISING

Hrithik Roshan, Aiswarya Rai, Aggasi, Sampras, Anna Kornikova, Saurav Ganguly & Rahul Dravid, Shah Rukh Khan, Sachin Tendulkar, Madonna, Bill Cosby Michael Jordan, these names have become symbols of the role of endorsers in advertising.

Firms spend millions of dollars to sign up celebrities to endorse their products. Some popular endorsers such as Michael Jordan earn as much as $40 million a year from endorsements alone. Endorsement contracts are now so lucrative that many professionals in sports and entertainment direct their careers to this end. In some sports, such as track and field events, winning at the Olympics has pretty much become a means to subsequent endorsement contracts.

Firms spend all this money on endorsements because finding the right celebrity endorser for their products can pay tremendous dividends. For example, some brands such as Nike's Air Jordan have been built around the image of a star. Nike earned over $200 million from its Air Jordan Lines of shoes and clothes in 1991 alone.

Yet as the example of Madonna suggests, celebrity endorsers cave a powerful means of communicating a distinct image for a brand to target segment as well as a source of problems for the advertiser. Other types of endorsers can be equally effective but cost much less.

TYPES OF ENDORSERS

A endorser is a person, character or organization that speaks or appears in an ad in support of the advertiser or its claim. The terms endorser includes the terms spokesperson or model. The endorsement process is the identification, selection and use of endorsers to communicate with a target segment.

Endorsers can be grouped into three broad classes: experts, celebrities and lay endorsers. Each has special characteristics and roles in the communication process. We will first consider a definition of the three types of endorser and then describe their roles.

Celebrities Endorsement IN ADVERTISING

Advertising pay million of dollars to celebrities, hoping that the stars will bring their magic to the products and services they endorse and make them more appealing and successful. Are the dollars well spent? Not always. Although actress Candice Bergen's "Dine Lady" portrayal for long-distance phone carrier Sprint was highly successful, and Jaclyn Smith moved millions to buy her clothing line at Kmart, Cybill Shepered and James Garner were discontinued as spokespersons for the Beef Industry Council and a Pepsi commercial featuring pop diva Madonna that cost mega millions to produce was aired only once in the United States before being pulled off the air. Why did entertainer Bill Cosby fail as an endorser for E.F. Hutton despite his success for Jell-O and Kodak? And what impact did boxing champion Mike Tyson's rape conviction and the allegations of child molestation and drug addiction against pop singer Michael Jackson have on Pepsi, for which both were spokesmen? These are not only interesting questions, but questions that marketers and advertisers need answers to as they plan their advertising and make decisions.

AWARENESS AND CELEBRITY PERFORMANCE

Successful advertising must start by being able to break through today's highly cluttered media environment and catch the reader's or viewer's attention. It must also make an impact on the consumer such that the product or service advertised can be remembered. Do celebrity ads to do this better than non celebrity ads?

There is strong evidence that suggests celebrity advertising delivers a premium in terms of impact and memorability. In an analysis of 248 celebrity print ads studied by Gallup & Robinson, Inc., over the period 1982-1993, celebrity ads show about a 34% higher level of awareness than non celebrity ads. Awareness is measured in terms of recall of the advertised brand the day after advertising exposure. In a similar analysis of 488 commercials over a 3-year period, Rockey and Green found a 35% premium related the use of celebrities.

The use of a celebrity in the advertising, however, is no guarantee of awareness. As is also shown in table, and for obvious mathematical reasons, not every celebrity ad or commercial performs above average. More than one in five commercials and one in six print ads fall 20% or more below the category norm in terms of recall. The obvious question of interest is, Why?

The two most important factors that seem to influence attention getting and memorability in the print advertising analysis are the popularity of the celebrity used and the ease with which the star is recognized in the ads?. Consumers like gazing at stars. The success of magazines like People and tabloids like the National Enquirer clearly shows that people in general are interested in celebrities' professional as well as private lives. Familiarity with star endorsers encourages consumers to pay attention to the advertising in which they appear.

Better-known stars, therefore, perform better in terms of awareness. It is, of course, not enough that advertising breaks through the clutter and is attended to. To be fully effective, advertising must persuade the viewer or reader to feel more positive toward the advertised product or service. Buying intentions and usage of product or service should also be favorably influenced. Are celebrities perceived as being trustworthy and endorsing brands out of real interest, or are they perceived to be doing it just because they are being paid? In a nationwide survey of 661 magazine readers, only about 1 in 4 (24%) respondents indicated agreement with a statement that celebrities appear in ads because they are genuinely interested in the products they endorse; 57% disagreed with the statement.

An overwhelming majority (90%) of these respondents felt that financial and publicity reasons were very important to celebrities who appear in advertising. However, when confronted with real celebrity advertising, consumers, often tend to rate celebrities quite highly on a variety of characteristics-indeed, significantly higher than non celebrity endorser in identical or very similar advertising. Research studies have shown this to be true again and again. Celebrities have often, though not always, been found to be more persuasive in advertising than other endorsers. In most instances, the attitude toward the product is more favorable when the product is associated with a celebrity. Results are mixed, however, for the variables of overall ad effectiveness and purchase intentions.

That endorsements attributed to celebrities produce higher intention to buy, and significantly more positive scores have been found for brand attitude and purchase intentions for a celebrity ad compared with its non celebrity counterpart. Other research, however, has found no difference in buying intention as a function of the endorser's celebrity status. Petty, Cacioppo, and Schumann found that the product was liked better than when it was endorsed by sports stars, but intention to buy did not differ. It should be noted that most of this research has investigated the effects of celebrity advertising on fictitious brands, and thus the consumer participants in these studies have had no prior knowledge of or attitudes regarding these brands.

The results, therefore, most applicable to new brand introductions. Advertisers pull in new celebrities to endorse existing brands all the time. All celebrity advertising, however, does not persuade. In an analysis of print celebrity ads, "Persuasion" (among recallers using the measure "Favorable Buying Attitudes" on a 5-point scale) showed a figure 20% higher than its product category norm for only about one in three ads. The mean for all celebrity ads was only at the norm. In fact, one in five ads fell at least 20% below norm. In a similar study of celebrity commercials, Rocky and Greene report a mean somewhat higher at 110; and whereas one-third of the celebrity commercials performed above norm, one in four fell 20% below. One of the most important variable the seems to influence how persuasive a celebrity will be in any advertising is the appropriateness of the celebrity for endorsing a particular brand and product. This appropriateness may be defined as the natural linkage between personality and product category, regardless of how the celebrity is actually used in the ad.

PROLIFERATION OF COMPETITORS

New, vigorous competitors come from a variety of sources. Additional competitors not only contribute to price pressure and brand complexity, but also make it much harder to gain and hold a position. They leave fewer holes in the market to exploit and fewer implementation vehicles to own. Each brand tends to be positioned more narrowly, the target markets become smaller, and the no target market becomes larger. Efforts to market to exploit and fewer implementation vehicles to own. Each brand tends to be positioned more narrowly, the target markets become smaller, and the non target market becomes larger. Efforts to market to a broad segment thus become more difficult in the face of the complex "brands cape". Further, some new or desperate competitors may be motivated to take risks or attempt unusual approaches. The result can be destabilization of the competitive dynamics.

FRAGMENTING MARKETS AND MEDIA

At one time, being consistent across media and markets was easy. There were a limited number of media options and only a few national media vehicles. Brand managers now face a very different environment, one in which it is difficult to achieve the consistency that is needed to build and maintain strong brands. The bewildering array of media options today includes interactive television, advertising one the Internet, direct marketing, and event sponsorship, and more are being invented daily.

Coordination is all the more difficult because different organizations and individuals with varying perspectives and goals often handle different brand support activities. When advertising public relations, event sponsorship, promotions, trade shows, event stores, direct marketing, package design, corporate identity, and direct mail for a single brand are handled by separate organizations, each with direct influence on the brand and even worse, when the firm's internal organization mirrors this diversity in order to interface with these various players conflict and lack of coordination must be anticipated.

COMPLEX BRAND STRATEGIES AND RELATIONSHIPS

There was a time, not too long ago, when a brand was a clear, singular entity. Kraft and Oscar Mayer, for example, were brand names that simply needed to be defined, established and nurtured. Today, the situation is far different. There are sub brands (such as Kraft Free Singles and Oscar Mayer Zappetites) and brand extensions (such as Kraft Miracle Whip).

There are ingredient brands (such as Hershey's chocolate syrup in Pillsbury's Deluxe chocolate Brownies), endorser brand (such as the role of Kellogg's in Kellogg's Rice Krispies), and corporate brands (such as General Electric). The Coke logo can be found on a dozen products, including Diet Cherry Coker, Caffeine Free Diet Coke and Coke Classic and it doesn't stop there.

In the grocery store, Coke is a product brand; at sporting events, it's a sponsoring brand; and in the communities where its bottling plants operate, Coke is corporate brand.

This complexity makes building and managing brands difficult. In addition to knowing it's identify each brand needs to understand its role in each context in which it is involved. Further, the relationships between brands (and sub-brands) must be clarified both strategically and with respect to customer perceptions.

BIAS TOWARD CHANGING STRATEGIES

There are sometimes overwhelming internal pressures to change a brand identity and/or its execution while it is still effective, or even before it achieves its potential. The resulting change can under cut brand equity or prevent it from being established.

Most strong brand, such as Marlboro, Volvo, and Motel 6, has one characteristic in common: each developed a clear identity that went virtually unchanged for a very long time. The norm is to change, however, and thus powerful identities supported by clear visual imagery never get developed.

BIAS AGAINST INNOVATION

While there may be a bias changing a brand identity or its execution, a psychic and capital investment in the status quo often prevents true innovation in products or services. There is an incentive to keep the competitive battleground static; any change not only would be costly and risky but also could cause prior investment to have a much reduced return (or even make it obsolete). The result is a vulnerability to aggressive competitors that may come from outside the industry with little to lose and none of the inhibitions with which industry participates are burdened.

Companies managing an established brand can be so pleased by past and current success, and so preoccupied with day-to-day problems, that they become blind to changes in the competitive situation. By ignoring or minimizing fundamental changes are the market or potential technological breakthroughs, managers leave their brands vulnerable and risk missing opportunities. A new competitor thus is often the source and the beneficiary of true innovation.

CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENTS RESEARCHED

The tennis clique had to make room for a sudden squash of young men otherwise unfamiliar with the game when Anna Kournikova played last year's Women's Classic Tournament. Sports marketing expert Dr. Ron Garland conducted a case study of Kournikova's impact. With the confirmation of the blue-eyed blonde's entry, the organisers of the 2002 Women's Tennis Classic Tournament bumped up grandstand prices and sports journalists fought for the front row.

Kournikova also used the Auckland Tournament to successfully launch a new range of Adidas tennis wear (a stretchy collection based on Bond girls' bikinis). Her annual earnings are estimated at $NZ37 million, 90 percent of which is derived from product endorsements, and Adidas alone is reputed to pay her $NZ12 million annually. On the other side of the coin, Kournikova's sponsors, Adidas, Omega, Berlei, Yonex and Terra Lycos, have profited nicely from their choice of celebrity.

Dr. Garland's latest research, in collaboration with UNITEC lecturer Lesley Ferkins, evaluates New Zealand's own sports stars as celebrity endorsers of products and services. Picking a famous face with which to place a product is an important decision, and celebrity endorsement is increasingly prominent in promotional tactics, says Dr. Garland.

Advertisers assume a transfer of positive images takes place between the celebrity and the product or service they are endorsing; the objective of Dr. Garland's research is to assist sport marketing managers and advertising agencies in matching celebrities with products and services.

The exploratory study, with tertiary students in marketing, management and sports studies at Massey and at Auckland's UNITEC, used a variety of marketing scales and measures to examine the potential 'endorsement fit' for four New Zealand sporting heroes.

Bernice Mene (recently retired Silver Ferns captain), Dean Barker (Team New Zealand's helmsman), Mandy Smith (recently retired Black Sticks captain), and Justin Marshall (All Blacks' most capped halfback), were placed alongside an isotonic sports drink. Their 'fit' was measured from the students' responses to a mixed result. When assessed using a 15-item Ohanian source-credibility scale, Bernice Mene was deemed the best celebrity for the job.

The attitudinal scale is split into three sections of 'attractiveness', 'trustworthiness' and 'expertise'. While Mene was second to Mandy Smith on the 'attractiveness' dimension, her ratings on the 'trustworthiness' and 'expertise' dimensions clinched her overall best-fit position.

However, when the four faces were assessed using marketing's Jester scale to predict purchase and uptake rates, Justin Marshall was chosen as the most influential. Dr. Garland says previous research shows that matching celebrities and products is a complex task requiring judgment and intuition alongside quantification.

Celebrities are used to ease brand makeovers, re-launches and repositioning when a new or athletic image is required. Celebrities also attract and maintain attention by their mere presence.

Dr. Garland's report also outlines the risks involved in taking on a celebrity, including the potential of scandalous behavior, their demise from the public eye through injury or loss of form, and the danger of a face becoming over-exposed by being linked with too many products.

Increasing consumer interest in sports and leisure activities was argued to be a reason for the increasing utilization, as promotional activities have been simultaneously moving more towards entertainment as well as product/service selling.

Availability of far more celebrities (e.g. footballers, rugby players, and comedians) who are willing to endorse products because they can make a lot of money and gain fame as a result of endorsements was another reason.

The snowball effect, which occurs when a company uses a celebrity, as others start to consider using one, was given as another reason. Last, but not least the need to stand out quickly in today's expensive and cluttered media environment was mentioned as an additional reason for the increasing usage of celebrities in marcoms.

Managers observing no increase claimed that personalities come and go. They indicated that certain products (e.g. female skincare products, shampoos, cigarettes) always had celebrities namely Ronald Reagan for Chesterfield cigarettes and Ian Botham for Hamlet. They argued that celebrities have got more expensive and probably more risky since media nowadays digs out the lives of celebrities.

Celebrities were thought to be not enjoying the untouchable status they had in the 60s and 70s.Even though managers were only asked to give their opinions on reasons for using celebrities, effectiveness of celebrity endorsements, and whether there was an increasing utilization, most of them also commented simultaneously on potential pitfalls of this strategy.

These responses could lead to the conclusion that managers are very cautious in selecting celebrity endorsers. Indeed, as it is presented in the following part, a range of factors are considered in choosing celebrities to endorse brands.

However, a mere 31% recall in spite of the use of Australian pace bowler Brett Lee as an endorser is indicative of the fact that use of a celebrity does not directly induce recall of the ad - it has to backed by good execution as well as media spend

SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

Whatever else we may be in our lives-child. Parent, student, worker, lover, jogger or stamp collector- we are all consumers, all of our days. We buy and use goods and services constantly, to eat; to wear, to read, to watch to play to travel in, to keep us healthy, and to make us wealthy and if not wise, at least better educated, the act of consumption is therefore an integral and intimate part of our daily existence. And that a there whether we have a lot of money to spend or very little. In every long country of the world billions of purchases of goods and services are made every year.

BUYING BEHAVIOR

Consumer decision making varies with the type of buying decision. The decision to buy toothpaste, a tennis racket, a personal computer and a new car are all very different. Complex and expensive purchases are likely to more buyer deliberation and more participants. And distinguished four types of consumer buying behavior based on the degree of buyer involvement and the degree of differences among brands.

COMPLEX BUYING BEHAVIOR

Consumers engage in complex buying behavior when they are highly involved in involved in a purchase and aware of significant differences among brands. Typically the consumer does not know much about the product category and has much to learn. For example person buying a personal computer may not know what attributes to look for many of the product features carry no meaning unless the buyer has done handsome research: "16K memory", "disk storage" "screen resolution," and so on. Complex buying behavior involves a three-step process. First the buyer develops beliefs about the product. Second, he or she develops attitudes about the product. Third he or she makes a thoughtful purchase choice. The consumer's information gathering and evaluation behavior.

DISSONANCE - REDUCING BUYER BEHAVIOR

Sometimes the consumer is highly involved in a purchase but sees little difference in the brands. The high involvement is based on the fact that the purchase is expensive, infrequent, and asks. In this case the buyer will shop around to learn what is available but will buy will by fairly quickly, perhaps responding primarily to a good price or to purchase convenience. For example carpet buying is a high-involvement decision because carpeting is expensive and self-expressive yet the buyer may consider most carpet brands in a given price range to be the same. After the purchase, the consumer might experience dissonance that stems from noticing certain disquieting features of the carpet or hearing favorable thing about other carpets.

HABITUAL BUYING BEHAVIOR

Many products are bought under conditions of low consumer involvement and the absences of significant brand differences consider salt. Consumer has little involvement in this product category. They go to the store and reach for the brand. If they keep reaching for the same brand it is out of habit not strong brand loyalty. There is good evidence that consumers have low involvement with most low cost, frequently purchased products. With low involvement products, consumer behavior does not pass through the normal belief /attitude/behavior sequence. Consumers do not search extensively be information about the brands, evaluate their characteristics, and make a weighty decision on which brands to buy.

VARIETY-SEEKING BUYING BEHAVIOR

Some buying situations characterized by low consumer involvement but significant brand differences. He consumers often do a lot of brand switching. Think about cookies. The consumer has some beliefs about cookies, chooses a brand of cookies without much evaluation, and evaluates the product during consumption. But net time the consumer may reach for another brand out of boredom or a wish for a different taste. Brand switching occurs for the sake of variety rather than dissatisfaction.

SOURCE MODEL

Early attempts at understanding the influence of any source in the persuasive context suggested that an attractive, trustworthy, likable, or credible source facilitates the message-learning and acceptance process. Further although in one study respondents rated a product for beauty (razors) higher when a physically attractive celebrity endorsed it compared with an unattractive celebrity, in other analyses for fashion and cosmetic products-namely, jeans and perfume-the celebrities' expertise rather than attractiveness or trust-worthiness, influenced intention to buy. Even highly credible sources have not been found to be universally influential.

COGNITIVE RESPONSE MODEL

It has been suggested that involvement levels may influence to what extent a celebrity or any other source is successful in being persuasive. The respondents use the source (celebrity) in the message as a peripheral cue to help them accept or reject the message (peripheral route processing). How ever, under conditions of high involvement, the influence of the source is minimal and respondents "elaborate" on the message itself (central-route processing) and diligently consider the information provided. Peripheral and central-route processing can be monitored by means of capturing the thoughts and feelings-cognitive responses-respondents generate during advertising exposure.

The more favorable these responses, the more the likelihood of persuasion in the desired direction. The finding that celebrity-related thoughts influence the persuasive process suggests, first, that it is important that the celebrity herself, and her use in the commercial generate positive thoughts so that persuasion is in the desired direction. Second, because product-related thoughts are few in connection with the celebrity herself, and do not influence overall attitude and buying intentions directly, it is important that the use of the celebrity in the advertising is able also to bring some focus on the product. Often the advertising is remembered, the celebrity in the advertising is remembered, but the brand name is lot.

CULTURAL MEANING TRANSFER

According to the model hypothesized by Grant McCracken, celebrities' effectiveness as endorsers stems from the cultural meanings with which they are endowed. A celebrity, possessing a unique, "individualized and complex bundle of cultural meaning," may transfer that meaning to the product, and from the product, it many transfer to the consumer.

The research suggests that celebrities are effective endorsers to the degree that they are able to bring clear and unambiguous meanings to the products they endorse.

It is very important for the advertiser to measure what the cultural meaning of a particular celebrity is. Whereas early attempts were made to measure celebrities on source characteristics such as trustworthiness credibility, attractiveness and likeability.

DECISION MAKING PROCESS

  • Motivation
  • Perception
  • Attitude formation
  • Integration process
  • Learning process

MOTIVATIONS

  • Physiological
  • Safety
  • Love and belonging
  • Esteem
  • Self actualization

PERCEPTION

  • sensation
  • information selection,
  • interpreting the information

ATTITUDE

  • Learn predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way with respect to a given object.

INFLUENCE of Celebrity Endorsee ON CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR IN Indian contexT

Towel-clad models can sell just about anything. Soaps shampoos, body lotions, safety razors, electric hair removers, men's toiletry even ceramic tiles and bathroom fittings. And if the model happens to be a television icon who enjoys a huge fan following among youngsters, the product will sell like hot cakes. So when the Kerala-based S.V.Products launched its new brand of sandalwood soap. It hired a celebrity to endorse the soap, Result: A towel-clad Cyrus Broacha was hawking Chandrika soap on the idiot box. When bollywood heartthrob Ravina Tandan featured in the ad for Rotomac pens some years ago, many people wondered whether it was a good idea to hire such a high-priced model. But the strategy paid off and Rotomac today is a name to reckon with in the writing instruments industry.

Using celebrities to peddle wares is not new for the Rs. 5,000 crore Indian advertising industries. After all, it's easier to influence people if a celebrity is endorsing the product. Says Imam Siddiqui, model coordinator, Ammirati Puris Lintas. "The strategy helps because a celebrity is instantly recognizable and brand recognition becomes easy". But that's where the similarity with the past ends. Now, even small and medium-sized companies are roping in big names to sell their products. For instance, one of the highest paid celebrity models, Sachin Tendulkar features in the Today's pen ads. That's not all. Rani Mukherjee, who features in the high profile Pepsi ad along with Shah Rukh Khan and Kajol is also endorsing the humble bicycle.

Also, many companies realize that the bigger the celebrity the better is the impact. Instead of hiring smaller models at a lower price, they prefer to splurge on high-paid models. Signing Shah Rukh Khan over Milind Soman makes better business sense, they feel. For instance, when the Rajasthan-based textile manufacturer BSL Ltd. found that its sales graph was not moving upwards, it decided to sign up model-turned-actress Sonali Bendre. "Our previous campaigns lacked glamour. Now that short-coming has been set right." Says BSL Marketing Manager R.P. Jhanwar. The company is confident that the campaign will be able to boost sales during the oncoming festive season.

When S.V. Products wanted to reposition its Chandrika brand of sandalwood soap for the younger generation, it did the same. Instead of going in for female models that would have reinforced the belief that Chandrika was used only by women, it hired Broacha for its advertisement campaign. "Since we were targeting the youth, we decided to bring in a youth icon. Broacha fitted the description perfectly," say V.Krishnana, managing director of Asap advertising which handled the advertising of Chandrika soap. Broacha, who was paid over Rs. 50,000 for the campaign, was able to convince the happening generation that the Chandrika brand was not merely something that fuddy duddy housewives used. Sales have jumped 25 per cent since the advertisements first appeared in July 1998.

Similarly, Manish Makhija a.k.a. Udham Singh it's trying to breathe life into the Kanchan brand of home appliance. Jatland contribution to the world of pop must is endorsing the low-priced range from the Mumbai-based Kanchan International. But celebrities to do not come cheap. The sticker price can range from Rs. 10 lakh for 10 second zapper to Rs. 5 crore for an extended tie-up. Some big companies are also realizing the benefits of celebrity endorsements. Computer education major NIIT has signed on chess grandmaster Vishwanathan Anand for its ads.

Till now the company was using only ordinary models. With companies rushing to hire celebrities, the regular models are feeling the pinch. Says Sohail Mohammed, a model who has worked on campaigns for Lakhani shoes and Moov Ointment: "Previously we used to be called for tests. Now even that has stopped." For this ilk the future is tense.

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR DIMENSIONS

What are the basic considerations, which are to be taken into account? What are the specific situations where this aspect is helpful to a marketer? What are the situations where this strategy may not be effective? How should a brand find out whether using a celebrity would be appropriate? These are some of the important dimensions, which could be explored using consumer behavior concepts.

Reference group principles are useful in analyzing the usage of celebrities in advertisements. A reference group is one, which influences an individual's attitudes and values. There need not necessarily e face-to-face contact between the groups and the individual. Pepsi's association with cricket celebrities, for example, may result in these celebrities becoming role models for a number of youngsters involved or associated with cricket in terms of their accomplishments, attitudes or even lifestyles. It is this aspect which results in a lot of mileage for this specific brand which is associated with the celebrity. The youngsters may consumer more Pepsi because these celebrities endorse it.

There are certain basic considerations, which matter when brands select celebrities. Target segments the type of celebrity chosen and the nature of the brand personality are some of the important considerations which need to be given a lot of importance. Pepsi's brand personality is vibrant, fun-loving, young lively and adventurous. The target segment is of course, the younger generation. Cricket is a sport, which is widely followed by the target segment, and there is always a charisma associated with the celebrities who are reigning and topical.

Pepsi entered in the 90s and roped in Sachin Tendulkar who was not only a good performer, but also a celebrity who typified the aspirations of youngsters involved with cricket. The young age of the celebrity also synergies with the personality of the brand. This was the starting point of the celebrity plane for Pepsi. The brand brought in a string of cricket celebrities during the last two years during which one sport experienced a very active phase. The brand (in a specific category) should use the celebrity in such a way that it would be difficult for a competitive brand to follow the strategy (however popular it may be worldwide). Coke latched on to cricket after Pepsi had created a very strong association with cricket and the celebrities on the field.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The field of consumer behavior is the study of individuals, groups or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use and dispose of product, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society. And understanding the consumer behavior is the prime and toughest task in front of every marketer. There are a lot of factors, which influence consumer buyer behavior. This study aimed at to understand the "Influence of celebrity endorsee on consumer buying behavior and brand building."

Marketers pay millions of Dollars to celebrity endorsee hoping that the stars will bring their magic to brand they endorse and make them more appealing and successful. But all celebrity glitter is not gold. Celebrity sources may enhance attitude change for a variety of reasons. They may attract more attention to the advertisement than would non-celebrities or in many cases, they may be viewed as more credible than non-celebrities. Third, consumers may identify with or desire to emulate the celebrity. Finally, consumer may associate known characteristics of the celebrity with attributes of the product that coincide with their own needs or desire.

The effectiveness of using a celebrity to endorse a firm's product can generally be improved by matching the image of the celebrity with the personality of the product and the actual or desired serf concept of the target market. What therefore seems relevant by the study that yes definitely celebrity endorsee influence consumer buying behavior and brand building but while using celebrity endorsee, marketer has to take care of all the aspect that whether the brought personality and image of celebrity matches or not, whether celebrity endorsee has deep penetration among the masses or not, whether he is considered as credible source or not etc.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

OBJECTIVE

Today market penetration has become the Buzz word for each organization. So market penetration is not only through effective combination of the 4p'sbut to penetrate in the mind of children so there is ever last image of the product in the children mind And celebrity is one such medium of penetrating into the mind of the children As every person tries to associate himself with a celebrity who thinks is the best & can be his idol. So my project tries to explore the various impression of the celebrity product relationship between children and TV advertising.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The following objectives are laid down for study----------

  1. To find out the impact of celebrities on children.
  2. To analysis the buying behavior of children.
  3. To analysis the celebrities is influence the behavior of children.
  4. To analysis which celebrity (male/ female) is more popular among the children ?

PRIMARY OBJECTIVE

To identify the influence of children threw TV advertising.

SECONDARY OBJECTIVES

  1. To identify other factors which influence children buying behavior ?
  2. To identify is celebrity endorsee advertising more attention getting and memorable than other kind of advertising.
  3. To identify how is celebrity endorsee advertisement perceived.
  4. To identify that who make the best celebrity endorsee.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH TOOLS

  1. Schedule: It was used because the most of the children are influencing from celebrities
  2. Observation: to know the behavior of the children

STATISTICAL TOOLS

Average percentage, bar, and pie diagram are used to draw influence on biased Sample size. The entire study covered the following two respondent segments-

  1. Ryan international school
  2. Cambridge school

Sample size was 100 and the sampling used is convenient sampling.

HYPOTHESIS

Keeping in view all the above theoretical background and objective the following hypothesis have mentioned.

The buying behavior of children does not influence by the celebrity

TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS

Hypothesis may be defined as a proposition or a setoff proposition set fourth as an explanation for the occurrences of some specific group of phenomena either asserted merely as a provisional conjunction to guide some investigation or accepted as highly probable in the light of established facts.

INTEGRATED PROCESS

Integrated process involves the combining of product knowledge meaning and belief to finally evaluate two or more alternatives in the consideration set. The analysis of integration process concern difference type of decision rule that consumer use to choose from purchase alternative in the consideration set. Example- Such as ads are "coca-cola enjoy", yahi hai right choice baby and sabki pasand nirma.

CHAPTER : 2

THEORTICAL PRESPECTIVE

LITERATURE REVIEW

Celebrities as spokespersons are discussed. Companies frequently use spokespersons to deliver their advertising message and convince consumers of their brands. A widely used and very popular type of spokesperson is the celebrity endorser (Tom et al. 1992). According to Friedman and Friedman (1979, p. 63) a "celebrity endorser is an individual who is known by the public (...) for his or her achievements in areas other than that of the product class endorsed."

The cosmetics manufacturer Elizabeth Arden, for example, uses the actress Catherine Zeta-Jones to endorse its perfume .The reason for using celebrities as spokespersons goes back to their huge potential influence. Compared to other endorser types, famous people achieve a higher degree of attention and recall. They increase awareness of a company's advertising, create positive feelings towards brands and are perceived by consumers as more entertaining (Solomon 2002). Using a celebrity in advertising is therefore likely to positively affect consumers' brand attitudes and purchase intentions. To ensure positive results, however, it is critical for advertisers to have a clear understanding of the 'black box' of celebrity endorsement.

Companies frequently use spokespersons to deliver their advertising message and convince consumers of their brands. A widely used and very popular type of spokesperson is the celebrity endorser (Tom et al. 1992). According to Friedman and Friedman (1979), a "celebrity endorser is an individual who is known by the public for his or her achievements in areas other than that of the product class endorsed."

he cosmetics manufacturer Elizabeth Arden, for example, uses the actress Catherine Zeta-Jones to endorse its perfume. The reason for using celebrities as spokespersons goes back to their huge potential influence. Compared to other endorser types, famous people achieve a higher degree of attention and recall. They increase awareness of a company's advertising, create positive feelings towards brands and are perceived by consumers as more entertaining (Solomon 2002). Using a celebrity in advertising is therefore likely to positively affect consumers' brand attitudes and purchase intentions.

To ensure positive results, however, it is critical for advertisers to have a clear understanding of the 'black box' of celebrity endorsement. In the following section, selected concepts that have to be considered when using Celebrities as spokespersons are discussed. By proving in her study that each source has different effects on consumers' brand perceptions, Ohanian (1991) however warns, that these source dimensions of the celebrity endorser could be treated distinctive. She therefore urges to pursue a systematic strategy of celebrity-spokesperson-selection.

This raises the question which famous person to select to promote a company's brand. The next paragraph examines whether, and under what conditions celebrities are appropriate in endorsing products Simply assuming that a person just has to be famous to represent a successful spokesperson, however, would be incorrect, with a considerable number of failures proving the opposite (Solomon 2002). Very well accepted and attractive super stars like Bruce Willis and Whitney Houston failed in turning their endorsements into success.

Among the possible reasons identified by several authors (e.g. Tom et al. 1992, Daneshvary and Schwer 2000), including overexposure and identification, the 'match-up hypothesis' specifically suggests that the effectiveness depends on the existence of a 'fit' between the celebrity spokesperson and endorsed brand (Till and Busler 1998).

CHAPTER : 3

DATA COLLECTION AND INTERPRETATION

SOURCE OF DATA:

  • Primary
  • Secondary
  1. The study is based on primary data which are collected with the help of survey method.
  2. In Greater Noida two schools are selected by the random sampling method.
  3. Respondents are selected by the random sampling to make in depth the following research tools have been used.
  4. AREA OF RESEARCH: GAUTAM BUDH NAGAR

    Gautam Budh Nagar is one of the five district of Meerut Division. Divisional Commissioner, Whose headquarter is at Meerut, hold charge of division. He is the link between the district and the government and supervises the administration as well as the planning and development activities of these districts.

    The district Gautam Budh Nagar was formed on 06/09/97 with the effect from govt. order no 1249/97/82/97. District Gautam Budh Nagar includes Dadri, Noida and Greater Noida from Gaziabad and Tehsil Sikandarabad and part of Khurja from Bulandshahar. The district has 4 development Blocks, 3 administrative tehsils and 16 police stations.

    elebrity influences the children behaviors only the 55% because children do not know its achievement and they also do not know why they are popular. And they do not have the purchasing power ability .they convenience his parents and other family member.

    Those product whose co lour test and packaging is very good they give much priority to that product.

    Children give more priority to the female comparison to the male because they compare female with her or his mother and sister those who full fill his all needs and desire and spent lot of time on him.

    On the other hand male attract only the 30 % by his funny jokes and dressing style.

    Children give more priority to the cartoon network channel because it is full of entertainment and adventure and easy to the under stand then children give next priority to the other cartoon channel like Disney and pogo channel .those children whose age is more then 10 year they under stand other channel like star plus , Sony and other sports channel.

    Children give more weighted to the physical appear ness and the personality of the individual then next priority to the popularity (those celebrity who repeat more the once time it makes the positive image among the children mind) honesty and other feature are the next feature of the celebrity.

    Days are gone when there are few players in the market now competition is so intense that one can't sustain without having good quality and advanced technology in their products. Especially in the consumer durable segment product feature becomes more important. And this is also reflected by the survey, 75% of the respondent said that product feature influence.

    Influence of Advertisement on Purchase decision

    Companies are paying millions of dollars on their advertising campaign. The purpose of advertising is differs from company to company. Some has brand awareness or some has sales, as this main objective for adverting. But does advertising really influences purchase decision of customers it is the biggest whirlpool for every marketer. According to our survey about 70% of the respondents said that their purchase decisions were influenced by advertisement.

    Influence of Price on purchase DECISION

    A critical marketing mix tool is price, the amount of money that customers pay for the product company has to decide on wholesale and retail prices, discounts, allowances and credit terms. Its price should be commensurate with the offer's perceived value. If it is not, buyers will turn to competitors' product. So we can say that price is definitely one of the important factor which influence buying decision of customers, according to the survey about 70% of the respondent agree on this fact and rest of the respondent said that them price is not an important consideration while buying they look for quality and brand.

    FINDINGS

    1. It clearly reviles that majority of about 80% of the children are like to see TV with his family members and the others friends.
    2. It is absorbed that max number of children are likely to see cartoons program and TV
    3. It is found during the study that most of the respondent like see celebrities only advertisement
    4. It is observer during the study that about 70 %of the respondent likes to see female celebrity on advertisement and 30 % respondents like to see male celebrity on advertisement
    5. It clearly observed during the study of survey that majority of respondents like to see 30% to 40 % of celebrity on TV advertisement
    6. It is absorbed from the study or survey that majority of the respondent are purchasing by influencing by the celebrity
    7. Amitabh Bacchan is the more popular celebrity among the respondents.

    SUGGESTIONS

    1. It would be advisable that should be matching the nature of celebrity and the nature of the product.
    2. Celebrity advertising imposes threw children to buy a healthy product.
    3. Consumer education is necessary along with advertisement every celebrity should aware or liable on the society has alloys health of consumer.
    4. There should be no wrong interpretation and information from the celebrities.

    CONCLUSION

    A brief assessment of the current market situation indicate the how celebrity influence the behavior of children threw TV advertising TV is one of the best medium of advertisement. It is movable and picture representation. It creates more attention of the children.

    Children is the key customer of the market .if children like any product either its shape and size co lour and test defiantly he will purchase the product either it is good or bad and force to his parents for purchasing the product.

    Market spend millions of dollar on advertisement especially on celebrity hoping that the starts will bring their product service their product and services they endorse and make then more appealing successful the strategy and creativity execution should reinforce strongly and constantly the celebrity brand association and the celebrity evoked the positive retain but help focus attention on the children then the product will be made more desired because it is demand of the children need for himself or child happiness.

    CHAPTER : 5

    LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

    1. Some of respondent might be biased the area of survey is carried out Greater Noida.
    2. It was not possible to collect the opinion of the celebrity who is endorsing the product.
    3. Time allotted to carry out the study was short.
    4. Some children can not fill the questionnaire properly its direct effect in the analysis of the report.

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    * Advertising Promotion and supplemental Aspect of Integrate marketing Communication, 4th edition, by Shimp.

    * Building strong brands by David A. Aaker.

    * Consumer behavior by Robert East

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