Buzz marketing for the Hindi films

To study the impact of buzz marketing for the Hindi films among the young adults in the metro


“Ab tera kya hoga Kaliya?”, “Mere paas maa hai”, “Bade bade shehron aisi choti choti baatein hoti hain”, “Rahul……naam toh suna hoga”…….and many more have become a part of our daily conversation. This shows how much we are affected by movie in our daily life. We love talking about them, gossips, etc. So in India movie as a product is very much affected by word of mouth, as cinema is always a part of our conversation. People want to talk to their peers and friends about the new movie, songs, stars, say the latest dialogue and stay ahead of the race.

Hence for movies as a product, buzz marketing becomes very important tool to drive the people to the theatres. It becomes very important for the marketers to realize this fact and utilize the same to maximize the benefits with lesser amount of spend as compared to the traditional media.

“Buzz marketing captures the attention of consumers and the media to the point where talking about your brand or company becomes entertaining, fascinating, and newsworthy. To put it simply: Buzz starts conversation” – Mark Hughes, Buzz Marketing

Facts and s:

Ø In the year 2007 India had produced 1146 films and screens available per films 12.2 and totally there were 14000 screens available in the country

Ø Indian media and entertainment industry was a US$11.68 billion (Rs 584 billion) business in 2008, growing at 15 per cent annually since 2006, says the annual joint study of a leading chamber and a consultancy

Source: Anon, 9th May 2008, Screen ville


Source: Anon, 9th May 2008, Screen ville


Key inferences from the above data:

• India produces maximum films in a year as compared to other countries of the world

• Although India produces maximum films in a year the other statistics prove that India still lags as compared to other countries in terms of total number of screens available, screen available per films etc.

• As the media and entertainment industry in India is growing therefore the increase in the number of screens and more development in this area would directly increase the revenue earned for a particular movie; as the reach would increase

• The domestic share of films in India has reduced from 95% in 2006 and 2005 to 92% in 2007. This change can be attributed to the spread of Hindi dubbed English movies.

• In Indian film industry maximum revenue is generated by Hindi Mainstream films (43%) followed by South Indian Film Industry(42%)

• The foreign films generate only 2% of the total revenue but then if the cross over Hindi films, some parts of other Hindi and also some parts of others; then the total share of foreign films come out to be ~8%. Hence the domestic share would turn out to be 92%

Today India being the largest producer of films there is tremendous amount of competition and movie are considerably finding it difficult to make profits. The challenges such as piracy are making the marketers more difficult for the movie marketers, as one need not even visit the theatre to watch a latest movie. Moreover with the clutter of different messages which hit the prospective consumers everyday, it is becoming increasingly difficult to retain the top of mind recall.

Moreover with so much hue and cry about the young population in India it is time that we turn ourselves in understanding this group in a better manner. Through their preferences of movies and buzz that they create be it on social networking sites or word of mouth or blog.

Literature Review:

“Give people something genuinely interesting to talk about and they will spread the word. It's human nature.” (Marian Salzman & Ira Mathatia, 2003, ‘Buzz', Page 4, John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey).

First we need to define what exactly is buzz. Buzz involves word of mouth generally known as (WORM), viral marketing, Text messaging, e- mail distribution lists, chatrooms, message boards, web sites, and blogs etc. “Buzz marketing works because it is both interruptive and yet subversive” (Akashneel Dasgupta, 2004.MICA ‘Buzz'- The Marketing Trojan Horse)

Buzz marketing is one of tools by which the marketers are now trying to grab the attention of the desired TG by letting them talk or manipulating them in such a way they communicate by giving them a reason to talk.

Marketing communications, in most forms, particularly advertising, is both expensive and is increasingly weighted down with clutter. There are too many messages being broadcast too often, with diminishing impact on the consumer. “The rising cost of traditional media, ad clutter, exaggeration in the ads etc. makes word of mouth very effective” (Amrita Khurana,(2005-06), MICA Buzz).This situation grows even more acute in the case of the Gen X and Gen Y segments. While these groups are still highly susceptible to brand influence, they show signs of being more cynical in their response to the marketing message and are eager to acquire brand news and information from less-traditional sources. Buzz marketing is a combination of a number of influences including word-of-mouth, viral marketing and the current fixation on early trend-setting and spotting. Its growing acceptance is evidenced by the fact that some of the world's most authoritative marketers have now entered the field. Contrary to traditional marketing wisdom, which tries to measure and manipulate the spread of information from business to customer, this method is based upon the flow of information from consumer to consumer. This is an attempt to create or stimulate an artificial environment where ideas can replicate and spread sweeping prospective consumer's values and preferences in the process.

Generally there are six buttons which make people start conversation. “The Six Buttons of Buzz The taboo,the unusual,the outrageous,the hilarious,the remarkable,Secrets (Both kept and revealed)” Hughes Mark,2005, Buzz Marketing

Ultimately buzz marketing tries to create a prosumer (proactive consumer) and rather than selling a brand directly from the company to the consumer, it tries to sell from one consumer to another. Buzz marketing is effective among prosumers because it provides them an opportunity to interact with and even, to a certain extent, control—the brands with which they partner. Moreover, it enables them to experience a brand rather than simply use it. Whereas the old system required advertisers to pick their audiences, part of the value of buzz is that the audience picks itself. Once buzz gets going, its flow is natural and free. It reaches those who are open to it and passes by those who are not. It is the commercial incarnation of natural selection. Only the fittest messages survive. In essence, buzz marketing gives power to the people. Every individual in a buzz chain has the freedom to accept or reject the message he or she is given. “…the bottom line of buzz marketing is the ability to turn consumers,…., into ambassadors or even evangelists for your brands” (Akashneel Dasgupta, 2004.MICA ‘Buzz'- The Marketing Trojan Horse)

Now when we come on to movies we do realize the importance attached to buzz marketing because it is considered and an extremely popular belief that at the end of all it is the word-of-mouth that result in sales. The main factors affecting it are the popular culture which of course movie is a part of. Therefore, active interpersonal communication about movies does happen because man is a social animal and wants to be a part of the culture. It can be observed that one may come to know about a particular region or country by watching their movies. It can be observed that some of the catchy words like “aal izz well” quickly becomes the part of the everyday language so it keeps the conversations going and also eventually forms an important part of the culture.

Hence in social circles movies are an important topic to talk about especially in India, e.g. when the collections for “3 Idiots” smashed the box office there was a lot of hue and cry about the movie and people used to discuss it often at work place or home. Hence, it gives the people a reason to talk and also is a part of the popular culture. This combination makes the buzz marketing a choicest way to market the movies.

Moreover, movie is an art form which is also experiential in nature. Hence, the evaluation of the same differs from person to person as everybody has his or her own perspective in it. As the evaluation criteria is vague therefore people depend more on word of mouth [(Bristor 1990 ; Harrison-Walker 2001: Rogers 1983) Yong Liu, (2006). Journal of Marketing, Vol. 70, American Marketing Association]

Also it would be important to take into consideration the content of the film and also the expectation before its release to completely understand the word-of-mouth phenomena. The word of mouth generated by the movie released in the first week affects the collection at the box office in the second week, and the word of mouth generated in the second affects the collection of the third and this goes on and on. But the word of mouth generated not only depends on the content of the film, but also the audience which the movie targeted should be in sync with the content of the film. A slight mis-match can create problems and result in bad word of mouth e.g. “Billu Barber” concentrated more on Shahrukh Khan to draw crowds but failed because in the first week people who went to see a typical Shahrukh Khan film were disappointed and the negative word of mouth spread. Hence a proper positioning of the movie for the desired TG also affects the word of mouth and in turn affects the box office collections.

Although as the data suggests India produces maximum movies in a year of that 43% of that is Hindi mainstream until now no work has been done (to the best of my knowledge) to study the effectiveness of buzz marketing of Hindi films.

Some papers have been attempted to study and measure the word of mouth and it's co-relation with the theatrical sales before [Yong Liu, (2006). Journal of Marketing, Vol. 70, American Marketing Association and Charles C Moul, Winter 2007, Journal of Economics & Management Strategy Volume 16, Number 4, 859–] but these are from US perspective an Indian perspective is missing which through my dissertation I propose to achieve.

Also to add to that although some of the literature does measure impact but then it for the universe. The impact of buzz marketing may vary by the TG of the movie and the push buttons used to promote a particular film. The papers have not taken these into consideration. The that I propose to do would exclusively focus on the young adults and try to identify the impact of buzz marketing on them along with the push buttons used by the marketers.

Moreover there might be a flaw just to look at sales as a measure to study impact as not all the buzz would result into sales. Through this paper I have sincerely attempted to understand the movie consumption habits of young adults and the creation and consumption of buzz among them especially by those living in the metros.

May be because it is still in the nascent stages, hence not much work has been done in India but the recent buzz marketing done especially for movies like Dev D and Ghajini have thrown the floor open for some work in this field for enthusiasts like me.

Research Problem and

Research Objectives:

Research Problem: To study the impact of buzz marketing for the Hindi films among the young adults in the metros

Research Objectives: This research study has the following research objectives:

Ø To study the rationale for using buzz marketing for Hindi films

Ø To find out the ways in which buzz marketing is applied to promote Hindi films with specific reference to the metros

Ø To study the impact of the buzz created for a particular movie among the young adults

Research Methodology:

A. Research Design

a. Secondary Research – In order to conduct primary research in an effective manner, it is imperative to have a clear cut understanding of the concept involved in the study. The secondary sources like the websites of the particular movies, the launch of viral campaigns etc. will be taken a look at as to understand the buttons that the marketers are trying to push to start the buzz. Also current scenario of movies in India and the business of Bollywood (Hindi films) through trade guide and FICCI report shall also be taken into consideration in order to get the sales perspective in particular regions especially the metros.

b. Primary Research: The following research instruments will be used in order to conduct the primary research :

i. In–Depth Interview: In-Depth interview with 5-6 movie marketing professionals will be conducted. The purpose of these interviews is to understand what type of buzz they use and why. Also these interviews will form a base on which the In-depth in terviews will be conducted later on

ii. In-depth interviews: Young adults (20-25) and then 10 In-depth interviews will be conducted in all the metros in India to understand the impact of buzz marketing of Hindi films among them.

B. Sampling Plan

Ø For in-depth interviews

a. Sampling Frame: The sampling frame will be a movie marketing professional who has been involved in the marketing of a recent film and has used “buzz marketing” as a tool to promote the movie.

b. Sampling Method: The sampling method followed will be expert sampling for the in-depth interview

c. Sample Size: The sample size of 5-6 movie marketers

d. Data Collection and Analysis: The data will be collected by in-depth interview by using a recorder which will be useful for making transcripts

Ø For Indepth Interviews

a. Sampling Frame: Young adults (20-24) in the metros

b. Sampling Method: purposive sampling

c. Sample Size : 8-10 people.

d. Data Collection and Analysis: The exact variables under the study can be identified after the initial round of depth interview.

Expected Contribution:

The study is expected to make the following contributions:

Ø Identify the rationale to use buzz marketing for Hindi movies

Ø Understand the ways in which “buzz marketing” works for movies and if at all it is based on the genre and the target audience or rather a mass perspective is taken into consideration

Ø Understand how the youth consumes and produces buzz for movies

Knowledge of the above aspects will be useful for the various stakeholders of the movie industry. As the life cycle of a movie is very small the stakeholders will try to maximize their profit by using “buzz marketing” effectively.

Moreover, this study focuses on the youth; hence if any other product has the same target group then this study can be a use to them as they will know exactly how the youth consumes and produces buzz.

Also the dissertation would specifically look into the metros where the clutter is generally high. Therefore the study will enhance the marketers' and researchers' need to look for alternate paths to reach the desired Target audience.


The research was broadly executed in three phases. The first was the stage of secondary data

Collection and analysis, the second stage was that of interface with the industry experts and the third consisted of primary data collection based on learnings from the secondary research and the in-depth interviews of the second stage.


As the name suggests the secondary research was done in order to get an overview of the buzz marketing tools used in the industry to promote the films. Also the research papers and journals provided the solid framework required to understand the phenomenon called buzz marketing. Moreover the research done in this phase provided with the basics and the rationale behind using buzz marketing as compared to other forms of traditional media which is expensive.


I interviewed 5 people who are experts in the movie business. The set included:

Mr.Shriram Bade: Director, Producer

Mr.Soumik Sen : Script Writer

Mr.Sarvesh Malhotre : Script writer mukta arts

Mr. Devdatta Potnis: Associate Director

Mr. Gaurav Bose: Production Manager at Big Pictures

Unstructured or Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the film experts, analysts and movie marketers to understand the current business practices existing and their take on what the audience's want to watch. Also to understand how the buzz marketing is used to reach out to the audiences especially young adults in the metros.

Purposive sampling was used in this case


I interviewed 10 young adults from the metros.

Mumbai: 3

Delhi: 2

Kolkata: 2

Chennai: 1

Ahmedabad: 2

Keeping the research objectives in mind it was essential that the lifestyle and consumption of the movies as a product should be taken into consideration along with the production and consumption of buzz by the young adults in the metros.

For both the analysis Qualitative Research was considered as an effective tool.

In-depth interviews were conducted so as understand the viewer's movie watching and decision making behavior to watch a particular movie. Also the buzz they create after watching an interesting trailer through social networking sites, word of mouth etc is also taken into consideration. Also who were the opinion leaders (alpha) and the buzz creaters (bees) and along with whom do they go to see the movies.

It would also be interesting to note that the in-depth interviews were conducted in a time when two movies specifically targeted at young adults (according to the movie marketing professionals) were airing the promos.

One was released – “3 idiots” and another was about to be released which incidentally also was rated as an adult film by the censors- “Ishqiya”


Convenience Sampling method was used to collect data. The sampling method is better than

random sampling in terms of saving costs and time. Also due to certain constraints only individuals in SecA and Sec B were the only respondents

Although the sampling was convenient yet the following points were kept in mind to make the sample representative of the people of all the metros.

The respondents were male and female both, however the ratio of females is less due to the availability.


Analysis of the in-depth interviews with movie professionals:

As per the secondary research done it was pretty clear that although the buzz marketing is used but not to that extent. According to Mr.Devdatta Potnis, in India still there is a stress on use of mass media to promote a film but then if there comes a film which is essentially targeted at young adults there always is an attempt to use other sources like Dev D had a hotline which quite made a news, for Love Aaj Kal online portals were used to promote the film, Dev D also had an X-rated video for the same song which was put on you tube.

Even for films like 3-idiots one knows that on facebook one can find pages where people are fan of Chatur Ramalingam “Balatkaari” speech. Hence the young adults do catch up the buzz and keep it upfloat but that happens only after they watch the film.

Mr.Gaurav Bose said that although buzz marketing tools are used but then the buzz generally happens only after one sees the movie and are happy with what they see. Or if one can create promos, give money for PR to the newswalas then one can create the craving for more e.g. what happened in Ghajini e.g Aamir Khan tried to be everywhere from the buzz cut, news, reality shows, youtube, making of the movie etc. People try to stay ahead of the race and be the first one to know whats new.

“As movies are very subjective in nature people from same SEC, same back ground ..same everything…one may like it the other may not” – Mr.Devdatta Potnis

“As the money invested is more the risk involved is higher, hence it is important to break even faster. If the movie is not liked by the initial audience the word of mouth would spread and prove a deterrent for future audience. Therefore by marketing the movie well the money invested would be recovered before the word of mouth starts spreading.” Mr. Gaurav Bose

Hence no producer or distributor wants to take the risk, and want to break even as fast as possible. Therefore one can not negate the necessity of mass media to promote the film, because of the nature of the product is as such.

“Now-a-days there is too much stress on new media to engage the audience, if the movie is good people will go to see it. Other than that using buzz marketing, viral,PR etc. are done and may be necessary but people want talk about the film unless they themselves see it and like it. Therefore the promos and traditional media is still very effective for introducing the film to the audience. If they get hooked on to the trailers, promos, songs, actors…then the life becomes easy they themselves will then promote the film. Mujhe hi dekhlo, kal maine gaana suna Dil toh bachcha hain ji on the radio and today I am waiting for the movie to hit the screens, watching the promos etc.. And it was not buzz marketing it was traditional marketing that did the trick.” – Mr.Shriram Bade

The buzz can be used to make the people become fan of the songs –which are released before the movie and have the power to hook the audiences to itand ultimately make them come to the theatre. The example in this case has been the Rahat Fateh Ali Khan song from the movie “Ishqiya”- “Dil toh Bachcha hain ji” had a fan page on facebook even before the movie was released and people vowed to go for the film on facebook, orkut, blogs just to see the picturization of the song.

Most of the masala movies are like “bhel” you mix a lot of ingredients and tell give everything it is a complete entertainment package like “3 idiots”. But even for such movies they do not have a USP (Unique selling proposition) rather a MSP(Multi selling proposition) and they give you hooks to talk be it the Chatur ramalingam speech or “all izz well”.

The main work of marketing is to generate revenue by selling the movie rights to the distributors, songs to the radio channels, ringtones, hellotunes, satellite rights etc. It is important to note that the other stake holders get affected after watching the movie rushes not networking sites.

Therefore due to the above mentioned reasons not enough efforts are being put to create buzz marketing. As when the movie begins showing in the theatres the producer has already sold the rights and made money and as the movie is out people spread the word very fast.

Coming onto young adults especially in the metros, all the interviewed correspondents felt that it is very essential to use buzz marketing to reach out to them. It helps a lot because they live in such an environment that they are bombarded with messages from all sides. Therefore it becomes an important tool to break the clutter. Therefore when Ghajini released it also had video game of it which takes and dwells deeper into the heart of the movie giving the people a peek that they desired to get. Same was the case of the movie “Love Aaj Kal”

Key Insights from the in-depth interviews with movie professionals:

Ø Movie marketing involves not only marketing the movie to the prospective audience but also to other stakeholders like distributors, radio partners, DVD and satellite TV owners etc. who are more affected by the rushes of the movie “spectacle”. So most of the movie marketers do not take extra effort for buzz marketing.

Ø People generally create buzz after they have consumed the product (movie or songs)

Ø Buzz marketing is an effective tool to get the attention of the young adults and the teenagers in the metros because there are enormous amount of messages that hit them everyday. This is a way to break the clutter. But this is not the way movies are generally marketed because most of the movies are not solely targeted at youngsters that too in the metros.

Ø Although the movie marketing professionals agreed that the young adults in the metros with a good amount of disposable income generate a good amount of the revenue for the film, still a lot can be done still to target them specifically because they are the ones to first see the movie, comment on the blogs, virals, are also socially networking to create buzz

Ø As movie is a piece of art and subjective in nature most of the marketing including buzz takes place before the movie is released. After the movie is released word of mouth spreads fast and then it can not be controlled. Therefore buzz marketing can be double edged sword – if the movie lacks content on the same virals there would be people commenting not to watch the film

Analysis of the in-depth interviews with the young adults in the metros

The lifestyle of the young adults play an important role in the movies they watch and the buzz they create and consume. They can be basically broken up into three types – single and studying, single and working and married and working (did not find a respondent who was married and studying – though know generally female fall in such category).

Now some of these young adults live in hostel or at homes completing their masters or graduation in different institutes i.e. studying. Others are working and have little time at their disposal as it is the start of their career or they might be working in a call centre where there is even less time to spare for themselves and family. One thing common across the young adults is that they have very little time for entertainment even on weekends, there might be some extra classes or some work may come up in the office and they have to go for it.

The working people have good disposal incomes and the studying ones depend on their family to support them and do not have to take care of the income of the family and get enough pocket money to fulfill their desires. The question arises is how to make the best use of the money available and the time spent.

“The multiplexes charge too high a fees. For 3 idiots they charged Rs.320 per ticket it is too high. Isliye main pehle apne doston se check kar leti hoon ki movie kaisa hain…reviews padhti hoon, youtube par comments padhti hoon,ya facebooking kar ke pata kar leti hoon. Agar movie kharab nikli toh paisa bhi waste aur time bhi.”

Therefore it is clear that even the high price charged by the multiplexes is very much a deterrent for people to go and watch the film, hence they would like to know from all possible sources that the time and money spent to watch the film would be worth it.

“Movie aayi hain toh pirated Cd dekh lenge mere liye story important hain. Agar movie kharab ho toh …mera paisa toh pani mein. Aur time gaya toh wapas thodi ata hain”

The high prices of the tickets also somehwhere down the line influences piracy as the youngsters do not want to waste their hard earned money on a bad movie and waste their time as it is they are time poor.

Also it will be important to note the time when the in-depth interviews were conducted one of the movie although mass but story targeted more towards young adults had been released – 3 idiots and another movie which was very specifically targeted to the young adults Ishqiya was about to be released. But when asked about the next movie to be released most people commented or said about the movie whose trailers or promos they had seen in between the break of 3 idiots. Which clearly goes to state that the receptiveness of new film promos are more welcomed when one goes with the intent of watching movie. Also it might make more business sense to put up more promos in between the interval because you know that the target audience does watch movie and would shell the same amount of money to see another film. Vis-à-vis mass media where you do not know is your target audience watching.


The study aims at find to find out the impact of buzz marketing of the Hindi films among the young adults in the metros and generate some insights if any to understand their movie consumption habits and buzz producing and consuming trends.

However extensive this study might be it has the limitations as follows:

Ø Since the convenience sampling has been used which is by nature random but it might not be the representation of the population. Its random nature is its greatest


Ø Due to logistical constraints, the study could be carried out only in Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Delhi (Telephonic) and Kolkata (telephonic). Hence there might be some differences in the amount of respondents talking on phone and face to face

Ø The interviews with the industry experts were limited to the availability of time they had. The interviews though tended to be open ended had to be restricted to some key questions as all the industry experts refused to reveal the budgets for the marketing of the particular films.


The study has its limitations as already mentioned in the last section. In order to have a more balanced view point, further ideas of new studies have been explore as under

• A pan India study to discover insights across India

• Detailed study of the marketing and distribution channel to market the movies in India

• Study to develop a new model to market the movies better to Indian masses

• The efficient use of digital media to provide better quality and easier access to the viewers

• The other distribution channels like DVDs or online downloads to make sure that the finances of a film can be handled better

Annexure A


• Yong Liu, (2006). Journal of Marketing, Vol. 70, American Marketing Association

• Charles C Moul, (Winter 2007), Volume 16, Number 4, 859–, Journal of Economics & Management Strategy

• Chevalier, J. and D. Mayzlin, 2006, , 43, 345–354 , Journal of Marketing Research “The Effect of Word-of-mouth on Sales: Online Book Reviews,”

• Ravid, A., 1999, Journal of Business, 72, 463–492 ,“Information, Blockbusters, and Stars: A Study of the Film Industry”

• Brown. Johnson and Peter Reingen (1987), Journal of Consumer Research,"Social Ties and Word of- Mouth Referral Behavior,"

• P Prasada Rao and Karthik Kannan, ICFAI, Marketing Strategies of Bollywood Movies in India and Overseas: An Empirical Study

• Russell. Laczniak, Thomas DeCarlo, and Sridhar Ramaswami (2001), Journal of Consumer Psychology, II ( I ) , 5 7 - 7 3 ."Consumers' Responses to Negative Word-of-Mouth Communication: An Attribution Theory Perspective,"

• Bas van den Putte University of Amsterdam,2009, International Journal of Advertising, 28(4),

• Amrita Khurana,(2005-06), MICA Buzz Marketing: Something to talk about

• Akashneel Dasgupta,(2004).MICA ‘BUZZ'- The Marketing Trojan Horse

• Hughes Mark, (2005), Buzz marketing

• Gergely Nyilasy and Leonard N. Reid, Journal of Advertising, vol. 38, no. 3 (Fall 2009), “Agency Practioners Theories of how advertising works”

• Martin R. Lautman and Koen Pauwels, 2009 Journal of Advertising Research, Metrics That Matter Identifying the Importance of Consumer Wants and Needs

• Jean-Jacques Lambin, 2007, Market-Driven Management: Supplementary web resource material, Advertising Budget Decisions

Other Websites:$1168-billion/116602/0

Buzz Marketing:

Other Notes:

1. The mass movies are basically “bhel” it contains the different successful elements from the successful films and combine them to make another successful film e.g. the recent film “Mee Shivaji Raje Bhonsle Boltoy” has borrowed its elements from “ Lage Raho Munnabhai”

2. A good movie is generally well received even though theatrically it might not do good but then when DVD is released people are more likely to watch a good film

3. A television premier of a film which didn't do so well at the box office might be good because people who didn't watch it at the first place would watch them

4. The consumer segmentation can be problem because in spite of the same demography, psychography etc. no two individuals are identical and therefore the taste for movie would differ

5. Anything can be a driving factor for a person to watch a film e.g. the respondent doesn't like Abhishek Bachchan but liked the film Guru because it was based on Dhirubhai Ambani's life.

Key Concerns: To maximize the revenue of the movie by marketing

Target Audience: The target audience depends on movie i.e. the product

Marketing: Generally marketing for a film starts 6 weeks prior to the theatrical release.

6 weeks prior to the release – trailers promos

5 weeks prior to the release – continue

4-3 weeks prior to the release – a warm kind of promos

2-1 week/s prior to the release full fledged marketing

The following are the forms of marketing:

* Content syndication – Madhavan appeared in one of the serials when his movie 13 B was to be released

* Reality shows – appearance

* Star of the month

* Voice of the month – Farhan Akhtar was selected as voice of the month for the promotion of the movie “Rock On”

* Uploading content on you tube as the censor laws are not applicable, hence few stuffs which couldn't be shown on television can be uploaded on you tube

* Promos creating an interest factor around the film

* Promotional video

* Online and radio contest which give tickets free and also the freebies

* Releasing the music videos in advance to create interest

* On ground activation campaigns

* Co-branding, merchandizing

* Social networking sites, websites etc.

Marketing takes place not only to sell the movies to the audience but also to the distributors. That is one of the important reasons as to why the parties are held and the media is asked to cover it. Now-a-days even the news is used as a medium to market the films e.g. the news reported some weird events happening on the sets of 13B everyday at 13:00 hours.

Most of the high budget films are marketed more than the lower ones because of the following reasons:

1. As the money invested is more the risk involved is higher, hence it is important to break even faster. If the movie is not liked by the initial audience the word of mouth would spread and prove a deterrent for future audience. Therefore by marketing the movie well the money invested would be recovered before the word of mouth starts spreading.

2. If one is sure that the high budget movie would do well then one would like to push it a little more so that more revenue can be generated by marketing the movie well.

The lower budget films generally have a niche audience e.g. recently a new kind of audience has developed called as the multiplex audience and such films which cater to the target audience is called as multiplex film.

Other Notes:

1. Ghajini has grossed Rs. 130 crores. Its production budget was approximately 70 crores and marketing budget was 7 crores. The production budget for Johnny Gaddar was 6 crores and 10 crores for 13 B. Meanwhile their marketing budget was 2.8 crores and 3.5 crores respectively.

2. Normally the prints cost Rs.45000 – Rs.50000. Digital distribution reduces the prices of the prints to approximately Rs.5000 but the normal prints are clearer.

3. The prints are generally first played in the Towns A and B then it is given to the Towns C and D

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