One of important part in marketing is to understand why a customer makes a purchase. One definition of consumer behavior is "The research about individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and dispose of products, services, experiences to satisfy their needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society."
Without an understanding, it is hard for business to respond to the customer's needs and wants. By understanding consumers, organizations and firms can improves their marketing strategies on some issues such as how consumers think, feel, and select between different product and brand, how the consumer influenced by his or her environment such as culture, family, signs, media etc, the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions and etc.
Consumer Research Methods
Market research is needed to ensure that companies will provide what is the consumers wants and not what we think they want. There are two main research methods in marketing that is primary and secondary research. Primary research is research that we design and we conduct ourself. Secondary research, in contrast, is research that involves using information that others have already put together.
Research will help reduce risk associated with new product. It is also important to ensure whether the research has been complete or not. For example. Coca Cola did a great job releasing the New Coke, and consumer seem like to taste it. However, consumers are not ready to have drink replace the traditional coke.
Surveys are very useful to get specific information about products. Surveys come in several forms. Mail surveys are inexpensive, but response rate are quite low about 5% to 20%. Phone surveys get higer response rate but not many questions can be asked. Mail intercepts are normal way to reach consumers, but it maybe reluctant to discuss anything sensitive face-to-face with the interviewer.
One-to-one marketing refers to the marketing strategies applied directly to specific consumer. The on-to-one marketing is based on four main steps to achieve its goal. In identify stage, the major concern is to get the consumer information, collect data about their preferences and how can its satisfy their needs. Differentiate is to know consumers by their priority of their needs and divide them in more restrict group.
Besides, in interact phase, it is needed to know which way is possible to optimize the contect with the consumers and to get their attention. The last step is customize. It is needed to personalize the product or services to the consumer individually. With this, a company can provide exactly what the consumer wants.
When the customer has recognized a problem, they will search information about products and services that can overcome the problem. The source of information include personal sources, commercial sources, public sources and personal sources. Perception is the relevant internal psychological process that is associated with information search. The definition of perception is “the process by individual receives, selects and interprets informations to create a meaningful picture of the world”.
How to make people buy more?
It is very important to understand consumers behavior so that firms or organizational can offers on products that always attract them and they end up buying such products. Futhermore, maintaining database of the consumers and follow up will always trigger them to purchase products from us again and again.
Other factor to make people buy is providing guarantee or warranty on products. With this, the amount of risk involved can be reduces and the consumers feel secure and confident about the quality of the product. Constantly developing new services can expand business and motivate more people to buy products in the same firms.
As a conclusion, by understanding consumer behavior, it should make us better company. However, we also need to analyze our own firm's advantages and disadvantanges and those of competing firms. We also can see that understanding consumer behavior is a vital aspect of marketing. Company need to understand the habit, information process and the concept of life value in consumer behavior.