A literature review is a survey and discussion of the literature in a given area of study. It is a concise overview of what has been studied, argued, and established about a topic, and it is usually organized chronologically or thematically. It is not an annotated bibliography, because it groups related works together and discusses trends and developments rather than focusing on one item at a time. It is not a summary; rather, it evaluates previous and current research in regard to how relevant and/or useful it is and how it relates to your own research. (http://www.smu.ca/administration/library/litrev.html)
2.1 Conceptual Review
According to this research two-dimension are analyzed. The customer satisfaction and service quality which explication of the proportions of the service�s contentment.
2.1.1 The definition of contentment
Vroom (1964 cited by Yaovaree Jareonsawad, 2000 : 25) declares that the terms of attitude and satisfaction toward one action can be used interchangeably. These two words are implied as the result of perception by mean of one�s active participation. The positive attitude illustrates of the satisfactory status and the negative attitude shows the dissatisfaction.
In addition, Tiffin and Mccormic (1965 cited by Janee Nachpongs, 2000 : 26) asserts that the satisfaction is the motivation of human which originated by the basic needs. It is also connected firmly with the accomplishment and incentive, besides, it linked with the avoidance of human toward undesired circumstances.
Stuarts (1984 : 177) The major theoretical conceptions of job satisfaction are the following :
Expectancy theories consider satisfaction to be determined by how fully one�s expectations are matched by one achievements, while dissatisfaction is cause by failing to meet one�s expectations.
Need theories view satisfaction as a function of degree of fulfillment of a person�s needs, including both physical and psychological needs. Needs are conceptualized as objective human requirements, similar for all people, whereas values are viewed as subjective desire, which vary from person to person.
Values theories see job satisfaction as determined by whether the job allows attainment of the individual�s own personal values.
Vimolsit Horayagurn (1983 : 174) asserts that the satisfaction is the valuation at the hand of human feeling which related to the world vision system concerning the meaningful of environment. The human feeling�s value toward environment of each individual, of cause it is different. For examples, the good or bad feeling, being satisfied or discontented, interested in or unconcerned with something.
Louis Jampatates (1990 : 8-9) defined word �satisfaction� as �need� of accomplishing the goal. The subsequent behavior or satisfaction can be observed by eyes/verbal expression and gesture.
Conclusionally, �satisfaction� means the positive feeling of any individual toward anything. The satisfaction is occurred when the personal needs have been responded and purposely achieved. In research the researcher defined the term of satisfaction as the feeling of international tourists toward the service of their hotels
2.1.2 The satisfaction of service
Chittinun Tejagupta (2001 : 27) states that the satisfaction of service is the assertion of the customer�s positive feeling toward service, by using comparative evaluation between perceived service and expected service in general situation.
Danai Tienput (2000 : 26) also affirms the customer satisfaction is the creating of gratified experience for customer to come again in order to buy service.
Naumann & Giel (1995) offered the idea about satisfaction on the point of three main components of customer�s past experience.(Orapim Chaipayom,1999:15)
1.Quality product and service : is influential to customer�s perception. If the product and service is in a good quality, the customer will assure of the product and service�s quality. In general, clients will look at the characteristic of details given or sampling service.
2.Price is the second segment that will get customer�s satisfaction. If a customer compares the impartially of the price with the makeup of product and the proper price is indexed, the satisfaction will be occurred. In contrast, when the price is unacceptable through the medium of product�s quality, the satisfaction will then be desolated.
3.Corporate Image : is the third part which contained the co-operative recognized image of general business, morality and social responsibility.
The data collection of satisfaction toward the service is customarily done as quantitative compilation. Thus, on account of evaluation�s forms comprise of several variations, such as the different basis, time, predicament, emotion and personal difference, the information given is affected by these factors.
Johnson & Lyth (1997) declared that the satisfaction of customers is excluded of any particular factors but is a combination of various factors. And this variation is, from time to time, contained with the importance factor that defines the appropriate method to gain customer�s satisfaction.
Chittinun Tejagupta (2001 : 27-28) demonstrates the concept about the customer�s satisfaction as the following description.
1.The factor that is opposite to customer satisfaction
1.1Service�s product; customer satisfaction is ensured when the qualified service is offered. The level of service has also passed the customer needs. In accordance, the attendance of service worker and the thought of service quality are the significance in generating customer satisfaction.
1.2Service�s price; customer satisfaction is rooted by customer�s agreement and consideration concerning the appropriateness of service quality�s price. The willingness to pay of client are different through the acquiescence of customers toward the price and quality of service.
1.3Service�s place; customer satisfaction of service is pertaining to the easy access of customer to service. The location and the bifurcation of service for customers� convenience is very important.
1.4Service�s promotion; customer satisfaction of service is caused by the cognizance of information by words of mouth communication regarding the commendable quality of service. If the given information determined one�s belief, it is likely that a person is motivated to purchase the service as needed.
1.5Service provider; these are people who play a significant role in service profession in the order to originate the customer satisfaction. The administrators who form the service quality specification that chiefly influenced by customer needs, will satisfy customers certainly.
1.6Service�s environment; the environment and atmosphere of the service is effectual to the customer satisfaction.
1.7Service�s process; the presentation of service in the process of its, is the substantial method. The structure of customer satisfaction the effectiveness of service system management energized the expertise of the completed and competent service to customers.
2.The satisfaction of customer is divided into two levels, which are the following explanation.
2.1The purposely achieved satisfaction; is the presence of the pleasant feeling of customers when expected service is given.
2.2The purposely supremely accomplished satisfaction; is the bearing delightful feeling or impression of customer when perceived service is given more than expected service
Regarding the dissatisfaction, this is the feeling of disappointment or disturbance due to the expected service is not fulfilled. Such as when customer ordered food and became irritated when waited for over a long period of time. From this instance, the relevant factor toward the customer satisfaction is the place and environment of the service. Thus, in this study, I as the researcher will explore on the variation of the hotel and its facilities, service and environment as the limitless variation.
2.1.3conceptual model of service quality (Chittinun Tejagupta, 2001 : 38-39)
The occurrence of satisfaction in servicing process is not caused by one particular factors. Nevertheless, various factor in each stage of the servicing process are connected with the satisfaction of customers and the finite gab between service provider and receivers. According to Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry.(1985), the figure of the conceptual model of service quality, illustrated of several factors in servicing process and the obstacle within the boundaries of satisfaction of service quality.
The researcher would like to present 7 Gaps as Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry defined in 1985. (Lewis & Chambers, 2000 : 42-43) as follow;
Gap6 is gap between service delivery and external communication : Firms often make promises in their advertisements that are difficult to live up to or that imply something that is not fulfilled. Holiday Inn�s �No surprises� campaign of a few years ago is an example. The implication was that everything would be �fight�. It soon became apparent that this promise could not be delivered and the advertising campaign was dropped after angering a lot of customers
Gap7 is gap between expected service and external communication : this is one of the most serious gaps caused by advertising claims and puffery. Gap7 is more blatant advertising intentionally builds expectations that are knowingly not realistic, or that are unlikely to be fulfilled. This gap could also arise because of any or all of the others gaps as show on figure1. .
In 1990, Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry decreased the gaps from 7 to 5 so figure 2 we can see that three main articles included of the word of mouth communication, personal needs and past experience in using products or services, caused the expectation of customers. It is necessary that the service provider must have the capability in showing the product and service that settle upon the expectation of customers. This will make customers satisfied with the service. In the service process, there could be also a gap or fault in the management that must be made up. This alteration will ascertain the service quality and gain the customer satisfaction at last.
The gap in the service is the mistake in service management and the obstacle in obtaining the service quality.
Gap1 is turned out when the oppose understanding between the service administrators and the expectation of clients.
Gap2 is transpired on the occasion that the explication of the administrator�s understanding regarding the servicing policy is defected since the use of unclear statement, which can be interpreted in different ways.
Gap3 is cause during the delivering process of good and service which is not fitting with the assuming method or designed framework. This brought about errors in quality control of service
Gap4 is chanced in the middle of goods and service�s delivering process that objected to the agreed information providing for customers. This has caused the difference between real service quality and contracted information that consumers received and prepared for.
Gap5 is happened while delivering the goods or service that contrasted with the anticipation of the customer. The result is the less satisfaction of customer afterward.
It is therefore necessary to executives to fill these gaps by focusing exceptionally on the satisfaction of customers is regularly depended on offered service and customer�s anticipation. The similarity between the offered service and confident expectation of customers creates the basis of satisfaction. In as much as the customers expect to the degree that the service must be given pleasantly. When customers have received deficient offered service to the standard, they became dissatisfied. The dissatisfaction can lead to doubt and anger family. So, the negative image of the organization could remain on the customers� memory for a long time. In the contrary when the provider performed better than the agreed information and above customer�s anticipation, the satisfaction is developed into the delightfulness and impression for limitless period. See figure3.
In this study, the researcher investigate the satisfaction of customers by examining their evaluation of the service according to Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry.(1990), the satisfaction is another standard to measure service�s quality. The researcher of this study will apply the result from external communication with customers which caused the fault of the service�s quality.
2.2 Empirical Review
2.2.1Distinctive characteristics of hotel work
Anupan Kijpanpanich (1995 : 27-37) has concluded the distinctive characteristics of hotel work as the following:
188.8.131.52 Hotel work is teamwork : because all divisions are interconnected, so no divisions can carry out their work by themselves e.g. kitchen division needs to coordinated with food and beverage division and reception division with housekeeping or room service division.
184.108.40.206 Unusual working hours : unlike ordinary business hours, working hours in hotel business are around the clock leading to the work shift system with two types of staff : staffs who have just stated working and those who have not finished their work yet. During the continuation period between two types of staffs, it is very useful for the latter to clarify and assign their incomplete jobs to those who have just arrived for the sake of customers� satisfaction and impression. Because hotel business needs to delivery 24 hours services without holidays, it is in dire need of many staffs and extension of working hours without prior notice is sometimes unavoidable for hotel staffs if their assignment is incomplete or if there are a lot of customers at that moment.
220.127.116.11 Pressure of work : hotel work is a kind of work that needs to compete with time in order to serve customers� need and satisfaction as well as to prevent customers from unexpected dissatisfaction. One of distinctive characteristics. Of hotel work is the inconsistency of the number of hotel customers at a moment. Pressure of work toward hotel staffs, then, is unavoidable and often leads to stress.
18.104.22.168 Communication is vitally important : the success of hotel work is based on the effective communication. All section must depend upon mutual information. The front office division is regarded as the reservation and information center and the cashier. Due to this front office staffs must notify the housekeeping, restaurant, and kitchen division and any kinds of guests� information. The information that is notified back is also important. For example, more rooms can be sold by the front office division as long as the housekeeping division informs that the damage in the rooms has been repaired and ready to be in service. Besides working as a teamwork, the effective communication among divisions in the hotel is also one of main factors that lead to customers� satisfaction. There are three procedures for effective communication: 1) gathering information and keeping it in the safe place. When it is needed, it can be retrieved immediately 2) transmitting correct information for collective understanding and 3) properly responding the acquired information and implementing what is necessary.
22.214.171.124 Dealing with all sort of people : working in the hotel business is a good opportunity for staffs to deal with all sort of people, both local and foreign from different places and backgrounds with different needs, communicative skills and personalities. In this respect, customers therefore can be generally divided into two groups : those who are satisfied with the service and those who are not. �customers are always right� principle is what hotel staffs should keep in mind in case of having an argument with the hotel guests. Thus, the distinctive characteristic the hotel staffs must process are calmness, tolerance and forbearance.
126.96.36.199 Prepared for unexpected problems : hotel work is not a routine work because unexpected problems and circumstances may occur to challenge the staffs at any time. The ability to deal with such problems is required for the hotel staffs.
188.8.131.52 Courtesy is the answer. Apart from effective performance and service, hotel work needs courtesy to create an impression to hotel guests because everyone, regardless of nationality, like s to paid respect. As a result, to be generous and sympathetic as well as a good listener when hotel guests are facing any trouble are what hotel staffs should process.
184.108.40.206 Instant compensation : in spite of the fact that hotel work creates pressure, service tips seem to be an instant reward for hotel staffs e.g. the Bellstand may receive more service more tips than other divisions so the staffs sometimes get paid more than their usual salary. Tipping is a foreign tradition and it become so common that the guests should be responsible for tipping. Therefore, foreign guests� tipping does not always indicate that they are satisfied with the services except for tipping result in huge amount of money. However, it can be guaranteed that the service tips from Thai guests can be more or less an expression of their satisfaction with the service. This is because if they are not satisfied with what is provided, tipping is out of the question.
220.127.116.11 Full of life and warmth. This is because :
The hotel is such a beautiful place with luxurious decoration and is abundant with trees and flowers. Nice dressing also bring about the feeling of liveliness and charm.
The hotel is lively. Generally speaking, loneliness will never occur in the hotels full of customers and guests.
The hotel give the feeling of warmth. The warmth and intimacy often occur in the hotel work owning to teamwork and interconnection of divisions.
There has not been adequate study and research into the satisfaction of hotel�s quality service. Most of nearly related research on this matter focuses on the satisfaction of the tourist places and the satisfaction on the other services follows:
Metta Savettalakha (1996 : 10) studied �Satisfaction of tourists with the recreation area : a case study of Dusit Zoo in Bangkok�. It showed that the different age of tourism lead to the different satisfaction of Dusit Zoo by the statistic significant level 0.01.
Ratthawut Jiemsripong (1996 : 110) studied �Tourists satisfaction regarding the environmental management of Bangsan Beach in Chonburi province, Thailand�. It was found that the different between age of tourism lead to the different satisfaction of environment management at Bangsan Beach by the statistic significant level 0.05 in the positive factor.
Pimchanok Sunsanee (1997 : 107) studied �Determinant of service quality as perceive by consumers in Chiang Mai province, Thailand�. It was found that consumers in different age will pay attention on the factors defining quality of the service in the significant different level.
Norasak hemnithis (1998 : 66) studied �factors affecting tourists� satisfaction in service of immigration of the Bangkok international airport�. It was found that the tourists� who has different age has significant different satisfaction in the service of immigration in level 0.05.
Prapassana Kasemsuwan (1998 : 52) studied �International visitors perception of environmental problem in Thailand�. It was found that the international visitors who has different age lead to the different perception of environmental problem in statistic significant level 0.05.
Yaowaree Charoensawat (2000 : 97) studied �The tourist satisfaction in Khao Yai national park for recreation purposes�. It was found that age was related on the satisfaction in statistic significant level 0.01 which the move age they are, the less satisfaction they perceive.
Saowanich Tungtrakul (1990 : 214) studied �Tourist satisfaction towards physical environment of Hua Hin Beach, Thailand�. That is including of Thai traveler and foreigner. It was found that the traveler who came from different places has a different satisfaction towards physical environment of Hua Hin Beach.
Mueng Promkesa ( 1996 : 65) studied �Foreign tourist�s attitude toward policies service, a case study of sub-division 2 tourist police �. it was found that the tourist who has different domicile has the different attitude toward policies service of tourist�s police at a statistic significant level 0.05.
Prapassara Kasemsuwan (1998 : 52) studied �International visitors� perception of environmental problems in Thailand�. It was found that the international visitor who a different domicile has a different perception of environmental problem in statistic significant level 0.05. the visitors who stay in Europe and Asia perceive that Thailand has less environmental problem than visitors who stay in another continent.
Pithi Hunjay (1998 : 91) studied �the image of international tourist police toward attitude of tourist at Pattaya�. It was found that different domicile of international tourists in Pattaya are related on an attitude toward the image of international tourists� police.
Tanaporn Metaneesadudee (2000 : 80) studied �Tourist satisfaction toward video presentation: a case study of Wat Phra Chetuphon Vimolmangklararm Rajwaramahaviharn�. It was found that different nationality of tourist had different satisfaction toward video presentation at statistic significant level 0.05.
In conclusion of nationality factor, most of researches found different nationality has vary dependence variable.
Nopporn Linthong (1995 : 1) studied �The quality of service in international commercial department of secretary, international commercial department�. It was found that incomes of consumer are related on a satisfaction of service. It means different income lead to different satisfaction of service.
Lumpong Sritabtim (1992 : 83) studied �Thai tourists� satisfaction towards physical environment of River Kwei Bridge, Kanchanaburi province�. It was found that a tourist who had different income has d different satisfaction towards physical environment of River Kwei Bridge.
Prapassara Kasemsuwan (1998 : 52) studied �International visitors� perception of environment problems in Thailand�. It was found that the international visitor who earn 24,999 Dollar�s per year (and lower) perceived that Thailand has an environment problems more than visitors� who earn 25,000-49,000 Dollar�s including 50,000 Dollar and higher. It can be concluded that the visitors� international who earn different incomes has different perception toward environment problem in Thailand on a statistic significant level 0.05.
Lalita Jiasiripongkul (1999 : 50) studied �Factors affecting the period of stay of foreign tourists in Lampang province�. It was found that the foreign tourists� incomes are affecting the period of stay in Lampang province.
Tanaporn Metaneesadudee (2000 : 83) studied �Tourists� satisfaction toward video presentation : a case study of Wat Phra Chetuphon Vimolmangkalararm Rajwaramahaviharn�. It was found that the different incomes of tourist had different satisfaction toward video presentation at statistic significant level 0.05.
Norasak Hemnithis (1998 : 68) studied �Factors affecting tourists� satisfaction in service of immigration of the Bangkok international airport�. It was found that a different objective of travelling lead to a different satisfaction of immigration�s service on statistic significant level 0.05.
Lalita Jiasiripongkul (1999 : 50) studied �Factors affecting the period of stay of foreign tourists in Lampang province�. It was found that the foreign tourists� objective of travelling are affecting the period of stay in Lampang province.
Apiwat Giengkwa 1(1991 : 89) studied �Visitor�s opinion on improvement and development of accommodation at Khao Yai national park�. It was found that a visitor who has different objective of travelling has a different opinion on improvement and development of accommodation. Most of agreement of improvement and development of accommodation are visitors who came to travel and relax.
The objective of journey may lead to have different satisfactory such as visitors who came to relax should to have more convenience from accommodation than visitors who came to seminar or visit their friend.
Norasak Hemnithis (1998 : 77-78) studied �factors affecting tourists� satisfaction in service of immigration of the Bangkok international airport�. It was found that a different aspect of travelling lead to a different satisfaction of immigration�s service on statistic significant level 0.05. That is tourist who came by group tour has more satisfaction than tourists who came by themselves.
A group tour are defined as a travelling of persons without appointment to pay money for tour�s company to manage all of service for travel such as a vehicle, accommodation and other services by the time schedule. Anyway, tour travel may be lack of freedom to chooses the place and strictly arrange anything on schedule list (Rattapol Chairat, 1993 cited by Tanaporn Metaneesadudee, 2000 : 20). Therefore, the travelling by oneself will has more chance to choose a hotel or accommodation.
Lampong Sritabtim (1992 : 100) studied �Thai tourists� satisfaction towards physical environment of River Kwei Bridge, Kanchanaburi province�. It was found that a Thai tourist who had different period to stay in accommodation has a different satisfaction towards physical environment of River Kwei Bridge, Kanchanaburi province
Traveled duration id one of factor affecting the satisfaction of tourist. Due to the longer to stay, the more to receive vary services. Besides, they could see problems among an employer and a quality of service too. In 2001, a mean of period to stay in accommodation of international tourist was 7.89 days(Tourism Authority of Thailand, 2003 : 1)
Travelling experience in another country may lead to different satisfaction because of most of international tourists has vary experience in many countries. The European tourist belief that a travelling is very important for their way of life. So an experience of travelling could be exposed the comparison of quality of service as well.
8.The location of accommodation
Pensri Chareonwanich & Somjit Jeungsangunpornsook (1997 : 92-93) studied �Hotel services : a comparative study of hotel in Nongkai, Thailand and those in Vientiane, the people�s democratic republic of Laos�. It was found that tourists at Nongkai province has more satisfaction on location that is very convenience for travel than hotel at Vientiane.
This factor, the location of accommodation, could make a different satisfaction because Thailand has many places to travel such as places for ecotourism and places for culture tourism. An accommodation, generally located not far from tourists� places so tourists could decided any place to stay and maybe more than one place. Therefore, tourists maybe compare a quality of service in each places including of their location too.
9.An external communication
Busaya Suthitorn & Passawalee Nithikasetsoonthorn (1998 : abstract) studied �Attitude and impression of foreigners for visit Thailand�. It was found that the source of information they have received is not the same as they found by themselves a cleanliness of drinking water and accommodation.
Rungtip Wongpathibatkarn (1999 : abstract) studied �The truth and image of Phuket by England tourists�. It was found that English tourists who received information different source has different image of Phuket.
10.Physical Environment of accommodation
Pensri Chareonwanich & Somjit Jeungsangunpornsak (1997 : 92) studied �Hotel services : a comparative study of hotel in Nongkai, Thailand and those in Vientiane�. It was found that tourists who stayed at Nongkai satisfied on view or scenery because the location is near Khong River.
Physical environment, such as cleanliness, comfort and modern facilities, are important factors to increase tourist satisfaction.
Beside, the researcher literate another researchers related on quality of service as follows;
Pensri Chareonwanich & Somjit Jeungsangunpornsak (1997 : 89-95) studied �The quality of service of accommodation : a comparison on accommodation in people�s democratic republic of Laos (Viengchan)�. It was found that the influence factors for tourist to choose an accommodation are an atmosphere, good services, good manner and safety and weaknesses of an accommodation are quality of employer, lack of skill of communication, lack of skill for work and inadequate services.
Thanin Suwongwarn (1998 : 1) studied �Factors related on quality of front service on head sector perception�. It was found that a value of service is related on services in positive statistic significant level 0.01. These value are proud, attending of services, a self achievement services professional and organization sector.
Pritchard & Howard (1997 cited by Chaloemlap Kanejorn Na Ayudhaya, Ed., 1998 : 18) at Victoria University studied three types of travel ; Air flight, Hotel and Golf drive on behavior and attitude measurement on product. It was found that the customer who usually has high royalty on the products and services has different three identities as follows;
1.They feel that quality of products and services give personal and empathetic to individuals.
2.They belief that logo of products is one of their social identity.
3.They belief that they will always have satisfaction on this product and services
Priya Uthayo (1996 : 180) studied �Customers satisfaction toward police service delivery� which was found that the behavior focus on service are related on people�s satisfaction and it is affect satisfaction the most.
Supatra Leamwarangura (1997 : 96-97) studied �Perceived service quality for the disabled attending the prosthetic department at Sirindhon national medical rehabilitation center�. It was found that good level in overall quality of instrument services has seven sections such as security, capacity of services, good manner, communication, believable, trustiness and feedback of customer. Moreover, there are three moderate sections such as available of services, understanding customer and concrete of services.
Sooksun Songpraprasert (1999 : abstract) studied �Tourists� satisfaction toward police service : a case study of Pattaya police station�. It was found that the factor affecting tourists� satisfaction are rapidly the police�s services and police�s behavior of services.
Benjamas Sirikamonsathian (1999 : 70) studied �Inpatient�s satisfaction towards services of Dejudom royal crown prince hospital amphur Dejudom, Ubonratchatani�. It was found that employee and quality of services are positive related on In-patient�s satisfaction.
Dusadee Yaichareovisri (1998 : 72) studied �Expected service quality to correlation with satisfaction of medical service of sick Buddish monks in the in-patient department, the priest hospital, Ministry of public health�. It was found that expected service quality such as believable, confidentially, capability on operating and duty�s role perception are related on satisfaction of medical services of sick Buddish monks in the in-patient department, the priest hospital.
Orapin Chaipayom (1998 : 62) studied �clients� satisfaction towards health care service at the out-patient department, Siriraj hospital�. It was found that service�s skill and the art of service are related on clients� satisfaction towards health care service that lead to customer increase their satisfaction on services.
According to information all above, including of concept theory and related research shows personal factors such as age, nationality, and income. Moreover, factors of travelling characteristics aspect that means tourist�s information such as traveled objective, traveled arrangement, traveled duration, traveled experience and factor of all services such as location of accommodation, the accommodation category, the external communication and physical environment of accommodation are interesting variable because they are related to tourist�s satisfaction. So, all of factor mentioned above will be independence variable of this research.