Advertisement has long history. Modern advertisement has to depends on consumer psychology, through scientific research to maximize the effectiveness from every aspect in advertisement.
A prominent brand logo can bring audience the visual impact, and an distinctive slogan could even express more information to customer. Slogan is language art.
In this study, the author will take many advertising slogans as example to talk about general characteristics of slogan that include the features, categories, functions, objectives, structures and styles, etc.
After the discussion, an effective advertising slogan strategy will be discovered out. Those are including 'evocation and soul perception' and 'recollection and long term impression'.
The advertising slogans that quoted in content all from Famous Advertising Slogan Website (2009 ).
Advertisement is such wonderful thing in modern life, not only means it helps on brand image, publicity or brand association for company, but also can save time and effort, express positive concepts to consumer.
Illustrious slogan as an integral element plays an important role in a piece of excellent advertisement. Many advertising slogans are highly distinctive around the world.
BBC ( 2006 ) awarded UK Best Corporate Slogan to:
- Tesco: Every Little Helps
- O2: See What You Can Do
- Honda: The Power of Dreams
- McDonald's: I'm Lovin' It
- John Lewis: Never Knowingly Undersold
- The British Army/ Territorial Army: Be the Best
- HSBC: The World's Local Bank
- L' Oreal: Because You're Worth It
- Ronseal: Dose Exactly What It Says On the Tin
In addition many unforgettable slogans try to deliver the organisational philosophy to us, the typical one must be NIKE: Just Do It. Today this slogan even have used as a proverb to encourage people.
Business reporter Stamp G ( 2006 ) indicated that ' A corporate slogan must be concise and distinctive, encapsulating a basic 'promise' to a company's users. '
Slogan Characteristics (Examples )
Whittier L ( 1955 ) gave the definition of slogan '... should be a statement of such merit about a product of service that it is worthy of continuous repetition in advertising, is worthwhile for the public to remember, and is phrased in such a way the public is likely to remember it.'
According the words and existing study, generally slogan characteristics could have summarized that:
The features of advertising slogan are:
Short and powerful sentence
E. g. We Lead. Other Copy. ( Ricoh Copier )
Direct and definite information
E. g. Enjoy Coca - Cola ( Coca - Cola )
Suit for continued and broad - level stage.
E. g. Focus on Life ( Olympus Camera )
The functions of advertising slogan are:
Express corporate culture or distinguishing features of product.
E. g. Let's Make Things Better. ( Philips Electronics )
Milk Chocolate Melts in Your Mouth, Not In Your Hand. ( M & M' s )
Bring positive attitude to consumer
E. g. We Integrate, You Communicate. ( Mitsubishi Electric Industrial )
Build up long term brand recall and association.
E. g. Connecting People. ( Nokia )
The categories of advertising slogan are:
Brand Slogan. This is general slogan of brand, it describes the promise or claim of marketing. Normally this kind of slogan is very comprehensive, philosophical, and evocative.
E. g. Intelligence Everywhere. ( Motorola Mobile )
Obey Your Thirst. ( Sprite )
Category Slogan. Many brands are involving several product lines, purpose for complement each other in the same industry.
E. g. Take Time to Indulge. ( Nestle Ice Cream )
The Taster Is Great. ( Nestle Coffee )
Product Slogan. Emphasize the selling point is the main objective of this kind of slogan.
E. g. Good to the Last Drop ( Maxwell House Coffee )
They' re Waffly Versatile. ( Birds Eye Potato Waffles )
Service Slogan. The additional service of product, and customer service.
E. g. Haier Sincerely Forever. ( Haier Customer Service )
With Our New E - Ticket, All You Have to Bring is Yourself. ( British Airway )
The objectives of advertising slogan are:
Through encouraging slogan could helps on build up brand image.
E. g. Feel The New Space ( Samsung Electronics )
Another is the slogan for product promotion.
E. g. Life is Harsh, Your Tequila Shouldn't Be. ( Tequila Wine )
The structures of advertising slogan are:
E. g. Engineered to Move the Human Spirit. ( Mercedes -Benz )
E. g. No Business Too Small, No Problem Too Big. ( IBM )
The slogan includes brand name to increase brand recall.
E. g. Take Toshiba, Take the World. ( Toshiba )
The styles of advertising slogan are:
E. g. Behind That Healthy Smile, There's A Crest Kid. ( Crest Toothpaste)
This Is Sport Center. ( ESPN Sport Center )
E. g. Poetry In Motion, Dancing Close to Me. ( Toyota Motor )
E. g. Going Beyond the Call. ( SBC Communications )
Otherwise Foster T ( 2001 ) gave out some key points about slogan features that are it should be memorable, recall the brand name, include a key benefit, differentiate the brand, impart positive feeling for the brand, reflect the brand's personality, strategic, campaignable, competitive, original, simple, neat, believable and it could help in ordering the brand. Meanwhile it should not be in current use by others, bland generic or hackneyed, prompt a sarcastic or negative response, pretentious, negative, corporate waffle, make you say 'so what?', 'ho hum.' or 'oh yeah??', meaningless, complicated or clumsy.
According to these physical characteristics, we could focus on what should or should not do in slogan text, to draw up feasible advertising slogan strategy.
Distinctive Advertising Slogan Strategy
According to Psychology
Quality of slogan is much important than quantity no matter from what point of view. Flooded advertisement is huge waste, and the slogan with poor quality will make people annoying, finally get an exactly opposite effect of advertisement. Psychology is essential in this stage, scientific advertisement should be according to psychological theory.
Vital point of advertising slogan is that uses few words then catch audience attention. Distinctive slogan must understand the importance of 'recall' and 'association' . That means the slogan not only attractive and also has to bring association to consumer. People could mirror it into personal daily life, build up long term impression are highest state of advertising slogan.
The slogan is an invisible spirit and hides in whole consumption, even impact future behaviour, increase or decrease purchase possibility of consumer.
Evocation and Perception of Soul.
The data from who (1999) showed that a consumer get in touch with 1500 advertisements through TV, radio, newspaper, internet and billboard these medias. But how many advertisements did people notice? Who (1999) did relevant experiment, the result expressed an adult have accept 76 advertisements per day. That means only 5% advertisements have caught by consumer. Selective and limitative are two main features of advertising response from people.
From psychological theory, everyone is facing thousands of incentives every day, in fact nobody can do notice each one. So how to make the advertising incentive more attractive is essential issue in this field.
People will get personal unique understanding when the slogan is evocative. It could bring strong psychological response to consumer. Such as the slogan from Hennessy Liquors ' To Me, The Past Is Black and White, But The Future Is Always Colour.'
This kind of philosophical slogan could take it into everybody's daily life. So people will get inspired easily.
Recollection and long term impression
'Recall is the act of retrieving from long term memory a specific incident, fact or other item.' (Absolute Astronomy Website, 2009 ) The memory of information is the basic condition when people are doing decision making and thinking.
Although one advertising slogan brings positive impression to consumer, normally people will not do the purchase immediately. In this case people will forget this advertisement if the slogan cannot last long time in consumer perception. Therefore the stimulus incentive of this advertising is still failed.
As the graph showed above, it describes the recall process, that including acception, conservation, and recollection. For advertising slogan recall:
Acception means identify and remember the different slogan, it is involving conscious and unconscious two types of acception. Usually people do not pay much attention on advertising, it depends on the value and risk of the product. Consequently most slogans have accepted unconscious. So the effect of repeating the advertising slogan in one channel not as well as publicity through many approaches in the same time. Because it could increase the opportunities of perception for consumer from many other medias, to increase the possibility of unconscious acception.
Conservation is a stage of enhance existing publicity effect. Normally slogan should cooperate with advertisement closer than other stages in conservative period. Because various advertisements can all around about the slogan, and give people different visual impacts to achieve long term conservation. Slogan cannot change frequently due to its characteristic.
Recollection and recognition are describing the process of people recall the slogan under different circumstances. It can be shown by visual words and aural sentences. If the links have been break, the slogan or advertisement are unsuccessful when many people feel difficult to recall them.
People will remember, people will forget as well. Oblivion is another issue of long term impression.
Advertising slogan is short term memory definitely. People will not pay energy and time on slogan recitation. Therefore the slogan must be short and comprehensive if company wants to increase slogan recollection. Who (1990) did the test that people can recall 34% contexts when the slogan was shorter than 6 words, and they can recall 13% contexts when the slogan was longer than 6 words. Most of famous slogans are short or dual sentence, that can help on slogan recall.
On the other hand, the visual design is important, fine organised advertising image also can increase slogan recall. Integration of advertisement image and slogan will bring easier acception to people. Even the pedestrians in hurry, they still could notice the information easily. Highlight point is necessary in a distinctive advertisement, that people will make response easier. Actually image is more acceptable than word for people.
Finally is that improve slogan understanding for consumer. Only consumer complete understand the slogan than they can conserve and impress it long term.
There are some practicable recommendations about successful advertising slogan writing.
Avoid unnecessary modifier or form word, keep it as short as possible.
Make it clear, easy and definite, do not put too much meaning into one slogan.
Use smooth language. Adopt the style which target audience familiar with that
Reference and Bibliography
- Absolute Astronomy Website ( 2009 ) Encyclopedia, Recollection, Absolute Astronomy [ available online ] http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Recollection [ accessed by 1st December 2009 ]
- Bearden T ( 2000) A Non- Technical Description of the Priore Process
- Dimofte C & Yalch R ( 2007 ) Consumer Response to Polysemous Brand Slogans, Journal of Consumer Research (U S A), Vol. 33, No. 4, pp 515
- Famous Advertising Slogan Website (2009 ) Advertising Slogans, Can You Remember These Advertising Slogans? [ available online ] http://www.quotations.me.uk/famous-slogans/index.htm [ accessed by 1st December 2009 ]
- Foster T ( 2001 ) The Art & Science of the Advertising Slogan, AD Slogans [ available online ] http://www.adslogans.co.uk/ans/adslogans_artscience.pdf [ accessed by 1st December 2009 ]
- Stamp G (2006) Probably the Best Corporate Slogan ..., BBC News. 18 June 2006 [ available online ] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/5036084.stm [ accessed by 1st December 2009 ]
- Whittier L (1955) Creative advertising, Henry Holt Press, New York, pp 323 - 340