SHAME, GUILT AND RESPONSES TO NON-PROFIT AND PUBLIC SECTOR ADS
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVERTISING (UK)
1998 VOL 17 No 4
Suggests that the distinction between guilt and shame commonly applied in psychological research is also relevant for advertising research, noting that previous research has not differentiated between shame and guilt. Argues that messages evoking guilt should produce a positive response, whereas shame-inducing adverts are likely to lead to an avoidance reaction. Develops a series of hypotheses relating to shame, guilt and responses to advertisements, and tests these using a sample of 141 university students in the UK. Finds that high-guilt advertisements evoked more favourable responses than shame-intense versions, and that whereas there was no evidence of psychological resistance to guilt-intensive communications, subjects did react negatively to messages that evoked sensations of shame. Discusses the implications of the findings for advertisers, stressing that guilt-based advertising can be effective, provided shame is not aroused.
CONCEPTUALISING GUILT IN CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS MELISSA S BURNETT, DALE A LUNSFORD JOURNAL OF CONSUMER MARKETING 1994, VOLUME 11, ISSUE 3
Consumer purchase decisions can be influenced by many emotions, including guilt. Guilt which enters into the consumer purchase decision is identified as “consumer guilt” and may provide opportunities for marketers to influence the consumer decision process. A negative emotion which results from a consumer decision that violates one's values or norms, explores the consumer guilt construct in a series of focus groups. The groups were composed of subjects representing various age, religious affiliation, occupation, and income groups. Four types of consumer guilt were identified: financial; health; moral; and financial responsibility. Consumer guilt is further classified in terms of anticipatory and reactive states, occurring in both decisions to purchase as well as not to purchase, and as it relates to focus on oneself or others.
THE ROLE OF EMOTIONS IN MARKETING BAGOZZI R P, GOPINATH M, NYER P U JOURNAL OF THE ACADEMY OF MARKETING SCIENCE (USA) SPRING 1999 VOL 27 No 2
Points out that we know very little about the role of emotions in marketing behaviour with most of this relating to the behaviour of consumers rather than managers or salespeople. Distinguishes emotions from affect, moods and attitudes and outlines a theory of emotional behaviour. Looks at how we can approach the measurement of emotions and examines how emotions moderate behaviour. Discusses how emotions moderate cognitive processes, volition and goal-directed behaviour. Concludes by identifying a series of twelve areas for research into the role and effect of emotions in marketing.
MARKETING STRATEGIES: GAINING A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE THROUGH THE USE OF EMOTION RONALD K TAYLOR COMPETITIVENESS REVIEW: AN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS JOURNAL INCORPORATING JOURNAL OF GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS
Top marketing executives and middle managers understanding and utilizing emotions when attempting to gain a competitive advantage through developing various marketing strategies may find this to be of added value when reaching their customers. To enhance the marketing executive's arsenal of weapons when waging competitive battles, this article will review some appropriate theories of emotions and then attempt to develop various advertising, merchandising and selling strategies based on these propositions. This article demonstrates ways in which marketing managers may match various marketing strategies with the various emotional states of typical customers. Also, to counter customer defense mechanisms, battlefield tactics are presented when engaging in a competitive war.
GUILT AND FOCUSING IN DECISION MAKING GANGEMI A, MANCINI F Journal of Behavioural Decision Making (UK) JAN 2007, VOL 20 No 1
- To investigate the effect of an individual's feelings of guilt on their decision-making.
Quotes prior research that found strong relationships between emotional state, cognition and decision-making, even when the decision and cause of the emotional state were not related, discusses the effect of fear and/or anger in inducing pessimistic and optimistic judgments, and explores how guilt influences focus on formulating danger and safety pre-decision hypotheses, proposing that feelings of guilt will lead to focus on a negative hypotheses, in order to prevent future feelings of guilt. Conducts three experiments requiring, in the first experiment, three groups of students to recall anger, fear or neutral emotional events, and then decide what to do with an unexpected monetary gift, the second experiment extending the first experiment's scenario by incorporating negative, undesirable decision options, and in the third experiment requiring participants to choose between two hypotheses about a patient's illness. Confirms that decision strategies are affected by emotional state, recording that individuals asked to recall a guilt event were more affected by guilt emotion than individuals in the anger and neutral groups, in that individuals in the guilt group exhibited more concern about future guilt, and hence focused on relatively undesirable/pessimistic decision options.
GUILT APPEALS IN ADVERTISING: WHAT ARE THEIR EFFECTS?
COULTER, ROBIN HIGIE PINTO, MARY BETH
Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 80(6), Dec, 1995. pp. 697-705.
This study examined consumers' emotional responses, their attitudes toward advertisements and brands, attributions about the companies promoting the brands, and purchase intention for ads varying on level of guilt appeal. Sixty working mothers, a prime target of guilt appeals, participated in the study. Results indicated that moderate guilt appeals elicited more felt guilt in the working mothers than did low or high guilt appeals. Furthermore, emotional responses, particularly anger, mediated the relationship between level of guilt appeal and consumers' attitudes and corporate attributions, and an inverse relationship occurred between level of guilt appeal and attitudes and attributions. Purchase intention was affected by the level of the guilt appeal and by anger.