According to Doole and Lowe (2001) International Marketing involves the firm in making one or more marketing mix decisions across national boundaries. At its most complex level, it involves the firm in establishing manufacturing facilities overseas and coordinating marketing strategies across the globe. This is very good approaches due to looking at marketing policy with under the cultural factors. However Usunier(1996) had touched on importance of cultural factors at making marketing policies for international marketing.
What are the cultural factors and how they can affect marketing policies at international marketing in this part of my assignment I am going to answer these questions. But some elements are very important shaping culture. For understanding culture I should learn and analyze first cultural elements. Elements of Culture are Language, Education, Religion, Values and Attitudes, Manners and Customs, Material Elements, Aesthetics and Social Institutions. Those elements play very important roles at creating different cultures and nationalities among people and those differentiations push international marketers to think different marketing policies for improve their marketing power
Language is not only used the meaning importance of learning new languages where ever the marketers can reach to market their goods and services also language used as communication subject for understanding the cultural differences better. Many time people can get difficulty of understanding each other even if they speak the same languages. If we looked the language factor as a international marketer we should know how to communicate with our customers and we should aware of misunderstandings
Education is the other factor of culture and education level and education systems of a nation are should be understand by international marketers because according to education people can learn new life styles and they can look warm to new technologies and products. A good international marketer can used this factor very well when they went to new markets at abroad. Generally in one country we can see one or a few basic type of educational systems. And students at all over those nations learn similar things. Learning similar things definitely affects personal life styles and then it affects all the national culture by the time.
Religions have always become the efficient role player since beginning of the world, and today we can easily recognize importance of religions in this century as well with looking the rankings of religion followers' rates. Most of people in the earth have religions some of big religions like Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism which are have more than 1 million followers. Those groups of people are efficient on expenditure habits. Most of companies who operate at foreign countries always care about religion factors. For example food and beverages industries should be serve suitable products according to target nations` common religions. Islam forbid of eating pork and drinking alcohol. International marketers even if they hate or like Moslems they should respect their religion and they should serve those people suitable foods and drinks for gaining success at there
Values and attitudes are only the rules they shows differentiations among cultures values always ask for good thinks but those good thinks do not have to be good at every culture. For example kissing hand is can be a respect factor in a nation but in other nation it do not sense also old Russian Men were kissing each other from their mount but in other part of world this action can misunderstand and judge badly by other people Also attitudes can be bad as well for example if someone do not follow the rules of values other persons in the nation thinks about that person bad thinks and they do not respect him. But Value and attitudes are not the same with religious or legal rules because of this Value and attitudes has no legal or religious sanctions. Importance to international marketers those factors are affects nation's cultures and so international marketers can struggle with the reason what elements can acceptable or unacceptable by their target nations
Manners and Custom are other factors that affect culture. Manners is a rules make by people for make life better and always ask to good things manners can change by the time and custom is if people are following rules of manners or not. Because of this judgment method one person can be good custom or bad custom but manner should accept as good at every time. Whenever marketing managers` start to struggle on those nations they should try to understand manners of their market
Material elements show how countries are using technological products at their daily life and if that nations are open for new technological improvements. We can see technology at everywhere today but only a few countries are producing technology and rest of them are just using those technologies. Technology means generally similar with making life easier but sometimes technology kills and disturb environment because of those unwanted effects of technology some people do not want to use it at every time. Experienced marketers know how they can market their products in both situations easily. For example all automotive industries advert how much if they are saving the environment with their improved new technologies
Aesthetics are also key element for international marketer while they are designing their product or serving their goods or service at other nations because every cultural society has their own special aesthetics approaches and those approaches occur by ages. Importance of cultural differences for marketing goods, international marketers study on aesthetic factor too. With aesthetic factor people can expenditure as they like
Social institutions there are for people like hospitals, police offices and schools but every country has their own social institutions and they serve their people according to their social and cultural values and norms. For example some countries do not need more military power because they do not see any foreign attack risk in their lands or hospitals are only managed by governments and only governments can give it1s people medicine and health services. Maybe not all sectors affect from social institution directly by government policies or national differences but international marketers should be know how to treat and what kind of strategies they should do in different conditions
This part needs to be know little bit about culture and marketing subject for explain the main sentences which for the inexperienced marketer, the ‘similar but different' aspect of culture creates an illusion of similarity that usually does not exist says Cateora and Ghauri. Element of culture have already explained at part A. Culture is combination of all those elements, and cultural differences are gives better marketing opportunities or worse marketing failure depend on how much if an marketer know their target market`s cultural elements.
In this section it might be better if I can give specific success or failure stories and their reasons and causes from real life.
Biggest mistakes were its overambitious plans to develop the site, plus Euro Disneyland's financial structure itself, which depended on a highly optimistic financial scenario with little room for glitches" (Gumbel & Turner, 1994)
Disneyland is a well known and originally one of the made in American theme park. Disneyland gives opportunities to happy hours every time to its visitors and all those visitors live very exited hours in there. Disneyland was very successful at America and Disneyland managers did want to expand their company at abroad too. But Disneyland did not respond to expectations in Europe as they required. According to Gumbel and Turner Disneyland`s managers had made biggest mistake at European market
First international brand of Disneyland opened in Tokyo - JAPAN. This branch was very successful and after a few more years operating in America and Japan perfectly executive Disneyland managers thought to open one more international branch to Europe. The criteria for choose location for new branch at Europe was previous Walt Disney movie watching rate. According to this rate also in Europe from UK to Spain most of cities were criticised by their population, whether conditions and other national and historic knowledge and other details. At the end of this market researches Disneyland decided for France because France was as cold as Japan and marketer managers was thinking that if the cold wheatear was the secrets gun for Japan Disneyland`s success
While Disneyland was establishing people employed from France for avoid any problems may occur during works. Locations have been choosing carefully according to easy connectivity from everywhere in France easily. American executives had brought American style risk management system to France and after this management system Disneyland France stated struggle. Because cultural differences started to skirmished
Cultural differences between America and France were one of the biggest reasons why Disneyland could not be successful in France. Company policy of Disneyland have prohibited to drink alcohol in the park, only after many considerations wine and beer started to allowed Disney Company changed its policy and allowed wine and beer in the Euro Disneyland theme park
Disneyland managers was thinking France people have habits like common Europeans so they do not eat food with sitting on the table so they did not opened enough dinner saloons but France culture was not similar with whole European. It was just a illusions of similarities were occurred again. Also most of Disneyland customers who come from European or from inner France were expecting to eat their dinner with under the very romantic environment, but absences of enough seats at Disneyland`s restaurant made customers unsatisfied.
And there was one more very important difference between America and France of educations systems. In France students and vocational workers were having long and only one time break in a whole year but Americans were having small but frequent holidays in a year. Because of this social differentiation France Disneyland were not able to make profit also they were losing money
As we see in Disneyland history at France market executive managers failed on mistake which was looking similar but actually very different cultural aspect in European market. They compared France culture with whole European culture, However France belonged to Europe it has its own cultural aspects. France people like wines, they like luxuries and they like resting in under perfect environment and with the candle light dressed beautiful dinner and perfectly prepared breakfast tables. But In Europe because of the fast life style most of people feed with ready meals or fast foods. France always becomes former country on art, Music dance and other social activities. But in Europe other countries generally followed France people on such a activities in their history
I have analyzed cultural factors for understanding international marketing policies better in the first section of the assignment and I have explained elements of culture as much as possible. That part was very useful for me because due to my future expectation I want to be one of the best marketers in this sector and I have learnt how to understand cultural differences and their importance for being successful. At least I have learned that Learning new languages not only enough to understanding with people correctly or I have learnt to importance of respect other religions even some of them seem funny. In the earth %85 percent of people have believing some religions and those religions are always asking its members to be good at every time. Religions are generally managing by the rules of God. Because of this huge judgment system and population of the people who are following those religions many cultural aspects are changing and those changes are giving people new life and expenditure habits. It is the other factor that I have analysed importance of culture factor at international marketing for making strong marketing policies
In the second part I have analyzed Disneyland Paris and reasons of their failure in France. That example was perfectly suitable with the statement of Cateora and Ghauris` statement about aspect of cultures and making illusions of similarities with aspect cultures also I saw with Paris Disneyland importance of experiences in marketing business. I have only some question marks on my head. How Disneyland had been successful in Japan because Japan culture looks more different then other cultures when we looked at Japanese people closely. In my opinion Japanese are learning to enjoy at every environment in primary school and they are easily adopting new things and ideas in their life
1. Doole, I. and Lowe, R. (2001), International Marketing Strategy - Analysis, Development and Implementation, Thomson Learning, 3rd Ed.
2. Gumbel, P., Turner, R. (1994), "Fans like Euro Disney but its parents' goofs weigh the park down", Wall Street Journal, .
4. Usunier, J.C (1996), "Cultural aspects of international business negotiation", in Ghauri, P, Usunier, J.C (Eds), International Business Negotiations, Elsevier Science Ltd, UK, .