Kotler And Levy

Kotler and Levy (1969, p.15) started to state that the Marketing Philosophy could be applied to nonprofit marketing organizations in 1969. They stress that one of the modern marketing&rsquo:s meaning is &ldquo:sensitively serving and satisfying human needs&rdquo:, which make the marketing concept useful to all organizations.

In their opinion, (1969) (Kotler and Levy, 1969) the choice for the management of nonprofit organizations is not whether to adopt it or not, but whether to do it badly or well.

Blois (K.J.Blois, 1999) defined that &ldquo:Nonprofit marketing is part of &lsquo:non-business&rsquo: marketing which relates to marketing activities conducted by individuals and organizations to achieve some goals other than ordinary business goals of PROFIT, MARKET SHARE, or return on investments.

As the society is moving on, the nonprofit organizations are developing very fast and also facing more intense market pressure. Marketing plays an even more important role to the management of many nonprofit organizations.

However, there are some differences from the marketing of the nonprofit organizations to those for-profit organizations. Compared to commercial marketing, nonprofit marketing is definitely more complicated. Some features of the nonprofit organizations make the nonprofit marketing different and difficult (Gallagher and Weinberg, 1991).

&ldquo:Cancer Research UK is a registered charity to protect and promote the health of the public in particular by research into the nature, causes, diagnosis, prevention, treatment and cure of all forms of cancer, including the development of research into practical applications for the prevention, treatment and cure of cancer and to provide information and raise public understanding of such matters. It operates throughout England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland&rdquo:(Anonymous).

It can be seen from the marketing activities of Cancer Research UK that the difference of nonprofit marketing and commercial marketing.

The goal of nonprofit marketing is nonfinancial.

From the starting point, the nonprofit marketing is different to the for-profit marketing. The task of nonprofit marketing is undoubtedly different to the conventional commercial marketing whose goal is financial profit maximization. Their goal is to make some social benefits like education, health, safety, environment and other benefits to individuals and the public. And a nonprofit organization often have several goals base on its mission(Gallagher and Weinberg, 1991).

Take Cancer Research UK as an example, it claims that they have ten goals which are including: people will know how to reduce their risk of cancer; the number of smokers will fall dramatically; people under 75 will be less likely to get cancer and etc,.( Cancer Research UK, 2009). All of these goals are distinctly not related to financial profit.

Gallagher and Weinberg(1991) stated that money is a measure of success in business. So it is easier to evaluate the result of marketing efforts for the organization focus on the profitability. But to the nonprofit sector, marketing results are difficult to quantified and evaluated separately(Yorke, 1984). To better estimate the contribution nonprofit marketing program has made toward the certain objectives, it&rsquo:s important for a nonprofit marketing manager to set up well-defined goals and prioritize the multiple goals for a better measurement for the marketing success.

To its achievement Cancer Research UK reports to show a lot of status numbers, to make it more quantifiable which make it a more clear picture to the public. For example, it lists the different ratio on their development on different cancer.


  1. Anonymous . [Accessed on 22/12/2009]
  2. Anonymous . [Accessed on 12/30/2009]
  3. Anonymous “HARD TIMES”. Accountancy, 144 (1391), 98(2).
  4. Gallagher, K. & Weinberg, C. B. (1991) “Coping with success: new challenges for nonprofit marketing”. Sloan Management Review Vol. 33 (1), pp. 27-42.
  5. K.J.Blois (1999) “Marketing for non-profit organizations”, in M.J.BAKER (Ed.) The Marketing Book,, 4th ed. London: Heinemann.
  6. Kotler, P. & Levy, S. J. (1969) “Broadening the Concept of Marketing”. Journal of Marketing, 33 (1), pp. 10-15.
  7. Kotler.P (1975) Marketing for Non-Profit Organisations, Prentice Hall Inc.
  8. Yorke, D. A. (1984) “Marketing and Non-Profit-Making Organisations“. European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 18 (2), pp.17-22.

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