Marketing is an art or science

Introduction

'Marketing' is the common word in today's life, but how many people really know what it means? Marketing is more than advertising, promoting or selling. The Chartered Institute of Marketing defines marketing as 'the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably'

Decades ago, when there was a limited number of products available and not so many consumers or competition in the market where marketing management was the only distribution of goods, buying and selling. It includes all of process of transportation, storing, weighting, grading, buying, and selling etc .Over the year's market competition has increased dramatically. We can examine that according to AMA (American marketing association) definitions, in 1935, according that marketing was just a business activity which produce goods and services for consumers. In 2004-07, The AMA offers the following modern definition:

"Marketingis the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational goals. It shows that what market is now more strategic and practical. Now marketing is something that makes the organization run. (Keefe, 2004)

According to these definitions we can see how marketing and its concept is changing rapidly, so it is very hard to decide whether marketing management is an art or it's a science. According to definitions given in Webster's Unabridged Dictionary "marketing is a science because it has organized body of knowledge which contains universal truth." Many writers have tried to express art form of marketing. Art has been called a creative form of expression, the communication of feeling that intensifies our involvement with life, making the experience more vivid by stimulating our capacity to feel and respond. (Feasley and Florence, G 1984). According to them marketing is an art. Some writer said that marketing is neither an art or nor a science, marketing is a business, (Bogart, L 1988)

Marketing can also be considered as art because art means creativity and in marketing, one has to be a great artist to achieve all the organizational goals in a proficient manner. It is art because it requires perfection through practice, creativity, personal skills and practical knowledge. An art and business expert said in his article that science is something which can be developed by a "systematic study and practice." This isn't for Science only, Art can also be developed by a"systematic study and practice" (Clough, 2007)

I will prove this statement right by dealing with 4ps of marketing mix one by one.

Discussion

The whole marketing process based on 4 P'S of marketing by which:-One determines and creates a product/service to meet the needs and wants which is known as 'The Product'. One determines the value for the product is known as 'The Price'. One determines the way of communicating the product to the market place is known as 'The Promotion'.

One determines a way of taking the product/service to the market place is known as 'The Place' (Rix, 2007, p.29)

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Product- Modern origination focus their marketing efforts on customer, this means they need to work continuously on their goods and services (product) to ensure that they meet customer needs. This is known as product management. Product management include developing product, product range, maintain brand, packaging and appropriate quality. Product management is an art. How for example, a Salesperson plays an important role in product management. He has to be a great artist to achieve all the organizational goals in a proficient manner. He can be by his perfection through practice, creativity, personal skills and practical knowledge. Let us suppose that a customer is confused about a product, and after talking to the salesperson, he is convinced according to the salesperson point of view, it was the art of a salesperson that he has handled the customer in a proficient and friendly way. One more example proves that how product management is art not scientific. Brands and quality also play important role in product management. While we can predict behaviors of consumers and the market by using scientific methods, the decisions based on the scientific results are not always correct. It can be more cleared with an example of Coca cola Co. The coca cola company wanted to develop a new coke. For this they did lot of research and surveys in the market. That was viewed as a new revolution. But when the new product hit the market, it collapsed. Consumer didn't accept this new product. They wanted the old coke back. Then coca cola had to re-launch the classic coke. It means science of marketing could be failed even if you use it in the right way in term of marketing. People want the consistency of their favorite product otherwise they will loose the faith in the brand.

Price has an impact on all other elements (the four 4p's) of the marketing mix, unlike the product, place and promotion require money .Price is the revenue collector .Historically, a price was calculated on basis of the production and marketing cost, but due to the competitive nature of the marketing and limited disposable income of consumers, price set by in a artistic way. As acknowledge by president of Richard Gottlieb & Associates in his article that' pricing' probably the most important element in the success or failure of products and the companies that set them is treated either as apathetic science . Maybe, however, it's not. Maybe it's an art. Today pricing a product is more artistic than scientific. For example, in the car yard how they put price like $11 995 and $29 950. It is believed that potential customers will view of $11 995 as cheaper than $12 000, and $29 950 as more economic than $30 000 .This kind of pricing tactic is commonly used for many product like, Groceries are priced just below the next dollar for example $1.98 instead of $2.00 .Although there are no longer one and two cent coins. This is just an art to grab attention of the customer.

Promotion- This is the art of communicating massage. (Boaz, 1998, p169) .As above said by (Feasley, Florence G), art is the creative form of expression and the communication of feeling. Advertisement is the way of communication; it could be through television, radio, internet, direct mail, flyer etc. Consider an example of Apple's ipod and Mcbooks which shows more art than science in its marketing. It features beautiful design, beautiful packaging, and a sleek user experience. In Macbook, advertisement they shows that it's thin like a piece of paper, but actually its not. The product certainly delivers on some very sleek, artsy, advertising that promises cool. After watching this kind of advertisement everyone want to buy that product, it shows that they are true artists, because they are highly creative thinkers who apply scientific principles to managing the art.

Advertisement is an art not a science and that works for one product of service may not work for another (Vass k, 2006). Direct mail is also the form of advertisement; it can have highest impact any other medium, but can also be most expensive to one person reached or if its not going to the right person it could be junk mail, but it's a good way to test promotion in small scale before go on large scale.

Place The term place may also mean distribution or channel of distribution. This element (place) covers all the decision and responsibilities associated with getting good from seller to a customer. . 'Place' is concerned with various methods of transporting and storing goods, and then making them available for the customer. Getting the right product to the right place at the right time involves the distribution system. The choice of distribution method will rely on a variety of circumstances. It will be easier for manufacturers to sell to wholesalers who sell to retailers, while some prefer to sell straight to retailers or customers. The whole distribution system is based on marketing research. A business people must be effective researchers and as well as have to be expertise in artistic areas like human relation, Communication, market history and current events. (Byrd , 1987) than he can provide the right product to the right place to right person.

Conclusion

After examining all 4ps of marketing mix can say that, the whole market process based on market research and creativity of communication, so conclusion is that, marketing is an art or can be scientifically managing art. In a research report by Byrd (1987), it was said that in general market research is both, like the effective researcher must be a skilled artist in dealing with qualitatively oriented research, and a technically proficient scientist in dealing with quantitative research, but in reality, a spectrum of marketing exist, ranging from artist. Even in most scientific studies, the effective researcher must exercise in great artistry in identifying key business opportunities and problems. The researchers are creatively design appropriate method and execute program to generate relevant information and analysis for decision making. Finally, the effective researcher must the master the art of oral, written communication in presenting the results of any market study.

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