Research methology

Chapter 3

Research Methodology

This chapter is designed to provide the research methods adopted by the researcher, sample data information for the primary research, protocols adopted during the interview and the limitations which have affected the research.


Research deals with the problems, attitude and opinion. Research is important for both academic and also for the business activities, with research it is seek to understand that why things behave the way they do, why people act in certain way, or what makes people to buy a particular product. There for, it indicates different meaning to different group of people, or for different approaches for different kind of businesses.

According to klotz et al, 2007 that "a systematic way of investigation to find answers to a problem".

"Research is a structured inquiry that utilizes acceptable scientific inquiry and methodology to solve problems and create new knowledge that is generally acceptable". (Gotlib, 2009).

Research methodology is simply known to be as the methods used for collecting and analysing data in a research (Kervin, 2009). It involves specific instruments, structured or semi structured interviews, company's reports, books, or by the observation of participants, whereby the researcher listen to and watches others. (Bryman and Bell, 2009)

This chapter explains the outline of the methodology that is used in the research.

Research may be considered as a business as well as an academic activity, as it indicates different meanings to different people therefore considering this, there are a number of definitions brought forward, and common way of defining a research may be:

"A logical process of enquiry and investigation, increasing the knowledge is called a research"

A research shall always identify the problem area which may be included as a research problem so as to come up with the research aims and objectives (Collis and Hussey 2003). Research is used considering different purposes that may include enhancing the general knowledge about some topic or it could take place in reply to resolve an existing problem prevailing in the environment (Neuman 2003).

According to Coldwell et al, 2004 that business research is a process of planning, collecting and analyzing the data into valuable information for the management which is helpful in decision making.

Research values

It is about studying how the philosophical factors change the research enabling it in giving a satisfactorily outcome. The understanding of the philosophical issues is very important in order to clarify the research design. It helps not only in finding the right evidences but also provide related answers helping in getting the correct findings and helping the researcher to recognize the right design to be used. There are always criticism and debates related to the progress of philosophy underlying research methods and designs. (Smith et al. 2004)

Research Philosophy may be referred to the development and nature of the knowledge, the development may not reflect a new theory but it may be with a refined ambition specifying a particular industry or an organisation.

Research design

The research methodology may be defined as a constructive way of collection, arrangement and analysis of data and furthermore its conversion into an information. There are several different methods in business for carrying out the research, and they may vary according to the nature and scope of the topic.

A proper research is carried out while considering all the necessary steps, which makes it more authentic and reliable for the reader. (Saunders 2007)

The different steps involved in the process of research are as follows.

  1. Research Methods
  2. Research Techniques
  3. Research Design
  4. Data Collection Method & Technique
  5. Data Analysis


Research methodology is defined as constructive way of collection, arrangements & analysis of data and furthermore its conversion into an information. There are several different methods in business for carrying out the research. A proper research is carried out while considering all necessary steps, which makes it more authentic & reliable for the reader. For research there are two broad categories, which are as under

  1. Basic research.
  2. Applied research.
Basic research

Basic research is an investigation is on basic principles & reasons for its occurrence of a particular process. It is also called theoretical research. It is not concerned with solving any practical problems of immediate interest. But it is original or basic in quality or nature. It provides a systematic and deep insight into a problem and facilitates extraction of scientific and logical explanation and conclusion on it. It helps build new frontiers of knowledge. The outcomes of basic research form the basis for many applied research. Researchers working on applied research have to make use of the outcomes of basic research and explore the effectiveness of them.

Applied research

In an applied research one solves certain problems by applying well known and accepted theories and principles.

Most of the experimental research, case studies and interdisciplinary research are in effect applied research. Applied research is helpful for basic research. Applied research is concerned with actual life research such as research on increasing efficiency of a machine, increasing gain factor of production of a material, pollution control, etc.

As there are different kind of research which are carried out by the researcher based on the type of data they are seeking for; different kind of studies for carrying out a research are mentioned as under.


The exploratory research is usually carried out usually on a new topic. As per Robinson 2002 the exploratory study is one the best studies. When a researcher needs to know that "what is happening?" then such research is carried out, it is usually conducted when a phenomena needs to be assessed in a new way, further more the exploratory study helps in understanding the problem and its nature. (Saunders 2007)

There are certain goals of exploratory study which are;

  1. Getting familiar with basic facts, besides developing a picture of what is going on.
  2. Generating many ideas and creating a room for additional research.
  3. Formulating questions for refining issues and future research.

(Grinnell and Unrau 2007)

There are several ways through which the exploratory research is conducted, mentioned as under.

  1. The information can be gathered or in other words the research can be conducted from the literature.
  2. The research can also be carried out by interviewing the experts, and can be helpful by generating their ideas.
  3. The research can also be conducted by focusing on the groups and conducting interviews from them in order to generate a perception about the topic.

One of the great benefits of this research is; it was very flexible and adaptable. (Saunders 2007)


The descriptive research may be defined as making an accurate profile of an individual, event, group or a some situation; we may call it as an extension of exploratory research (Saunders 2007), based on the tentative idea collected through exploratory study further research is done on an individual or a group for finding if there is any relationship exiting between them or not.

There are some goals of descriptive study mentioned below.

  1. Describe an accurate picture of the group, its process and relationship.
  2. Provides results in numerical or a verbal way.
  3. Classify the types, groups, provide their further explanations.

(Grinnell and Unrau 2007)


The study that put a causal relationship between variables is considered as an explanatory study (Saunders 2007) with the explanatory study the researcher gets help in getting to the answer that if there are any solid relationship between the variables identified in the descriptive research. There are some goals of explanatory research study mentioned as under.

  1. Finds out a much better explanation to the research along with identifying the accuracy of the theory.
  2. Helps in elaborating a theory for giving it a complete sense.
  3. Give Explanations based on the evidences supporting the ideas.


Considering the research techniques as a step in helping the research process easy from the data collection its conversion into useful information. The research techniques provide you with the required information and explain the steps of how to achieve to desired goals, rather than explaining that what or why you are doing this. These are the different techniques of collecting the data, and further analysing it into information. The different types of research techniques are mentioned. (Grinnell and Unrau 2007)


"The structured technique may be considered as a formal way of a research techniques which include structured questionnaires; it also contains face to face interviews. This type of research may also contain the data collected through the internet, through post, and telephonic interview are also included in it. Collecting the data through this technique is done in more formal way than the semi-structured open ended technique". (jankowicz, 2005)


These may be referred to such techniques where the information is gathered by having conversation with certain individuals, which may be done in the shape of conducting the individual interviews, such techniques also includes when focusing a group for gathering the data. Usually the interviews are conducted in an informal way and they include open ended questions where the interviewee expresses his own ideas in a broader way. (Jankowicz 2005).


As there are two main ways / methods of data collection mentioned as under.

Qualitative Method

In this process researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behaviour and the reasons of such behaviour. The process investigates around why and how of decision making, not just what, where, when. Hence, smaller but focused samples are needed rather than large random samples. (Allison, 2005)

Quantitative Method

The objective of quantitative research is to develop and to provide with mathematical models, theories. The process is quantitative research because it provides the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships. (casselle et al, 2009)

It is also useful to research different aspects of education. It includes questionnaire, closed interviews, with the help of quantitative studies the attitudes & behavior can be linked together for setting up a bench mark for the improvement purpose.


Primary data mean original data that have been collected specially for the specific purpose.

In primary data collection, researcher collects the data using methods such as interviews & questionnaires. The point is that the data collected by researcher is unique for research and, until published. (saunders, 2007)

There are many methods of collecting primary data and the main methods include:

  • Questionnaires
  • Interviews
  • Focus group interviews
  • Observation
  • Case-studies

The primary data, which is produced according to the above methods, are qualitative in nature

(If in the form of words) or quantitative (If in the form of numbers).

  1. Questionnaires
  2. This is the one of the most useful way of collecting data, but it is difficult to design and often require attempts of rewriting before an acceptable questionnaire is produced.

    1. Advantages:
      • Easy to post, e-mail or for fax.
      • It covers a large number of people.
      • Relatively cheap to do.
      • This can be used for interviewing or telephone survey
      • No prior arrangements are needed.
    2. Disadvantages:
      • Questions have to design simple.
      • It has design problem.
      • It has low response rate
      • It is time consuming for responses to be returned.
      • Require a return deadline. (silverstien et al, 2007)
  3. Interviews
  4. This primary technique is useful to know the understanding of basic reasons of people's attitude, preferences, & behaviour. Interviews can be undertaken in groups or one-to-one basis, interview can be conducted at work, home, in street or other agreed location". (kaden, 2006)

    1. Advantages:
      • Gives accurate information.
      • Good response rate.
      • Saves time.
      • In-depth understanding of questions
    2. Disadvantages:
      • Need to set up interviews.
      • Time consuming.
      • Can be expensive.
      • Interview quickly.
      • If many interviewers, training required. (yubo, 2009)
Types of interview
  1. Structured
    • It is based on careful worded interview.
    • It requires short answers.
    • Useful when there are a lot of questions which are not particularly contentious or thought
    • Respondent may become irritated.
  2. Semi-structured
  3. Semi structured interviews are focused by asking certain questions with the scope of respondent to express him or herself at length.

  4. Unstructured
  5. This also called an in-depth interview. It begins by asking the general questions. The interviewer then encourages the respondent to talk freely. The interviewer uses an unstructured format.

    Planning an interview:

    • List the areas in which the information is required.
    • Decide type of interview.
    • Transform areas into actual questions.
    • Try them out on a friend or relative.

This process involves the recording of the behavioural patterns of people, objects and events in a systematic manner.

Structured or unstructured

In structured observation, the researcher states in detail that what is going to be observed and what measures are to be recorded.

In unstructured observation, the researcher monitors all aspects of the occurrence that is relevant. It is suitable when the problem is yet to be formulated precisely. The potential for bias is high. Observation findings should be treated as hypotheses to be tested rather than as conclusive findings. (Carl, 2004)

  1. Disguised or undisguised
  2. In disguised observation, respondents are unaware they are being observed and thus behave naturally. This can be achieved by hiding or using hidden equipment or disguised as shoppers. In undisguised observation, respondents are aware they are being observed. People behave differently when being observed.

    "In personal observation, a researcher observes actual behaviour as it occurs. The observer may or may not normally attempt to control or manipulate the phenomenon being observed. The observer merely records what takes place". (carl, 2004)

  3. Non-participant
  4. In this process observer does not normally question or communicate with the people those being observed. He or she does not participate.

  5. Participant
  6. "In participant observation, the researcher becomes, or is, part of the group that is being investigated. Participant observation has its roots in ethnographic studies where researchers would live in tribal villages, attempting to understand the customs and practices of that culture". (carl,2004)


"Secondary data are data that have been collected for another purpose and is used Statistical Method with the Primary Data. It means that after performing statistical operations on Primary Data the results become known as Secondary Data. For example, this could mean using:

  • Data supplied by a marketing organization.
  • annual company reports
  • government statistics". (casselle, 2009)
Sources of secondary data
  1. Paper-based sources
  2. Books, journals, periodicals, abstracts, indexes, directories, research reports, conference papers, market reports, annual reports, internal records of organisations, newspapers and magazines The main sources of qualitative and quantitative secondary data include the following.

  3. Official or government sources -
  4. Census Reports

    SRS - Vital Statistics

    Reports of States, Country and Municipal Health Departments

    Report of Police Department, prisons, jails, courts, probation department etc.

Technique used in data collection is primary data

The data collection method used is "qualitative" in nature. The research techniques used in gathering the data is done by "semi-structured" and "structured techniques" which includes, their performance, and it is collected from the management personnel's working in the organisation.

The ways in which the data is collected are mentioned as under.

  1. Semi-structured and structured Interviews with the Management personnel's of company and the personnel's from the department, this includes gathering the facts about the performance of the company, their progress and competitive advantage, etc.
  2. Data is also collected through the close ended Questionnaire, which was also filled through an interview, helped in getting to the conclusion of the research in an effective way.
Initial study for the purpose of questionnaire design

The background information is obtained before designing the questionnaire. In case of this research, knowledge about the employee training, impacts and steps taken by the organisation etc. have been analysed by literature study from journals, online articles, books, and various marketing reviews. The knowledge gained and analysis done from the literature study is explained in details in chapter 2 of this thesis.

Questionnaire for the research


A self-completion questionnaire is used to carry out this research, in which respondents answered closed ended questions by completing the questionnaire himself or herself.

Questionnaire Distribution

The questionnaires are distributed to the managers and employees of the different branches of the Body Shop.

Safety measures were taken to include people of different nationality and age groups to get response from diverse community



"Sampling is, process, or technique of selecting a suitable representative part of a population for the purpose of determining parameters or characteristics of the whole population".

(Robert et al, 2007)


Sampling is more beneficial to the whole because of the following reasons:

  • It is not possible to observe all relevant events.
  • It is time effective.
  • It is cost effective.

The sampling process comprises several stages:-

  1. Defining the population.
  2. Specifying a sample.
  3. Specifying a sampling method.
  4. Determining the size of sampling.
  5. Implementing the sampling plan
  6. Reviewing the process


Sample size

According to the group of people sample size has been decided but it is difficult to design how large the sampling should be. Sample size can be determined by a range of constraints. Generally sample size depends on:-

  • the nature of the analysis suppose to be performed,
  • the kind and number of comparisons made.

Sampling is of two types:

  • Probability sampling
  • Non-probability sampling

Probability Sampling

It can be defined as the one in which each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. It can be divided into many types.

  1. Random Sampling
  2. This is the process in which random sample is obtained by choosing elementary units in a way that each unit is performing equally. A simple random sample is free from sampling bias. (john et al, 2007)

  3. Systematic Random Sample
  4. "A systematic random sample is produced by selecting one unit on random basis and choosing additional elementary units at evenly spaced intervals until the desired number of units is obtained". (casselle, 2009)

  5. Stratified Sample
  6. "A stratified sample is obtained by independently selecting a separate random sample from each population division. A population can be divided into different groups on the basis of some characteristic or variable like income of education. Like anybody with ten years of education will be in group A, between 10 and 20 group B and between 20 and 30 group C. These groups are referred to as strata. Researcher can then randomly select from each stratum a given number of units which may be based on proportion like if group A has 100 persons while group B has 50, and C has 30 researcher may decide & will take 10% of each. So you end up with 10 from group A, 5 from group B and 3 from group C". (casselle, 2009)

Non- Probability Sampling

Performing non probability sampling is considered less expensive than doing probability sampling, but the results have limited value.

Examples of non probability sampling include:

Convenience or Accidental Sampling

"Members of the population have chosen on the basis of their relative ease of access. To sample friends, co-workers, or shoppers at a single mall, are all examples of convenience sampling". (Lee at al 2009).

Snowball Sampling

This process states that the first respondent refers a friend. The friend also refers a friend, etc.

Critical Sampling or Purposive Sampling

The researchers choose the sample based on who they think would be suitable for the study. This is used primarily when there are a limited number of people that have expertise in the area being researched.

Sampling method

In this research, the sample has been selected by convenience sampling method.


In order to take a reasonable sample size and not to disturb the functioning of the organization, a sample size of reasonable strength of the Company has been taken in order to arrive at the present practices of training in the Company.

Accordingly, 5 managers and 10 employees have been selected randomly from all the departments of the organization and feedback forms (questionnaire) have been obtained.


The technique of Random Sampling has been used in the analysis of the data. Random sampling from a limited population refers to that method of sample selection, which gives each possible sample combination an equal probability of being picked up and each item in the entire population to have an equal chance of being included in the sample.


The main statistical tools used for the collection and analyses of data in this project are:

  • Pie Charts
  • Tables

The following are the limitations of the study:

  • The sample size was small and hence the results can have a degree of variation.
  • The response of the employees in giving information was half-hearted.
  • Organization's resistance to share the internal information.
  • Questionnaire is subjected to errors.


Training Effectiveness is the process wherein the management finds out how effective it has been at training and growth of the employees in an organization.

  • This study gives some suggestions for making the present training and development system more effective.
  • It gives organization the direction, how to deal differently with different employees.
  • It identifies the training & development needs present among the employees.

Chapter 4

Data Analysis


  1. How many training programmes have you attended in last 5 years?

    45% of the officers have attended 6-15 training programs in the last 5 years, which is an indication of an effective training policy of the organization. However, 40% of the managers have attended only 0-5 training programs, which need to be evenly monitored by the organisation.


    According to the above analysis, the training program in body shop is very effective though it still needs to be very clear that they need to develop the competencies of their employee's support them by providing them with basic resources to complete their given tasks.

  3. The programme objectives were known to you before attending it.

    35% of the respondents moderately agree to the fact of knowing the training objectives, in addition to 25% who strongly agree. But a small population disagrees as 20% strongly disagree to this notion. Training objectives should therefore be made known compulsorily before imparting training in the organization.


    It is highly recommended that companies must acknowledge the training programme to their employees to make up their mind, which will show the trust of the organisation on their workers.

  5. The training programme was relevant to your developmental needs.

    70% of the respondents feel that the training programmes were in accordance to their developmental needs. 15% respondents could not comment on the question and 15% think that the programmes are irrelevant to their developmental needs and the organization must ensure programmes that satisfy the developmental needs of the officers.


    The organisations must ensure this that training programmes must be relevant to the developmental needs of the workforce in order to build a competence workforce.

  7. The period of training session was sufficient for the learning.

    52% respondents feel that the time limit of the training programme was adequate but 25% feel that it was insufficient. Also, 21% could not comment on the question. All the respondents though felt that increase in time limit of the programmes would certainly be beneficial and the organization should plan for this to be implemented in the near future.


    According to the above mentioned analysis, it has come up that the training timing was not enough to learn, as majority of people do not have the same way of understanding as one does. So it shall be beneficial for the organisation when their employees learn as much as they can either by practical or theoretical.

  9. The training methods used during the training were effective for understanding the subject.

    40% of the respondents believe that the training methods used during the programmes were helpful in understanding the subject, yet 25% disagree to this notion.


    As employees were not satisfied with the method used during the training, as it did not convey the message it should have, which may have left the employees unsatisfied. Company must use the effective method or hi-tech equipments to enhance its training method.

  11. The training sessions were exciting and a good learning experience.

    65% respondents believe that the training sessions were exciting and a good learning experience. 10% respondents could not comment on this while 25% differ in opinion. They feel that the training sessions could have been more exciting if the sessions had been more interactive and in line with the current practices in the market.


    Majority of employees agrees according to the above mentioned analysis, company should take step or take further feedback from those who either couldn't comment or disagree to make their future programmes more efficient.

  13. The training aids used were helpful in improving the overall effectiveness of the programme.

    40% of the respondents believe that the training aids used were helpful in improving the overall effectiveness, yet 20% disagree to this notion. 35% respondents did not comment on the issue..


    A car drives when it's all four wheels are pumped up. In this case company has to cover its all weaknesses and should work on its strength, rather than doing experiments. Company should use better scientific aids to enhance the presentation and acceptance value of training programme. Otherwise training will be just and expenditure.

  15. The training was effective in improving on- the- job efficiency.

    45% respondents believe that the training programmes increase their job efficiency but 35% disagree to this.


    The view of the respondents were towards having more technological and current topics for the training programmes which could help them satisfy their creative urge and simultaneously increase their on-the-job efficiency. So, employee needs to be aware the daily occurring changes in corporate world.

  17. in your opinion, the numbers of training programmes organized during the year were sufficient for workers of TBS.

    25% respondents have the opinion that the frequency of the training programmes is sufficient but 50% of the respondents differ to this. They believe that the number of training programmes organised in a year should be increased and some in house training programmes should also be organised by the organisation regularly.


    It is beneficial for employees, if the number of training programmes organised in a year increases and also if some in house training programmes must also be organised regularly to keep their employees learning.

  19. How many training programmes have you attended during the last year?

    35% of the workers have attended 3-8 training programmes in the last year, which is the clue of a useful training policy of the organization. However, 62% of the workers have attended only 0-2 training programmes, which should be effectively seen by the organization. Also, every worker should be given chances to attend as many training programmes as possible.


    Every worker should be given maximum chances to attend as many as possible to learn the daily happening changes in organisation or in the market.

  21. The training given is useful to you.

    71% of the respondents feel that the training programmes were useful. 13% respondents could not comment on the question and 16% think that the programmes were irrelevant to their objective of being useful.


    The organisation must ensure that the programmes that are being delivered to the employees are useful and prove to cater to the developmental needs of the workers.

  23. The time limit of the training programme was sufficient.

    42% respondents feel that the time limit of the training programme was adequate but 35% feel that it was insufficient. Also, 13% could not comment on the question.


    All the respondents though felt that increase in time limit of the programmes would certainly be advantageous and the organization should take some steps in this direction. It is in favour of worker to take more time to learn and company must provide with this.

  25. The time limit of the training programme, if increased would make it more effective.

    65% respondents feel that the increase in the duration of the training programmes would be beneficial but 25% differ to this opinion.


    Going by the majority, the organisation should make required changes to increase the duration of the programmes and also take the opinion of the workers to have an effective training session.

  27. The training was effective in improving your on-the-job efficiency.

    62% respondents believe that the training programmes increase their job efficiency but 25% disagree to this.


    According to the respondents opinion that having current topics for the training programmes and also some sessions by an external faculty would help them increase their on the job efficiency.

  29. The training aids used were effective in improving the overall effectiveness of the programme.

    35% respondents believe that the training aids were effective in improving the overall efficiency of the programme. Contrary to this, 35% disagree and 30% could not comment on the issue.


    The organization should make certain positive awareness about the training aids. Also, the use of better presentation aids should be facilitated.

  31. The number of training programmes organized for workers in a year is sufficient.

    33% respondents believe that the numbers of training programmes organized in a year are sufficient, but a majority of 57% disagrees to this.


    The organisation should guarantee multiple programmes for the workers and hence enable them in improving their skills and knowledge.

  33. The participation of workers in training programme would help increase its effectiveness.

    72% respondents feel that participative and interactive training session could provide more awareness and knowledge in a small span of time as compared to classroom teaching. 13% respondents could not comment on this and 15% disagree to it.


    The training programme can be more attractive and easier to learn for the employees if use some art, case studies, etc

Chapter 5

Finding & Conclusion

After going through the whole research, based on the academic literature collected about employee training with the supporting articles and with a research outcome, the researcher has been able to identify the importance and benefits of employee training. The research also emphasized on elaborating the need for employee training for the organisation in order to compete in the global market effectively.

This report gives us a deep insight into the performance of body shop as a classic example, that shows sound efficient and employee friendly policies can help the organisation not only to grow but also to perform competitively with the best in the field.

Body shop has non- discriminatory policy for hiring & treatment of personnel and employees in the work place. Body shop has strict policy statement forbidding child labour, its human resource policies support diversity and prevent harassment, body shop inform its people about changes in and give training according to the occurrence of change in organisation, as body shop has won many achievements in terms of charity work, but these achievement had lot to do with HR policies in terms of training and development, rewarding, benefits and making the employee feel his/her self worth in achieving specified goals of the organisation.

In this current global turmoil where many companies has made their employee redundant, where as the body shop has once again proved that it is employee friendly and an ethical organisation. According to the researcher the internal and external training programmes are designed in such a way that there is no any pressure or difficulty to understand the given tasks.

Human resource at body shop believes in learning by doing. Therefore enough arrangements are made at the organisation to impart training to the staff. It can take the shape of internal (in- house) or external training to the staff depending on the specific needs of targeted audience. Body shop employees are made to do the things so that they get firsthand experience, this shows the given preference to the employee and also the freedom to their work.

Body shop is one of the organisation in fashion industry that has achieved and won the hearts of people through training contributed not only employees but also of community at large. Body shop organises social investment project and many people from cross- section of society gets benefited from it. The concept of big organisation involve not only the producing excellent products but also involve in community welfare has had a very positive impact on the image of its growth. It had fight against those non ethical companies in such a way animal testing, but also against chemical testing.

Furthermore concluding the main research topic the researcher came across different findings and conclusions mentioned as under, as these conclusions are done based on the data analysis in the previous chapter.

Transferring the information and knowledge to employees and equipping them to transform that information and knowledge into exercise with a view to enhancing organization effectiveness productivity, and the quality of the management of people. It also refers to the organizational development, in the related field of training and development.

Primary objectives

Can employee training, increase the sales of cosmetic industry in London?

In answer to the above question researcher has concluded; yes, employee training is essential as a strategy of any organisation, to help the companies in gaining a competitive advantage over their competitors, which is done in certain ways mentioned below. These points are drawn as accordingly after conducting a thorough research on one of the cosmetic industry operating in London named The Body Shop.

Competitive position: 1st it helps the organization to take part to the development of a country's human capital, through its influence on educational policies and training.

Secondly it provides an important service to members, especially in industrial relations in respect of which sources of training for employees in developing countries are few.

Third, it helps companies own staff members to improve their knowledge without which they will not be able to offer training to their own staff.

Fourth, the knowledge required for training helps to increase the quality of other services provided by the organisation.

Fifth, it contributes towards improved human relations at the corporate level, by matching corporate goals and management policies.

Finally, it improves the overall image of the organization.

Competitive position in terms of Employees: Considering the expansion of the business of cosmetic industry, they get a competitive edge over the other their local companies by having a large number of employees in order to meet the requirement of their clients. In order to gain maximum outcome the employees are paid competitive wages along with the other facilities in order to make sure that they retain their employees. Hence having a large number of employees having job satisfaction helps the organisation in getting a competitive advantage over other firms.

Is it beneficial to develop the competencies of employee's and improve their performance?

The research on employee has been conducted by keeping the Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

According to Maslow that we have a hierarchy of needs, beginning with (a) basic needs for food, shelter, then (b) needs for safety and security, (c) needs for love and belonging, (d) the need for self esteem, and (e) the need for self- actualisation. We cannot meet the higher-order needs until the lower ones are met. A hungry or fearful person will not recognize yet their need for self-actualisation.

According to the researcher that the most of the companies have adopted the "employee training" as a core issue of their main aim or their policy for the betterment of their organization in terms of doing a good business. Many business's have found out that without having a skilled or literate employee's will not help the organization to grow globally as it has become the basic requirement in this global world.

In today's economy, if businesses aren't learning, then it's going to fall behind, and a business learns when its people learn. Because employees are the ones that produce, protect, deliver and manage the products or services every day.

It is cleared by the researcher that giving preferences to employees they feel responsible and motivated which help them to improve their performance and deliver good services to their clients.

Employee loyalty: companies easily win the hearts of their employees and loyalty. Employee becomes so much loyal with their employer's organization so they spend their heart and soul to make their company stand out in the corporate world.

Behavioral improvement: employee become so sensible and responsible as they feel that they have something which their organization sees in them and alternatively they feel as an asset of that organization in which they are working which directly reflects their positive performance and the impact of their performance on the business.

Is it helpful for the people to grow within the organisation in which they are working?

According to the researcher that skilled and trained employee is a desire of every organization to gain a competitive advantage over their competitors in the economic world. Of course it is helpful for the people or employee's to grow within the organization in which they are working as employee gets more motivated and they have knowledge, skills, and loyalty with the organization it is a definite a helpful for the organization too to have a trained people in their business who can deliver a positive image and can add values to the services given by the organization. If the people are well trained and have the knowledge so they can easily maintain their juniors plus can easily fulfill their given tasks effectively.

Every successful training and development program includes a elements that addresses companies current and future leadership needs. At its core, these elements provide the systematic identification and development of managers in terms of the leadership style that drives the business and makes it exceptional and profitable.

Plus another thing was pointed out by the researcher is that the current scenario is most of the businesses are doing outsourcing & out source economy is here to stay. However, the reality is that some may soon need to consider outsourcing. Whenever it happens, they will want a workforce that isadaptable, and prepared to participatein organization at a new level of competitiveness

Conversely, according to the current scenario of outsource economy the company's intelligent & active employees right now are developing the skills. These motivated, talented people are the last ones businesses can afford to lose.

Secondary research objectives

What can employee training do for multinational organisations in London?

As employers alwaysneed to develop a new relationship with the people they invite time to time to join them in their working environment. If organisation's goal is a superior and high performance workforce that is focused on continuous improvement, then they need to manage their people within a performance management and development framework.

Employees as Assets

The concept of "employees as assets" requires that companies must create and maintain a culture of interdependence, where employees feel safe and valued in equal measure. This type of environment has little control for human assets, but it places attention on systems that inform the organisation of what are the needs of their young and talented workforce, now and in the immediate future. Plenty of attention is given to attractandselect the right people, and helping to develop them, and understanding the full scope of their capabilities. Employees are the main asset of any business. If employers are kind over their people then it is understood that organisation have a distinct competitive advantage.

What knowledge & skills an employee should have or need for the betterment of an organisation?

According to the conducted research it has been analysed by the researcher that training in any organisation is very essential in any kind of business to grow at local or international level. Employees are the main asset of an organisation, even more than their business policy. Business is only successful when its employees are happy with the management and employees are getting what they need in terms of training and development and have knowledge about their organisation and production. It has to be crystal clear for the new or old or senior employees that what exactly the aim of their organisation is.

Employees need to be familiar with the working environment and awareness with the company's policies. Employees have to have the tools of desired to do, in which their positive behaviour counts. According to the research by the researcher it has been analysed that knowledge and skills may vary according to the situation or demand of that specific role. Different kind of techniques and knowledge or skills can be delivered by the organisations in such case of demand or requirement by the role. Employees' knowledge and skills can directly benefit the organisation expansion.


Furthermore concluding the main research topic the researcher came across with different recommendations mentioned as under.

Firstly, by creating a learning culture in the business, employers must begin by clearly communicating their expectations and aim of their vision. So that employees should take the necessary steps to polish their skills to stay on top of their professions or fields of work. Employers must make sure that they support employee's efforts in area of their need by supplying the resources they need to accomplish the goal.

Second, proper communication is the most important aspect of any business to hold footstep in the market. Employer's communication with their employees has to be clear about specific training needs and targeted results.

Third, employers must provide their employees with a sound introduction and orientation of company's culture, including the learning culture to any new employees they hire. This orientation should introduce employees to their company, and provide them with proper training in the successful procedures company develop and learned over time.


Discrimination at work place: The researcher concluded his research that the problem is the discrimination at the work place, because of wrong image /perception about other ethnicities. But elaborating this point, a further research can be done in order to highlight the reasons for having discrimination within the organisation. As it could involve a number of different issues, which can broaden the scope of the research.

This further study can help in finding out a much furnished answer in elaborating the main cause of having problems in organisation.

In this research the researcher tried to include each and every aspect of the research topic on which the data was gathered and then analysed so as to generate a better understanding of the topic, there were few points brought under the consideration which were predicted to be the problem areas in employee training. One of the reasons which can be brought under further consideration is mentioned below. Gone are the days when training was a 2 hour process on the first day of the job. Training & Development has transformed from an add-on function to a core function of companies. It has become more of a science with systematic rules and formats guiding the companies on how to go about training and development. And that is the way it should be.

Training and development is a very important for both the trainer and the trainee. The trainer (the company) would want to make its staff more efficient in this highly competitive world.

It would want its employees to know the latest trends and technologies and to use them according to the company's principles and objectives. The trainees (staff) on the other hand, view training and development as a stepping stone for enriching their career and fulfilling their personal needs. Training and development is another face of education. So, it's more of a mutual necessity and agreement between the companies and their employees when it comes to training and development.

The future would demand more from the employees as well as the companies in terms of productivity. New technology, multi-tasking, group culture, etc. will be more emphasized upon.

This means training and development is going to be even more important, complex and rigorous. Companies already predict this and are already in preparations to make their staff better equipped. By saying this researcher concludes his report with the following words,

"Education ends with school but learning ends with life."

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