The first and most objective of our study is comparative study of consumers buying behavior regarding the different brands of cars. The studies of consumer behavior and personality traits are the most important factors for marketing of any goods and services. The consumer behavior suggest how individual, groups and organization select, buy, use and dispose of goods, services, ideas or experience to satisfy their needs and wants. It also clues for improving or introducing products or services, setting price, devising channels etc. Since liberalization 100% FDI is allowed in India. This has attracted many foreign companies to penetrate the Indian market. The marketers always look for emergent trends that suggest new marketing opportunities and here in India a lot of opportunities are available. In this report I m doing a study of consumer behavior and their personality traits that how these traits effect there buying decision in case of different brands of cars.
My report shows different types of personality traits of a consumer or customer. That how these personality traits are effects the decision of buying behavior of a person. Buying behavior of a person shows his personality traits towards the product.
Consumer behavior is the study of when, why, how, what, and where people do or do not buy products. It blends elements from psychology, sociology, social, anthropology and economics. It attempts to understand the buyer decision making process, both individually and in groups. It studies characteristics of individual consumers such as demographics and behavioral variables in an attempt to understand people's wants. It also tries to assess influences on the consumer from groups such as family, friends, reference groups, and society in general.
The term consumer behavior can be defined, as, 'the behavior that the consumer display in searching for, purchasing, using and evaluating products, services and ideas, which they expect, will satisfy their needs'. The study of consumer behavior enables marketers to understand and predict consumer behavior in the market place; it also promotes understanding of the role that consumption plays in the lives of individuals. Consumer behavior refers to all psychological social and physical behavior of potential consumers as they become aware of, evaluate, purchase and consume and tell others about products and services. Customer behavior study is based on consumer buying behavior, with the customer playing the three distinct roles of user, payer and buyer. Relationship marketing is an influential asset for customer behavior analysis as it has a keen interest in the re-discovery of the true meaning of marketing through the re-affirmation of the importance of the customer or buyer. A greater importance is also placed on consumer retention, customer relationship management, personalization, customization and one-to-one marketing. Social functions can be categorized into social choice and welfare functions. The most important characteristic of a social function is identification of the interactive effect of alternatives and creating a logical relation with the ranks.
A person who purchase or has the capacity to purchase the goods of service often for sale by the marketing firm in order to satisfy personal need and desires.
Consumer decision making process
The decision processes and acts of final household consumers associated with evaluating, buying, consuming, and discarding products for personal consumption. Consider the purchase an automobile. You generally will not consider different options until some event triggers a need, such as a problem needing potentially expensive repair. Once this need has put you "on the market", you begin to ask your friends for recommendations regarding dealerships and car models. After visiting several dealerships, you test drive several models and finally decide on a particular model. After picking up your new car, you have doubts on the way home, wondering if you can afford the monthly payments, but then begin to wonder if instead you should have purchased a more expensive but potentially more reliable model. Over the next five years, the car has several unexpected breakdowns that lead you to want to purchase a different brand, but you have been very happy with the services of the local dealership and decide to again purchase your next car there. In this particular case, the following generic model of consumer decision making appears to hold:
evaluation of alternatives
post purchase behavior
Factor effecting consumer buying
Internal influences Consumer behavior is influenced by: demographics, psychographics (lifestyle), personality, motivation, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings. Consumer behavior concern with consumer need consumer actions in the direction of satisfying needs leads to his behavior of every individual depend on thinking process
External influences Consumer behavior is influenced by: culture, sub-culture, locality, royalty, ethnicity, family, social class, reference groups, lifestyle, and market mix factors.
Personality traits of consumer
Introduction to Personality Traits
Allport and Odbert (1936, cited in Funder, 2001) found 17,953 words to describe the way people are psychologically different from each other (e.g. shy, trustworthy, laconic, phlegmatic, kind, conscientious, anxious, etc.). All these words describe personality traits. Trait approach tries to synthesize and formalize these traits in order to explain and predict behavior.
Underlying questions driving the trait approaches to personality include:
- What traits is basic/essential to personality?
- How many are there?
- How do we find out?
Note that labeling of traits is subjective: hence different theorists label similar or same traits using different words. Also, look for the meaning that underlies the trait, rather than simply at the name. Similar traits have been given different labels by different theorists (e.g., neuroticism and emotional stability usually refer to the same trait).
Personality Traits: Idiographic vs. Nomothetic
However the whole issue of whether a trait exists in all people to a greater or lesser degree is complicated by different views of the trait perspective.
There are two different views as to whether all traits exist in all people:
- Idiographic: people have unique personality structures; thus some traits are more important in understanding the structure of some people than others
- Nomothetic: people's unique personalities can be understood as them having relatively greater or lesser amounts of traits that are consistently across people.
The Big Five Personality Traits
In contemporary psychology, the "Big Five" factors of personality are five broad domains or dimensions of personality which have been scientifically discovered to define human personality at the highest level of organization These five over-arching domains have been found to contain and subsume more-or-less all known personality traits within their five domains and to represent the basic structure behind all personality traits. They have brought order to the often-bewildering array of specific lower-level personality concepts that are constantly being proposed by psychologists, which are often found to be overlapping and confusing. These five factors provide a rich conceptual framework for integrating all the research findings and theory in personality psychology. The big five traits are also referred to as the "Five Factor Model" and as the Global Factors of personality
The Big Five model is considered to be one of the most comprehensive, empirical, data-driven research findings in the history of personality psychology. Identifying the traits and structure of human personality has been one of the most fundamental goals in all of psychology. Over three or four decades of research, these five broad factors were gradually discovered and defined by several independent sets of researchers. These researchers began by studying all known personality traits and then factor-analyzing hundreds of measures of these traits in order to find the basic, underlying factors of personality.
The Big Five Personality Traits
The Big Five factors and their constituent traits can be summarized as follows:
- Conscientiousness. You're organized and disciplined, dedicated and loyal - especially at work. Excellent performances and strong commitments are standard. Of all the Big Five Personality Traits, this one will take you far in your career. a tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement; planned rather than spontaneous behavior.
- Agreeableness. You're friendly, pleasant and easy to be around; your relationships are mostly strong. You're a social creature, and get your energy from being around other people. This Big Five Personality Trait opens many doors! a tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others
- Neuroticism. You feel anxiety, and you worry often. Your anxiety can make you emotionally unstable, and you're more likely to struggle with depression and sadness. This Big Five Personality Trait can lead to physical ill health. a tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily, such as anger, anxiety, depression, or vulnerability.
- Openness. You love adventures and trying new things; you're insightful and imaginative. Creativity adds spice to your life, and you're not afraid to take risks. People with this Big Five Personality Trait are often risk takers appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, curiosity, and variety of experience.
- Extroversion. You're assertive, talkative, and don't mind being the centre of attention. Being alone isn't your favorite activity; in fact, the more the merrier. This Big Five Personality Trait is found in extroverts all over the world Energy, positive emotions, urgency, and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others.
Review of Literature
The Customer Perception Report includes questions in four key areas, Expectations, Purchase Decisions, Customer Service, and Future Purchases. So the customer should be invited to participate in the survey. Setting realistic expectations during the sales process is a vital component of making happy customers. How a company sets and meets product and service expectations plays a pivotal role in fashioning customer opinions. How a company meets or exceeds expectations is measured in three important areas: product/service, support, and price. These three areas will be used to factor a score for the Expectations category. The results of the three questions will be used to factor an overall expectations perception score.
motiveThe Purchase Decision category gives us a better understanding of how the customer perceives the purchase process. Two key areas for questions include an open ended question on why they purchased and a ratings question on their experience. The rating Question data will be used for the analysis of Purchase Decision category. The open ended responses from the "Why" questions will be used for product strengths analysis. The results of the purchase experience question will be used for the overall Purchase perception analysis. Customer service is one of the most important differentiations a company can have. For this report, customers will rate a company in three key areas: customer service, timeliness for problem resolution, and expertise. These three areas will be used to factor a score for the Customer Service category.
automobile Industry in india
In India there are 100 people per vehicle, while this figure is 82 in China. It is expected that Indian automobile industry will achieve mass motorization status by 2014.
Overview of car industry
Since the first car rolled out on the streets of Mumbai (then Bombay) in 1898, the Automobile Industry of India has come a long way. During its early stages the auto industry was overlooked by the then Government and the policies were also not favorable. The liberalization policy and various tax reliefs by the Govt. of India in recent years has made remarkable impacts on Indian Automobile Industry. Indian auto industry, which is currently growing at the pace of around 18 % per annum, has become a hot destination for global auto players like Volvo, General Motors and Ford. A well developed transportation system plays a key role in the development of an economy, and India is no exception to it. With the growth of transportation system the Automotive Industry of India is also growing at rapid speed, occupying an important place on the 'canvas' of Indian economy. Today Indian automotive industry is fully capable of producing various kinds of vehicles and can be divided into 03 broad categories: Cars, two-wheelers and heavy vehicles.
A brand is a name, term, symbol, design or a combination of them which is intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors.
Major Manufacturers in Automobile Industry
- Maruti Udyog Ltd.
- General Motors India
- Ford India Ltd.
- Eicher Motors
- Bajaj Auto
- Daewoo Motors India
- Hero Motors
- Hindustan Motors
- Hyundai Motor India Ltd.
- Royal Enfield Motors
- TVS Motors
- Swaraj Mazda Ltd
Objectives of my study
- To study how personality traits affect the consumer buying behavior towards the cars.
- To know the relationship between consumer buying behavior and different branded product (cars).
The research will be done through survey method. The collection of data will be done through questionnaire, interview and related websites. The sample size taken for this research is 50 customers those who are having cars. The area of this survey consists of Ludhiana city. The collection of data will be done with the help of a structured questionnaire. The designing of questionnaire needs precision and classification of the subject, so that the respondents can easily understand the question and can answer it sincerely and correctly.
To study buying behavior of consumer for different brands of cars which shows that how personality trait effect the buying decision.
Sources of Data
Primary data consists of original information for the specific purpose at hand. It is first hand information for the direct users of respondents. The tool used to collect the data is questionnaire.
The sample size taken for this research is 50 customers having car.
Convenient Sampling technique is used for this term paper.
Data Collection Tool
Questionnaires will be used as the primary form of collecting data.
Scope of the study
It is aimed to study the car market and buying behavior of the customer. The project is analyzed the demographic, psychographic and buying characteristics of the customers in buying the car. It includes the detailed study of customers focusing on the various parameters that lead to identifying and understanding the perception of the customer in buying the car brands.
Significance of the study
A brand is a set of expectations and associations evoked from company or product. A brand is how key constituents- customers, employees etc. experiences what you do. Some brands are of such great importance to people, that we speak of them as a part of one's life and identity, being used to express one. Some would say that these brands have their own personality, the brand perception, which can be defined as the set of human characteristics associated with a given brand. Because many people interact with brand as though they were other people, it is important to understand what a brand perception consists of, and how its characteristics can be used to affect the relationship between the brands and its users. Knowing and understanding the brand perception gives a good insight into this relationship, and into peoples' attitudes towards the brand, and is also an important guide to communicating the brand.
Like apparel and lifestyles brands, a car is extension of one's perception. People buy cars which either matches their personalities or those which provide them opportunities of being perceived as somebody they aspire to be. This becomes significant as consumers move up the value chain from small compact cars to midsize and upwards.
Whenever you want to purchase a car, the price of car plays a very important role in your decision making. It is shown from the above figures and pie chart that in survey of 50 persons 30 persons are strongly agreed that price plays a very important role in buying behavior of car. It can change the decision of customer.
As per my question you take suggestion from your family members? The data shows that 90% persons are strongly agreed on this statement that they are taking advice and suggestion from their family members while purchasing a car. Because it is a tradition in India that family's choice is important than an individual member like in data 40 persons says strongly agree but remaining 10also agree. There is no single one who is in favour of disagrees.
My next question is about status symbol in my questionnaire. This for the reason to confirm that is car affects your status life or we can say your society culture. 34 persons say that yes car makes a effect in their status symbol. But in my case 5 persons says that no it does not matter for their status symbol. It is for their necessity of life.
Income level, this is the fourth question analysis in my report. This is important because of the car purchasing is depending upon the income power of a person. If the person is earning more than they will buy a luxury car if the income is low then they will buy a small or medium car. The data show 42 persons are strongly agreed that income of a customer is very much effective part in buying behavior of a consumer or a customer. But 8 persons are says that the income of the person is not effecting. Because of the finance facility is available in the market.
In case of the car the technology is the very important part of a car. If the technology of a car is effective, than that will be the first preference of the customer. Customer wants the best technology in their car. It shows the forward looking trait of a customer. In data 10 persons are strongly agreed and 22 are agreed that the technology is very important in the case of car. It should be new technology. 10 are neutral that there is no effect of technology it may be new or old. But 8 persons are disagree that technology is not important when they buying a car.
In the figures the data shows that 31 persons are strongly agreed and 5 persons are agreed that the advertisement and promotion of cars or any other product can change the decision of a customer. Advertisement and promotion effect there personality trait, like the celebrity of an advertisement are very effective they can attract the people very easily. Customers are attractive more towards the advertisement and promotion of the product.
Installment payment facility is a factor which increases the sale of dealers. It effects the decision to purchase a car. It provides a facility to customer for purchasing a car at easy finance. 33 persons are strongly agreed and 5 persons are agreed that installment provides them easy finance for purchasing a car. It shows the personality of a buyer that they want easy finance to fulfill their needs. Customer wants comfort in everything.
Easy availability of spare parts, this question shows the personality of a person that he/ she is not only thinking in the present but also look forward for the future of the product. 20 persons are strongly agreed and 12 persons are agreed that they are thinking about the spare parts of the car when they purchase a car. If the spare parts of a car are easily available then they give preference to that car.
Mileage is another aspect for buying a car. It also shows the personality and the income of the person. In the data 35 persons are strongly agreed and 10 persons are agreed that mileage is very much required in the car. But in case of disagree there are also 5 persons who says that there is no problem of mileage. The look of car is more important than the mileage of the car.
In this looks and safety also is very important in the case of buying a car. The data shows that 42 persons say that when they are going to buy a car they also prefer the looks and safety also in the car. This shows the personality of a person. The look of car is very from person to person. So personality trait affects the decision of a customer very much.
This question shows that the family need and requirement of a person that means the family need for a car affect the decision power of a customer. If there is needs for a car only then a person buy it, 38 persons are agreed on this statement. Remaining persons are also agreed and there is no any single person, who says that family need not affect the decision of customer.
some findings regarding my report
Every project faces some limitation; because of this limitation the required and necessary data to complete the project may not gather in proper manner. Limitation provides opportunity to another person who again works on this topic. The limitations which we observe were as follows:
- With respect to actual population the sample size was too small. This is only 50 samples. This might be effect the final result.
- Since the responses were only from some part of Ludhiana, the report cannot be generalized for whole Ludhiana. Because of lack of time.
- Respondents may have given bias information. They are not giving true information about their income. This effect the report.