Literature review is an inclusive discussion of the variables and findings of the previous research. In this chapter, journals papers and other publications related to the study are being reviewed and the various variables which were tested in this industry are being discussed. It is a comprehensive identification and presentation of all works carried out in the area of the research. In this study, we will discuss about the effectiveness of internet advertising and follow by the consumer characteristics that influence the effectiveness of advertising. Beside that, this section will focus on the definition, factors, impacts and relationships between consumer characteristic and effectiveness of advertising. Last but not least, the previous studies on effectiveness of advertising will be discussed under each consumer characteristics.
Effectiveness of Internet Advertising
Levy and Malaviya (1999) indicated that effectiveness of advertising is "persuasion does not rest within advertising messages per se and it depends on certain mental processes that as ad recipient invokes". Generally, advertising effectiveness is described as being "a hierarchy of effects" (Vakratas and Amber, 1999). In the other word, changes of consumer perceptions by the information in the advertisement will lead to a change in their behaviors.
There are a variety of studies conducted by researchers focusing on effectiveness of internet advertising and the practitioners have long sought to understand how internet advertising works. Many literatures have detailed evidences that web characteristics influenced the effectiveness of advertising. For instance, Bruner and Kumar (2000) studied the components of web page as well as web design and similarly Cho (1999) studied on the advertising content design. In their research, they revealed the relationship between web characteristics and effectiveness of internet advertising. Based on their findings, they established that web characteristics influence the effectiveness of internet advertising. Numerous of measures have been suggested to empirically evaluate internet advertising effectiveness however there are lack of research focus on the consumer characteristics. The research examined the consumer characteristics towards effectiveness of internet is limited consequently the influence of consumer characteristic will be the central attention of this research.
According to the previous research, the role of consumer in determining the effects and effectiveness of advertising is highlighted as a result of growing interactive advertising (Pavlou and Stewart, 2000). In the study, they mentioned how the effects and effectiveness of advertising are evaluated and various measures are interpreted which is associated with the role of consumer.
Pavlou and Stewart (2000) established that measures of advertising effectiveness can be categorized into two broad sets. Yet these two broad sets are complementary views to the role of advertising. Media choice, information search, attention to and processing of information are focused in first set of the measures. These measures are built with important construct of consumers' values, goals, and purposes. Awareness, recall, attitude, and product choice are among the second set of measures established by Pavlou and Stewart (2000) which focus on the effects of consumers using interactive media. All these measures in the later set not only result of exposure to advertising but also outcomes of choices made by the consumers.
According to Wu (2001), there is a six-step hierarchy of effect model: awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction and purchase to measure the advertising effectiveness. Alternatively, Palanisamy and Wong (2003) suggested numerous forms of dimension can be used to measure the effectiveness of advertising such as attitude formation, familiarity, recall and recognition. Similarly, Ives and Olson (1984) indicated a more inclusive and precise assessment is to be presented by consumer interaction. Therefore, these measures are the joint result or interaction of the consumer and the advertising (Punj and Stewart, 1983). Consumer characteristics that influence the effectiveness of advertising are the essential attention in this research and they are measured based on the attitude formation, familiarity, recall and recognition.
To understand the consumer characteristics that influence the effectiveness of advertising, plenty of researches have been carried out to seek for the aspects that affect the effectiveness of internet advertising. Consumer expectations have been found to be a significant determinant of internet advertising effectiveness (Palanisamy and Wong, 2003). Expectation to the advertisement can be in the form of positive, negative and neutral which might manipulate the effectiveness of advertising. Refer to the research conducted by Lafferty and Goldsmith (2002), consumer attitudes affect the response of the consumer towards the advertisement. Better recall is resulted from positive attitude towards the advertisement and vice versa. Brand preference and purchase behavior is predicted by the attitude towards the advertisement (Mitchell, 1986).
Moreover, consumer innovativeness plays an important role in determining the effectiveness of internet advertising. Consumer innovativeness affects the consumer actions of viewing and engaging in the internet advertising (Venkatraman, 1991). Additionally, consumer perceived usefulness also serve as a critical aspect in advertising effectiveness. Palanisamy and Wong (2003) claimed that effectiveness of advertising is affected by consumer perceived usefulness.
Beside that, one of the major variables that are significant to advertising effectiveness is the level of consumer involvement (Laurent and Kapferer, 1985). According to Stewart and Ward (1994), advertising effectiveness can be enhanced by consumer involvement. Likewise, consumer satisfaction and performance in the other information system can be improved by the consumer involvement and participation (McKeen, Gulmaraes and Wetherbe, 1994).
Refer to the previous research, several outcomes of effectiveness of advertising have been established. Based on the research conducted by Shankar and Hollinger (2007), they claimed that nearly 10% of the computer monitors' area is occupied by the web banner advertisements which allow the consumer to click through. In addition, web banner advertising creates a trace of exposure with the consumer who serves the website and increases the consumer recall of the advertising as well as the brand (Drze and Hussherr, 2003). When one is exposed to continuous stimuli his or her recall is higher (Craik and Lockhart, 1972).
Gaffney (2001) noted that internet advertising is effective in generating sales. The content of the internet advertising is generally trusted by the consumer as compare to an advertisement in general (Schlosser, Shavitt and Kanfer, 1999). In addition, Goldsmith and Lafferty (2002) found out that consumers are more likely to get the information from the internet advertising for example the phone number listed in the internet advertising before they make purchases. This proposed that internet advertising has the potential to facilitate sales. Customers are drawn into viewing and purchasing the product by successful advertisement (Weilbacher, 2003). Regardless of whether the consumers click the web banner advertising or not, the opportunity of purchase increased when the advertising is viewed (Briggs and Hollis, 1997).
On the other hands, there are researchers who doubt on the effectiveness of internet advertising. There are some researches show that internet advertising is more powerful, responsive and customizable than traditional media but Hoffman and Novak (1996) noted that the empirical evidence show consumers respond to the internet advertising is in the identical way when respond to the more traditional media. For instance, the response to internet advertising is similar to other media advertising (Schlosser, et al., 1999) yet internet advertising has the exemption that is easy to ignore (Drze and Hussherr, 1999). Besides, many researchers claimed that internet advertising is not effective due to web based banner with low click through rates, insufficient useful information and the information appeared to confuse the consumers (Mathews, 2000). O'Connell (2001) claimed that the internet advertising failed to communicate brand building information and did not connect to any meaningful results such as sales and profits.
Moreover, several studies have been carried out to examine this issue. Findings showed that the most common internet advertising, banner advertising is negligible in its effectiveness (Green and Elgin, 2001). Additionally, in the study done by Goldsmith and Lafferty (2002) indicated that banner advertisement may get lost in the clutter while pop-ups and interstitials are seem to be interfering. Therefore, these internet advertising is able to create awareness but does not ensure effectiveness. Similarly, Ducoffe (1996) identified that irritation as one of the determinants that affect consumer attitudes which in turn affect the effectiveness of advertising.
In order to clarify the ambiguity of internet advertising effectiveness, this study is carried out for a better authentication. The effectiveness of internet advertising will be revealed in this study by examined the consumer characteristics in detail. It will focus on the consumer characteristics that influence and affect the effectiveness of internet advertising.
The concept of consumer expectations in the marketing literature has a rich theoretical and empirical history. Many researchers have done their studies in this subject area and come out with varied but related definitions. Cardozo (1965) defined consumer expectations as guideline for product evaluations while Woodruff, Cadotte and Jenkins (1983) described it as predictions of what will be received. Similarly, Oliver (1980) indicated that consumer expectations are "prediction make by consumers concerning what they believe will be the outcome of an exchange.
Besides that, consumer expectations are also explained as standards for specific brand evaluation by Cadotte, Woodruff and Jenkins (1987). In the later research, Zaithami, Berry and Parasuraman (1993) defined consumer expectations as standards for comparison to subsequent purchase experience. Furthermore, interaction between consumers and business is accelerated by expectations (Clow and Beisel, 1995). Planisamy and Wong (2003) indicated that the expectations towards the advertising, product or brand name can be in forms of positive, negative or neutral expectations.
On the other hand, there are various levels of consumer expectations which suggested by Miller (1977). Boulding, Kalra, Staelin, and Zeithaml (1993) indicated that the levels of expectations are divided into two which are higher desired or normative level ("should" level) and a lower realistic or tolerable adequate level ("will" level). Consumer standard of what is deserved next is said to be the "should" level while consumer prediction based on the reality of what the consumer expect will happened next is portrait by "will" level (Licata, Chakraborty, and Krishnan, 2008). In particular, some of the studies found that multiple comparison standards are used by the consumers (Boulding et al., 1993). Furthermore, consumers used expectations as benchmarks to determine satisfaction (Cadotte et al., 1987; Churchill and Suprenant, 1982).
In addition, Boulding et al. (1993) and distinguished that consumer experiences with a product or service as well as getting new information regarding the product or service will modify and adjust the consumer expectations. Evaluation or appraisal of performance practice which may manipulate service quality and satisfaction is the beginning step of consumer expectations process (Bolton and Drew, 1991).
There are a number of studies have been conducted to examine consumer expectations and most of the researchers agree that consumer evaluation of service performance and satisfaction impact by the prior expectations of the consumer before encounter the service (Bitner, 1990; Parasuraman et al., 1985). Therefore, consumer expectations will have influential effects to the consumers during the process of decision making.
According to Clow and Beisel (1995), consumer expectations are mainly focus on price, quality of service and interaction from the provider. Relation of the pre, duration or post phase of the decision making towards an advertisement is determining by the above measurements (Palanissamy and Wong, 2003) When the consumers are stimulated by the advertisement, it induces consumer expectations toward the product and this process will indirectly affect their purchase intention.
Previous studies on consumer expectations and effectiveness of internet advertising
Palanisamy and Wong (2003) examined the relationship between consumer expectation and effectiveness of advertising. According to Palanisamy and Wong (2003), when the consumer has a sense in what they believe is a quality price, quality of service, quality of interaction of the service and image of the business is explained as their expectation. When consumer expectations increase or decrease that effectiveness of advertising would change accordingly as this is a proportional relationship.
Prior study addressed that encouragement for the consumers to click for further viewing the advertisement is support by expectation of the consumers after screening the advertisement quality (Li and Bukovac, 1999). Consequently, the effectiveness of advertising is facilitated by consumer expectations (Palanisamy and Wong, 2003). Therefore, there is a positive relationship between consumer expectations and effectiveness of internet advertising.
According to Tomsen and Faith (2003), growing capabilities of interactive devices and fuel innovation set the consumer expectations. Consumer will develop new expectations about the new technology itself, services and network that support the technology. Acceleration of the development of the new technology and service providers is to fulfill the need of consumer shifting expectations. Likewise, evolution of technology is derived from the interactive consumer expectations. In this context, evolution of technology is seemed as evolution of internet advertising. Quality, reliability, convenience, attractive appearance and superior technology are the expectations of the consumers. In other words, when consumers enter the digital environment they expect distinctive value and experience (Cleary, 1999). Based on the above discussion, showed that effectiveness of advertising is influenced by consumers expectation.
Attitude plays an important role in individual behavioral changes (Kimelfeld and Watt, 2001). According to Ajzen and Fishbein (1980), attitude is defined as "a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favourable or unfavourable manner with respect to a given object". It is the mental and physical respond that involve beliefs, feelings, values and predisposition to act in certain ways. Attitude towards the advertising is one of the most influential theories in marketing communication and advertising research (Lutz, 1985). Attitude toward the advertising has been defined as "a preposition to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner to a particular advertising stimulus during a particular exposure occasion" by Lutz (1985). Besides, consumer attitude has been claimed concerned by Sundar and Kim (2005) that focus primarily in online environment. In the present study, Muthaly and Ha (2009) defined attitude toward website as overall feelings with degree of favor towards a particular website.
In the research conducted by Martinez-Lope, Luna and Martinez (2005) suggested two definitions for attitudes towards the internet which are similar. First, it can be defined as a predisposition to respond in a consistently favourable or unfavourable manner to the internet. Second, it was defined as the overall opinion or evaluation that the customer has of this communication medium. Similarly, consumer attitude towards internet advertising determines his or her attitude towards a specific advertisement (Durvasula, Andrews, Lysonski and Netemeyer 1993).
Moreover, belief seems to be an important factor in determining consumer attitude, which in turn elicit behavioral intentions (Davis, 1993). Consequently, when a consumer exposure to an advertising message, his or her attitude towards the product is trigger by one's beliefs (Okazaki, 2006). Therefore, Fish-bein and Ajzen (1975) noted that attitude formation will lead to configuration of behavioral intension. When consumers formed positive attitude towards internet advertising, their intention to know more about and access to the advertising are more likely to increase. Subsequently, consumers' media selection is enhanced by positive motives while negative motives will depress their action (Okazaki, 2006). Furthermore, consumer attitude towards internet and trust in internet shopping is determined by their specific knowledge regarding this medium (Martinez-Lopez, Luna and Martinez, 2005). In their studies, they indicated that online affective is formed by the consumer with high internet knowledge.
Consumer attitude towards the internet can be considered as consumer attitude towards a certain website and specific internet advertising (Brunner and Kumar, 2000; Chen and Wells, 1999; Stevenson, 2000). Refer to the research conducted by Ajzen and Fishbein (1980), attitude toward an advertisement affects consumers' perceptions of brands and purchase intention. However, Suh and Yi (2006) declared that consumer attitude toward brands and purchase intention are directly affected by perception of the advertising. As a result, consumer attitude toward an advertisement and consumers; perception toward advertising is interrelated. In addition, research also showed that behavioral intentions are positively influenced by attitude toward the advertising (Lee, Fiore and Kim, 2006). These behavioral intentions comprise purchase intention, intention to buy, intention to return to virtual site, and intention to recommend online products (Korzaan, 2003).
There is critical criticism on the relationship between consumer attitude and web interactivity. Actual interactivity and perceived interactivity are two types of interactivities that manipulate the relationship between consumer attitude and website (Wu, 2005). Muthaly and Ha (2009) show that perceived interactive has greater positive impact on attitude compare to actual interactivity. Although actual interactivity is less significant in facilitating consumer attitudes, it effect to the website should not be underestimated. In addition, Bruner and Kumar (2000) declared that interestingness has a positive impact on attitudes toward website while complexity has a negative impact. Thus, web designs have significant positive impact on consumer attitude toward the advertisement and intension to purchase.
Previous studies on consumer attitude and effectiveness of internet advertising
Chen and Wells (1999) point out the variable which used to measure the effectiveness of advertising, website and system is consumer attitude. The opinion has been held by the earlier researcher Gibson (1997), claimed that attitude toward advertising is quite measurable. Moreover, ease of building a relationship with a business, website loyalty and e-satisfaction with the site is measured using the consumer attitude (Chen and Wells, 1999). Therefore, positive consumer attitude toward the web site or advertising increase the e-satisfaction, intention to access and the effectiveness. In short, there is a positive correlation between consumer attitude and effectiveness of internet advertising.
Homer (1990) declared that consumer attitude toward the brand as well as their purchase intent is manipulated by the attitudes that are formed toward the advertisement. Likewise, positive attitude to the advertisement will lead to likelihood to purchase, hence advertising effectiveness is indicated by the consumer attitude (Brown and Stayman, 1992). Wokin and Korgaon (2002) indicated that consumer attitude toward the internet advertising is significantly correlated with consumer level of web advertising interest and level of interest in clicking on the site. Consumer attitude will positively influenced the effectiveness of internet advertising.
A model that tests the relationship between attitude-toward-the-website and attitude-toward-the-ad hierarchy is conducted by Bruner and Kumar (2000). In their investigation, results showed that there is positive relationship between attitude toward the Web site and attitude toward the advertisement as well as the brand and purchase intention. Goldsmith and Lafferty (2002) stated that consumer attitude is corresponded to consumer's ability to recall an advertisement. Researchers proposed that an advertisement is more likely to recall if the consumer has positive attitude towards it rather than those who has negative attitude (Donthu, Cherian and Bhargava, 1993). Therefore, this indicated that there is a positive relationship between consumer attitude and effectiveness of advertising.
There are a number of studies have been conducted to examine this subject area and early speculation by Midgley and Dowling (1978); Hirschman (1980) defined consumer innovativeness as the aspiration to find out stimulation and uniqueness from new product. General tendency to search, collect, and distribute novel or original experience ahead of the items are referred as consumer innovativeness (Agarwal and Prasad, 1997; Im, Bayus, and Mason, 2003). Besides that, consumer innovativeness is defined as "precursor to the adoption of new products" (Chau and Hui, 1998). According to the study conducted by Steenkamp Hofstefe and Wedel (1999) a personality construct to identify new product is seem to be consumer innovativeness. In this context, acceptance and adoption of new product is the novelty of the consumers to accept the new form or medium of advertising and its effectiveness.
In the marketing and advertising related fields, there is growing consumer innovativeness concern. Personal and demographic characteristic are determined as the factors of consumer innovativeness (Steenkamp, et al. 1999; Venkatraman 1991; Im, et al. 2003). Demographic seems to be an important factor in determining consumers' innovativeness as marketers identified that various demographic traits play an important role in setting their target market. Refer to the study done by Kolko, Gazala and Strohm (2003), sexuality and gender are declared as significant moderating variable in consumers' innovativeness. However, the relationship between demographics and consumer innovativeness is not in a clear mode (Tellis, Yin and Bell, 2009).
Besides that, studies conducted by Hirschman (1980); Manning, Bearden and Madden (1995) claimed that one of the component of innovativeness is novelty seeking. Novelty seeking has been recognized by Manning, Bearden and Madden (1995) as an influential factor in determining consumers' innovativeness. The opinion has been held by Bagozzi and Dabholkar (2002) and the researchers showed that novelty seeking is positively associated with consumer innovativeness. Hence, he found out that increases in likelihood of consumer trial of technology based product or service is result of novelty seeking. Therefore, consumer innovativeness to click on the wed banner and pop-ups or further explore the internet advertising is indeed depending on their novelty seeking. Moreover, in an advertising processing context, researchers have found out that the path from consumer innovativeness to advertising awareness is relatively strong as well as intention to access (Okazaki, 2007).
Previous studies on consumer innovativeness and effectiveness of internet advertising
Prior study addressed that consumer acceptance of new innovation is affected by consumer innovativeness (Wang, Pallister and Foxall, 2006). In this context, internet advertising can be seen as the new innovation in the advertising phase and the consumer innovativeness will directly influenced the effectiveness of internet advertising. The consumer curiosity and innovative direct the consumer to find more about the product which advertised in the internet advertising. Consequently, consumer innovativeness has significant relationship with effectiveness of internet advertising.
There are empirical results explained that relationship between need for stimulation and innovativeness is positive and significant. Diffusion of innovation is accelerated by consumer innovativeness as the effectiveness of the new product marketing efforts such as promotion and advertising is enhanced (Garber, Goldenberg, Libai and Muller, 2004). Therefore, they indicated that there is a positive relationship between consumer innovativeness and effectiveness of internet advertising.
In addition, previous study declared that domain specific innovativeness and internet usage influence consumer adoption of online shopping (Citrin, Sprott, Silverman and Stem, 2000). Similarly, consumer attitude and intention mediate the relationship between consumer innovativeness and internet shopping behavior (Lumayem, Khalifa, Frini (2002). Despite this study examine on the effectiveness of internet advertising, this theory is applied as the hierarchy of effectiveness of internet advertising is from the stage of awareness formation to familiarity, cognition and finally the intension to access the advertising and induce the purchasing intention. Thus, there is correlated relationship between consumer innovativeness and effectiveness of internet advertising.
Venkatraman (1991) indicated that consumer's preference for novelty and uncommon experiences is facilitated by innovativeness. For the consumer who just engaged in the internet, internet advertising is very new to them and they get uncommon experience by assessing to the internet advertising. Consumer innovativeness drives the consumer tendency to concern about new experience of viewing and engaging in the internet advertising. Similarly, inner motivation which makes the consumer looks for new information is associated with novelty searching (Hirschman, 1980). Going further, a person reacts to a new product or new system; his or her corresponding sensations experiences and communications are influenced by innovativeness (Citrin et al. 2000). Consequently, there is empirical experiment proven that consumer innovativeness influenced the effectiveness of internet advertising.
Consumer perceived usefulness
In the earlier studies, perceived usefulness is defined as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance" (Davis, 1989). Similarly, perceived usefulness is described as the extent to which a person deems a particular system to boost his or her job performance (Mathwick and Rigdon, 2001). Perceived usefulness refers to consumers' perceptions regarding the outcome of the experience (Davis, Bagozzi and Warshaw, 1992). While in the internet advertising perspective, perceived usefulness is "the degree to which an individual believes that using particular advertisement could fulfill their shopping needs" (Palanisamy and Wong, 2003).
Perceived usefulness is one of the components in a framework named technology acceptance model (TAM) which studied user technology acceptance. It has been shown to be one of the determinants of the use of information system (Davis, Bagozzi and Warshaw, 1989). Advertising through internet is regarding as one of the usage of information system thus the component of the model (TAM) can be used to determine the effectiveness of advertising. From the previous study, researchers found out that there is variance (about 40%) in the finding of TAM about the intentions to use and usage behavior of technologies (Vankatesh and Davis, 2000). Therefore, better understanding the factors that influence perceived usefulness in internet adverting has potential to develop an effective of internet advertising. Besides, information and community has been recognized as influential factor which strongly linked with perceived usefulness (Cho and Ha, 2003).
Several studies have been undertaken and there are general evidences proving the perceived usefulness has significant effect on adaptation intention (Chen and Barnes, 2007). Additionally, Tan and Teo (2000) identified perceived usefulness as one of the critical aspect in determining adaptation of innovations. Furthermore, findings derive from earlier researcher point out that attitudes and intention of users of computer technology and interactive media is affected by perceived usefulness, ease of use, self efficacy and a sense of personal control (Davis et al., 1989, 1992).
According to the findings of Liu and Ma (2006), consumers perceived the system is useful and value when there is convenience, time-saving, immediacy and social fulfillment. Raman and Leckenby (1998) noted that consumers have their choices when regarding what, when and how much internet advertising to watch and they have likelihood to decide on the amount of exposure to the internet advertising. If they find the advertising through internet is not useful or do not bring any assistance which mean there is no perceived usefulness, he or she will immediately terminate the visit and consequently affect the effectiveness of the advertising.
Previous studies on consumer perceived usefulness and effectiveness of internet advertising
Moreover, perceived usefulness is claimed to be the most essential predictor of consumers' intention to use a new technology as well as in other setting including consumers' adoption to online tools such as internet advertising and consumers' intention to shop online (Koufaris, 2002). Internet advertising is consider as a new innovation in the aspect of advertising hence perceived usefulness play a vital role in determining the effectiveness of advertising because it appeared as significant aspect in adaptation intention and adaptation innovations. From this we can see that perceived usefulness influenced the used of internet advertising and ultimately there is a relationship between perceived usefulness and effectiveness of internet advertising.
Refer to the earlier marketing study which underlying dimensions of perceived usefulness construct and effectiveness are concerning on consumers perceptions of alternative communication technology (Hauser and Simmie, 1981). The formation of consumer preferences (effectiveness) for the alternative communication technology is influenced by perceived usefulness (Davis, 2001). In this study, internet advertising is view as an alternative communication technology which substitute the traditional way of advertising. In view of that, it demonstrated that perceived usefulness is positively associated with effectiveness. Thus, we can summarize that perceived usefulness evoke positive relationship with effectiveness of internet advertising.
Dias (1998) indicated that perceived usefulness, ease of use and perceived enjoyment are the three concepts that associated with the motives of consumers obtain from viewing an advertisement. Therefore, consumers will attract and keep attention to internet advertising such as web banner if it is relevant (Li and Bukovac, 1999). Palanisamy and Wong (2003) specified that internet advertising that is irrelevant and consumers do not perceived its value and usefulness will obtain less attention. Consequently, perceived usefulness will affect the internet advertising effectiveness and there is a positive relationship between perceived usefulness and effectiveness of internet advertising.
Zaichkowsky (1985, 1994) proposed the concept of personal involvement and indicated it as "individual perceptions of the relevance of an object based on inherent needs, values and interest". Similarly, Maclnnis and Jaworski (1989) defined consumer involvement as "the extent to which a stimulus or task is relevant to the consumer's existing needs and values". Hansen (1981) defines involvement as "variations in the extent to which the individual is more or less motivated toward a specific piece of information, product, or the like". Refer to the study conducted by Pavlou and Stewart (2000), consumer involvement defined as a subjective psychological condition of consumer and their personal relevance that attached to an advertisement or product.
On the other hand, Koufaris (2002) replaced the term "personal involvement" into "product involvement". In his research he used product involvement instead of personal involvement to point out the same concept and defined as "individual motivation regarding an object where that motivational state is activated by the relevance or importance of the object in question. Similary, there are researchers such as Chaudhuri (2000) and Wang, Palister and Foxall (2006) used the term "product involvement" instead of personal involvement to indicate the same concept. However, in this study consumer involvement this term is used to determine the effectiveness of advertising.
Zaichkowsky (1986) proposed that there are three factors that influence the consumer involvement which are personality of individual shopper, physical characteristic of the stimulus and the purchasing situation. This researcher claimed that all these factors influence the consumer involvement with the advertising. According to Petty and Cacioppo (1986), individuals' level of involvement with the products and advertising messages was determined by the personal relevance. In the advertising perspective, several researchers indicated that individuals' cognitive engagement in the advertising is positively related to level of involvement (Petty, Caciopo, and Schumann, 1983). Consequently, advertising will stimulus individuals with higher involvement and get more attention from this group of people compare to those with lower involvement (Celsi and Olson, 1988).
The results of the experiment by Mitchell (1979) showed that involvement is a stated of arousal caused by some antecedents and revealed by some consequences. For instance, the antecedents are personal (needs, values, aims of the subject), situational (e.g. remaining time left to make a decision for purchasing a product) and stimulus related to antecedents (the physical features of a product or the content of the advertisement). While for the consequences is that searching and processing of information is increased.
Howard (1989) declared that the basic criterion before selecting an advertising strategy is examining high versus low involvement situation. Considering consumers involvement is crucial element internet advertising as well as traditional advertising (Barker and Groenne 1996). In addition to the study, Barker and Gronne (1996) point out that creating an advertisement with high entertainment value and high degree of consumer involvement is enhanced by interactivity of the website. The online experience is thought to be more active, participatory and interactive therefore it boosts up the involvement of the consumers in the internet advertising (Mathwick, 2002). Consequently, consumer involvement is significant influence by the online experience.
Furthermore, the most general finding from researchers in this subject area is that advertising can be more responsive and effective when consumers are highly "engaged" with a media vehicle (Nicovich, 2005; Wang, 2006). In this context, "engaged" is similar to consumer involvement which explained the consumers experience the website in a certain way and their belief about how a site fits his or her life. For instance, consumers with high involvement have a utilitarian experience with it and they believe that important decision and task in their lives can be accomplished with the help of the information provided (Calder, Malthouse and Schaedel, 2009). Additionally, consumer involvement in the advertising will directed to the search behavior, information processing and persuasion (Andrew, Craig, Durvasula and Ajhter, 1990).
Previous studies on consumer involvement and effectiveness of internet advertising
A correlation between level of involvement and information search are identified by Chaaudhuri (2000). Thus, consumers with high involvement will also have high intention to obtain related information from the internet (Lian and Lin, 2007). In the advertising processing context, the consumers with higher involvement ultimately increase the accessibility of the internet advertising and increase the memory of the consumers of an advertising message (Garner, Mitchell and Russo, 1985). As a result, it can be concluded that there is a positive relationship between consumer involvements and effectiveness of internet advertising.
In the later studies, Briggs and Hollis 1997; Cho and Leckenby 2000) employed consumer involvement in their papers to examine the factor that influence effectiveness of web based banner advertising. High involvement was believed to get better memorization compare to low involvement (Briggs and Hollis, 1997). Similarly, Cho and Leckenby (2000) indicated that high click through rates are resulted from the high involvement rates and the high click through rates will direct favorable attitudes toward the banner advertisement and brand. This indicated that consumer involvement will directly affect the high click rates of the banner advertisement (effectiveness of internet advertising).
According to Edell and Kelle (1989), quality and amount of responses are enhanced by higher consumer involvement. Similarly, higher the involvement will lead to higher consumer drill down in to the advertising message (Palanisamy and Wong, 2003). Besides that, these researchers also claimed that personal connection of the consumers is related to their real life meanwhile they have more emotional ties to the advertisement. They convinced that the result of effectiveness of advertising is influenced by consumer involvements. . The result proved that there are positive relationship between consumer involvement and effectiveness of internet advertising. Thus, one of the important indications for an advertising strategy is consumer involvement.
Furthermore, empirical research on effectiveness of advertising has yielded substantial results that consumer involvement and advertising effect hierarchy have a positive relationship (Wu, 2001). This researcher noted that advertising effectiveness is influenced by the consumer involvement and the result showed there is positive relationship between degree of consumer involvement and effectiveness of internet advertising. A high advertising effect is directed by a high degree of consumer involvement. Therefore, the degree of consumer involvement is an important indication for the advertising strategy. Tavassoli, Shultz, and Fitzsimons (1985) established that there is significant relationship between individual involvements with an advertising vehicle and effectiveness of advertising. However, there are empirical studies demonstrated that conflicting relationship between involvement and effectiveness of commercial (Kennedy 1971).