How Has The Production and Consumption of Media Texts Been Changed Through The Participation of Users?
Remediation is an evolution of an older media to a better express of media. It is a result of creating new type of media. There are a lot of types of media texts, such as, painting, photographs, books, movies or videos and many other kind of media texts. If it was not for those pre-existed media texts, most new media texts we have now would not be born (GotEssay.com, 2008). For example, paintings are remediated to photographs for better results in presentation of images; some printed magazines are remediated to online webpage for online readers; radio broadcast remediate to television broadcast to have performance portrayed visually to audiences; storybooks are remediated to movies or dramas so that the story can be seen visually (GotEssay.com, 2008). I have chosen to remediate a printed newspaper's article to an online webpage news article. The remediation of the media texts that I have chosen has changed a lot by readers' participation in their consumptions of the media texts and the production of media texts by journalists.
The connectivity of users with the media text has changed the production and consumption of the media text. The number of readers of printed newspaper has reduced in recent years. This is because, there are more people connecting themselves to the online world. According to Rupert Murdoch, who is a media mogul, states in a press release that the most people at the age 18 to 34 go online to get their information (American Society of Newspaper Editors, 2005). This is because they are connected to Internet almost every hour in a day and also some of them are not interested in reading the printed newspaper. Thus, Rupert Murdoch thought up a solution to solve this problem. He asks his journalists in his News Corporation to cooperate and remediate the printed newspaper articles to online news articles. With this people around age 18 to 34 can read news through online easily and this helps Rupert Murdoch to get more consumers and this improves the performances of his News Corporation. As a result, news can be easily connected to readers of different ages in anytime through online.
Besides, the reliability of the content of media text has also causes changes in the production and consumption of the media text. Recently, there are more readers that obtain knowledge of current affairs by going online. The readers feel that the contents found through online are better and trustable more compare to those in the printed newspaper news article. According to BBC news, there are 58 per cent of people believe on online news while only 34 per cent of people believe on printed newspaper news article (BBC News, 2010). Through online news, readers can obtain a more detailed knowledge about a certain issue. According to Stuart Cunningham and Graeme Turner's surveys, readers are depending less on newspapers these days (Cunningham, S., Turner, G. 2006, p.98). For example, readers get to see a short broadcast video about certain news visually through online news. The video helps the reader get a better understanding concerning the news. Through the broadcast video, readers can also watch some live scene of the issues been broadcasted. Since readers understand clearly about the content of the news that they are reading, uncertain and unneeded conflicts concerning the news will not occur.
Furthermore, the companies can also connect with their readers through their online webpage. It is normal for all people to be bias towards a certain issue. Even though this is unfair but it is human nature. Even journalists, they will sometimes have bias or personal arguments on some issues, but they have to ensure that when they write news they cannot be bias (Conley, D., & Lamle, S., 2006). This is because they have to prevent themselves and others from getting involved in unnecessary incidents. When a journalist does get involved himself emotionally with the news that they are working on, they use another way by letting the readers to decide or express their individual feelings. This is because journalists cannot directly express their individual feelings or opinions to readers and it is a public affair (Bergen, L., Lafky, S. A., & Weaker, D., 2000). In this case, there are columns provided for readers on online news to write or share their comments or ideas. As Julianne Schultz mentioned, "State and federal parliaments in Australia have examined ownership and control, rights and responsibilities of the press and journalists (Schultz, J., 1997, p.38)." Thus, the bias that occurred in the journalist will be settled by readers through their comments. While in printed newspaper, there have neither columns site for readers to share their comments nor personal arguments about the news article that they have read.
Moreover, the convenience for users to participate in the media text is also changing the production and consumption of the media text. According to Stuart Cunningham and Graeme Turner, "The production of newspaper has undergone many improvements in efficiency and quality in recent decades, especially with increasing computerization (Cunningham, S., Turner, G., 2006, p. 109)." When the news is posted through webpage, the news will be able to spread easily and world widely. Readers will be easier to access to news through online services. Since Borneo Post is a Malaysian local printed newspaper, the news will only be spread around Malaysia or among Malaysian readers. Thus, the Borneo Post company creates a webpage for their journalists to write news through online and spread news world widely for the convenience of readers to reach to the latest news easily. Besides the Borneo Post, there are also other local newspaper companies such as The Star, Utusan Malaysia, Sing Chew Jit Poh and many other local newspapers companies. The start of spreading news through webpage attracts a lot of printed newspaper companies to have their own webpage.
The modernised of users have changed the production and consumption of media texts. According to Stuart Cunningham and Graeme Turner from Tunstall's quote, "For generations, newspaper reading seemed to be among the most habitual of behaviours, with people reading the same paper at the same time each day (Cunningham, S., Turner, G., 2006, p. 97)." "But, most of networks of transmission and distribution have been mordenised through digitisation after two decades have passed", mentioned Stuart Cunningham and Graeme Turner (Cunningham, S., Turner, G. 2006, p. 116). It is cheaper to consume news through online than printed newspaper (John Timmer, 2008). When people consume news through online, they just have to have a click and every details of the news they prefer will be shown. Readers have to go for a certain places like grocery, market or shop to purchase printed newspaper when they want to know about daily news. It is more preferable to get news online rather than printed newspaper. According to James Fallows, "The decline of the retailers has been hardest on newspaper (Fallow, J. 1997. p. 68)."
John Timmer who is a Bachelor of Arts in Biochemistry from Columbia University has also done some freelance writing and some other scientific focus. According to Timmer, "Here, Internet news sources had very significant gains, with 40 percent of the population saying it's where they get "most" of their national and international news." (John Timmer, 2008). Through Timmer's research in September 2007, there is a large increase of percentage of people reading news through online. While in the other side, participation of people to printed newspaper and television news are going downwards. There are challenges occurred between the Internet and the printed newspapers after the introducing of the Internet (Cunningham, S., Turner, G. 2006, p. 111). For example, readers prefer more on online news articles compare to printed news articles. To overcome the growth percentage, journalists access to webpage and share news online.
Printed newspaper is changed to online news articles because the production of media texts is influenced by the environment situation. There are a lot of tree needed for the production of printed newspaper. In these days, there are a lot of tree been cut legally or illegally for the purpose of making papers. For example, around 78,500 hectares of forest in Malaysia are cut every year (mongabay.com, 2006). To overcome this problem, forest laws are introduced by Malaysia 's first Chief Forest Officer (Ken Dornbaum, 2005). In the other way, journalists have a paperless news articles which is shared through webpage.
In conclusion, readers do change the production and consumption of media text that I have chosen which is printed newspaper and webpage or online news articles. The changes of production and consumption of the media text are caused by the convenience, connectivity, mordernised, reliability of users towards the media text. According to Hans Magnus Enzensberger in John Thornton Cadwell's article, "The contradiction between producers and consumers is not inherent in the electronic media; on the contrary, it has to be artificially reinforced by economic and administrative measures (Cadwell, J. T. 2000. p. 59)". Our audiences who are readers, that I have chosen, affect and change the production and consumption of printed news article to online news article.
- GotEssays.com. (2008). Remediation - Media. Retrieved from http://www.gotessays.com/essays/3408/index.php
- American Society Newspaper Editors. (2005). Speech by Rupert Murdoch to the American Society of Newspaper Editors. Retrieved from http://www.newscorp.com/news/news_247.html.
- Conley D., & Lamble, S. (2006). The Daily Miracle.
- Bergen, L., Lafky, S. A., & Weaver, D. (2000). Local News Source Opinions of Their Newspapers. Retrieved from http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst;jsessionid=LYNFKyWDQty2p8nQCnmgTF7MW8p3SvzwQQnPYFmFTyfKcw8LMTV7!-1681852244!-1142546872?docId=5002374076.
- John Timmer. (2008). Pew Survey Shows Online News Overtaking Print in the US. Retrieved from http://arstechnica.com/old/content/2008/12/pew-survey-shows-online-news-overtaking-print-in-the-us.ars.
- Ken Dornbaum. (2005). Deforestation. Retrieved from http://www.tqnyc.org/2005/NYC052139//Asia.htm.
- Mongabay.com. (2006). Malaysia. Retrieved from http://rainforests.mongabay.com/deforestation/2000/Malaysia.htm.
- Schultz, J., et. al. (1997). The Media in Australia.
- Cadwell, J. T. (2000). Electronic Media and Technoculture.
- Cunningham, S., Turner, G. (2006). The Media and Communications in Australia. Australia:
- Fallows, J. (1997). Breaking News: How the Media Undermine American Democracy.
- BBC News. (2010). Radio is the 'most trusted' source of news, says Ofcom. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment_and_arts/10121759.stm.