Sport and the Media
Assignment---The Media and the economics of sport
This essay analyses the relationship between sport and media and how they effect on each other in the modern world. It uses some practical cases to demonstrate what does sport brings to media when sport enter into media field and what does media brings to sport when media come into sport sphere. Meanwhile, it will compare with the different development of sport and media between the Great Britain and China.
Background of sport and media
Regarding the development of sport and media, Real (1998:14) stated that "the world of sports in the age of mass media has been transformed from nineteenth century amateur recreational participation to late twentieth and early twenty-first century spectator-centered technology and business". In original time, sport is just defined as a competitive and organized physical activity. Moreover, most of participants consist of sports enthusiasts and their purposes are hoped to gain more happiness from the sport. However, when it experienced more than one century's reform, the present concept of sport has been referred to other industries, such as media, economics and culture. In these industries, sport and media have an obvious 'marriage' relationship in the global sport.
In terms of media, it can be considered as a collective noun of diverse types of media (What is media, 2005). It contain many communicate paths in different fields, such as television, radio, newspaper and internet. Nevertheless, with the high speed of sport development and popularity, more and more people are begun to focus on sport event and relevant sport industry. Due to the increasing number of spectators, media become an indispensable pathway for the sport industry service whilst it is a good combination between media and sport. Actually, Schirato (2007:82) stated that "the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games presaged a development which is by now very familiar to us about integration of sport into the field of the media". Through the advocate of media, it promotes the sport event wide spread in the worldwide and possesses more kinds of new demographics.
Modern sport and media developed into the global
With more and more professional sport events and international level mega sport events held, the developing tendency of sport and media turn to globalization. One typical example is the modern Olympic Games; it attracts the whole world sport spectators' attention because of the establishment of the Main Press Centre (MPC) and International Broadcasting Centre (IBC). Certainly, the game also can promote many modes of media transmission development, for instance the newspaper sales, communication technology developed, increased radio, television ratings and advertising revenue (Schirato, 2007). The sport broadcasting is necessary and essential element to stimulate the sport and media come into a global period. Purchasing the TV rights is one of the best trails to expand their global media coverage. It will give confidence and escalate the interest of sport event and sports club, meanwhile enhance the price of sport event, sport merchandise sales, the benefits from advertisers and sport sponsor supporting. Finally, achieve one common goal is to gain most money from these aspects. Ashutosh Srivastava (2007) as a CEO of Singapore-based MindShare Asia Pacific said that "there is no greater dramatic product like sports, it can have emotions running high and have people glued to the sporting action either on the field or on television sets".
Under the global economics environment, sport and media are also entering into the time of commoditization and commercialism. Some sports clubs management began to operate the business management model; they consider their professional sportsmen as commodities and can be traded with other sports clubs thereby obtain the profit from the transfer fee. David Beckham is one of the biggest deals, his transfer fee touched ?24.5 million when he is sold from Manchester United to the Spanish giants Real Madrid (Beckham joins Real Madrid, 2003). Since the appearance of sports star, some commercial businesses were developed, such as merchandising refer with sports star, souvenirs from the sports star's club and some business activities due to the sports star as an ambassador. All of these are so significant that sports club can better hunt for and extent their fans bases in the worldwide meanwhile in order to maximize their revenue.
The relationship of sport and media
In the current days, sport and media can be called a perfect combination in today's society. They have been beyond the simple reporting and being reported relationship between sport and media, and formed a mutual promotion and common development of the situation. Belong to a sunrise industry of sports and media, in the context of industrial cooperation is inevitable, the outlook will be very good.
The relationship between sports and the media can be said that long. When the ancient Greeks Feilibisi experienced a long run from the town of Marathon to Athens and declared a message of peace, it means sports and information dissemination has been inextricably linked. Furthermore, when the news media into the media stage, sports news is one of the main contents of the media. As early as 100 years ago, the United States as a sports journalist Pulitzer took the media to attract audience contact as one of the three magic weapons; the other two is the scandal and sin. At present day, his insight even more confirmed. Not to mention the constant bombardment of sports coverage, light from the endless landscape of sports newspapers and unlimited professional sports channels can be seen. Sport as one of the most common activities, entertainment, certainly much attention, so popular with the sports media is also a matter of course increase. However, this emphasis on sports media, in addition to this basic reason, it also reported its own characteristics, and inseparable from the sport.
Sports report is the first feature, sports news with fun, emotion and entertainment, as well as sports which is inseparable from its characteristics. On "Sports", the dictionary has this explanation: An entertainment activity or require physical strength, wisdom and skill of the game or sports, it requires physical strength with a more or less, according to the traditional form or set of rules, and sometimes as a career in outdoor or indoor. Sport, as itself, especially competitive sports, the process of colorful, often it makes the results unpredictable and fun. Therefore, spectators can watch sports out of the pressure of life, physical and mental pleasure, and thus become an indispensable part of life. This is what people like the most fundamental reason for sports news, sports news is a fundamental characteristic.
Second, the coverage of sports audience is extensive, which is unmatched by other news reports. Like sports, regardless of the population is ethnic, national boundaries as well as gender, age, once addict to sports, this hobby likely that accompanied his whole life, and it may affect the people around.
Again, the content and style of sports coverage are free. This is because the recreational sports coverage, making it far away from sensitive areas such as political ideology, so it can have full coverage of space and way of reporting. On the other hand, sport is a common language around the world, just because of this commonality, so that people's concern is not only limited to their domestic sports, but also throughout the world. For example, the soccer's English Premier League, the NBA basketball and so on. This phenomenon appeared in China is evidently now, especially, sports reports on the concerns of foreign competition even more than the domestic.
Finally, the modern media technology create a sports reports, create a very strong sense of involvement and an experience sense of audience, which provide for people who like sports to choose sports reports add a better reason. Sports appreciation, audience participation and experience is the most common state of mind, the modern media, increasingly sophisticated means of communication, such as newspapers, magazines, text and pictures, television and radio live broadcast, all of these pathways can serve for the viewer experience without leaving home can be the same to the scene of the warm atmosphere and the real picture or sound. Moreover, television can slow motion playback, so time and space, allowing viewers to appreciate the details of the real world cannot be achieved. Spectators can even through technological ways to participate in quiz, directly involved in the games.
Generally speaking, all these reasons, means that regardless of the audience of sports report, the sport content, or the sport environment and other news reports, sport reports have their unique advantages in comparison, hence the prosperity of sports reports can be said is inevitable. The relationship between sports media and sports is also logical and close contact. However, in recent years, we can easily find, sports and sports media relations, is not reporting and being reported like a close contact this simple rule. Media began to hold the sport event, Bailey and Johnson, the world-renowned flying trapeze war, actually it was held by television station; For instance, in China the New People's Daily go straight sponsored an event named Tianyuan cup go game in a recent decade and has a great influence; In western countries, the media magnate Rupert Murdoch's Sky TV through its control of the English Premier League broadcast. The European Super League Group raised by the partners, media, and many famous football clubs in Europe are behind the network as a support, such as AC Milan support by Fininvest networks and Berlusconi's media company, the Paris Saint Germain Club support by French cable television network and GANAN. Media and Sport has been inextricably linked with each other to the extent of infiltration.