For understanding the behaviour of different elements the micro magnetic modelling is used. There are two types of simulators. Among them one is OOMMF method. OOMMF method is developed by mike Donahue. The values of OOMMF are observed in both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional field. But in this problem only 2-dimensional is used because in convenient according to length in nanometers and for understanding the magnetic configuration of nanoelements.In below we had given a brief detail about iron and permalloy.we have mentioned about the working principle of OOMMF method and we have also given a detail about the samples taken. The results obtained are showed below for different path geometry.
Iron is a metallic element that can be rust in air and combines with some igneous rocks and biologically it is used in human body for transporting the oxygen inside the body. Iron is denoted as 'Fe'.It is the tenth abundant element in the universe. This element is discovered by Egyptians in 4000Bc and it is derived from Latin word 'Ferrum'.In the periodic table iron is located in groups 3-12.Atomic number of iron is 26 and the mass can be up to 7.86g/cm3. Iron is used in human body as haemoglobin molecule. Iron is less expensive, easily available metal in universe then among all elements it is useful metal. In universe iron is an abundant element because in sun and in many of stars it is available. In the earth's crust iron is a most available metal almost fourth place. The important iron ore is hematite it is obtained by reduction of carbon from the metal iron. In iron domains are formed due to the magnetization energy and these domains will be closure and iron can specify now to have the domain structure. Iron can form two, three or four domains depending upon the length of the material. In each domain there will be vertices point due to this point all domains are in equal distance. The main property of iron is crystalline anisotropy changes due to magnetisation in it. Anisotropy in iron is to be cubical sometimes due to the applied field on it. If more domains are formed in iron ore means the demagnetisation energy field will be reduced. The magnetization occurs in iron in all directions. Shape anisotropy of Iron metal would be low.
Permalloy is an element formed by blend of about 80% Nickel and 20% and has high magnetic permeability. Depending upon the direction of applied magnetic field and strength of the element the electrical resistivity varies. Mainly Permalloy is used to wrap around the copper wires that used in tele-communication purpose and also used in recording sensors and also in transformer laminations. It is also used in production of electrical transformers and inductors. In 1940 the bell laboratory has invented this Permalloy element by heat treatment and proposed it has more permeability than silicon. Molybdenum Permalloy is the composition of Permalloy. Permalloy have no anisotropy energy but it dependent on both exchange and demagnetization energy. As similar in iron as Bloch walls appears here Neel walls can be formed. Permalloy is obtained in various forms like permalloy thin films.Permalloy is used as Ac transformers and sensitive relays because it has large saturation induction. If there is change in electrical resistance then it leads to structural transformations when condensates are interfered. In Permalloy the resonance frequency and permeability depends up on the length of the material. When Permalloy is heated and if it consists of 5% of molybdenum in hydrogen element then supermalloy also will have high permeability.
OOMMF means object oriented micro magnet frame work. Basically micro magnetic modelling is used for observing different properties of materials.OOMMF is a functional micro magnetic code. This is a flexible program because every individual can create their own code. When a new code is written for this oommf by user then this new code can be replace with old code by individual itself that means easily the old code can be swiped with new code. The major goal of OOMMF is to develop portable software so that can any user can move it from one place to another place and this software must be used freely by any user. The aim is also to provide a micro modelling program with association tools.
The OOMMF is launched by clicking icon on screen then it opens from mm launch 184.108.40.206 window and it consists of mm Archive, mm graph, mm datatable, mm Disp, mm probed and mm solve 2d.In the mmprobed it consists of options like material parameters there we must give the sample details whether it as iron or permalloy.When we click on part geometry option there we can see part height, part thickness, part widthness and cell size these should be changed according to user usage. Then mmdisp will shows the iterations that take place for a sample. The mmdatatable will shows the values for the sample when iteration is going on they are total energy, demagnetization energy,iterations,Max angle, exchange energy, Anisotropy energy, Zeeman energy.
The above study was made on the magnetic properties of iron and Permalloy using the OOMMF software. As iron is a hard magnetic material and Permalloy is a soft magnetic material, the net magnetisation obtained for this samples are different. Here we had investigated on some many energies like Demagnetisation energy, Zeeman energy, and Anisotropy energy and about total energy as the results displayed in the above. In the absence of any applied magnetic field the total energy is sum of the all individual energies. The Zeeman Effect is Zero because as there is no external field is applied. Here we have observed that as there is an increase in thickness of material it can leads to from the Neels wall or Bloch wall. Hence Neels walls are found when we observe lower thickness and large wall is formed at higher thickness. The dimension of the sample plays an important role for domain wall formation in iron and dipoles rotation in both the samples.