Criminalization of Youth

Criminalization of Youth/ Youth Justice

Chapter 1: Aims and Objectives

Proposed Title/Topic Area:Criminalization of youth/ Youth Justice

Brief Synopsis Todays youth are a vulnerable group after they have been imprisoned or been put into custodial care. They face many barriers both upon their re-entry into the community and also in their attempt to not reoffend. This research will look at the reasons behind how the criminalization of the youth occurs.

Aims and objectivesThe aim of this piece of research is to evaluate the pressing issues that contribute to the ever growing challenge of the criminalization of the youth in todays society and investigate the barriers they face upon release from the youth justice system, particularly in the social housing sector within the United Kingdom. The research will identify the reasons as to why criminalization occurs throughout the youth in today's social housing communities and look at the current housing options that are available to those in housing need. In order to find out if the policies and legislation that are in place is up to the necessary standard to aid in the prevention of young offenders reoffending, I will speak to policy makers on their views of the current climate that we face with the criminalization of the youth and the ways to reduce the numbers of young offenders who enter the youth justice system.

Chapter 2: Methodology


Introduction: In this chapter I will look at the ways in which data was collected for this research. The main aim of the research was to look at in depth the pressing issues that contribute to the ever growing challenge of the criminalization of the youth in todays society and the problems that they face in everyday life after there re-entry to society and the levels of support that are provided to aid in the prevention of reoffending occurring.Summary of research methodology:In order to collect the data that was required I used a variety of data collection methods. These mainly being:

1. Desk Research

2. A case study of a young offender

3. Interviews conducted with relevant governing bodies ( NIHE, Youth Justice Agency N.I, PSNI)

4. Questionnaires

These methods of data collection will be discussed in detail in the following chapter.

Extended Methodology:

Desk Research

Desk based research or secondary research involves gathering information from data that already exists. The advantages of using desk based research are that it is a cheap research method, where large amounts of data can be collected in generally a short period of time. It is also time effective. However, this method also has it disadvantages, mainly that there may be limited data on the area that the research is to be carried out on, the data may be out of date or the data which has been collected may not be completely accurate and this can lead to inaccuracy in your own findings.

Case Study:

Case studies allow people to examine individuals and groups in greater depth than other methods of research. For instance, an observation could take place, then a questionnaire, an interview, and examination of medical records, and even an experiment, however not all of these stages need to be done.

The disadvantages of case studies like most qualitative research is they are difficult to do and difficult to analyse. Also like all research methods, they are subject to bias. Should the researcher put more attention into one area then they may lose out on other areas and the findings may not be accurate and therefore it is important to divide the attention equally among all areas.

Interviews conducted with relevant governing bodies

I chose to do face to face structured interviews with the relevant governing bodies who deal with youth offenders and youth justice.

I chose to use this type of interview as it provided a definitive answer as to answered the questions. Face to face interviews also allow for more, in depth answers to be given and in the case of the interviewee not understanding fully the question being asked then guidance can be given to allow for a full and accurate answer to be given.I chose to use a structured interview as it would allow me to ask the qestions that I felt needed to be answered to ensure that the findings are what are required to fulfill the aims of the research.Face to face answers also provide more spontaneous and reliant answers. The interviewee answers with how they feel at that time and therefore do not have as much time to think about what they feel the interviwer wants to here and this reduces the chances of interviewer bias which is discussed below. The benefits of face to face interviews is that they can tape recorded to increase accuracy in the presentation of the findings. Recording the answers given is much more accurate than taking notes, however, it is also important that notes be taken.The disadvantages of using interviews is that interview bias can be present. Interviewer bias is where the interviewee is influenced in a direct way by the interviewer. This can lead to answers to questions not being the interviewees own answer but more the answer that the interviewee feels the interviewer wants to hear and this then leads to inaccuracy of results. So within my interviews it was imperative to ensure that questions were not suggestive in anyway and asked only the opinions of the interviewee. This method of data collection is also a very time consuming method. Not only to collect the data is time consuming but it is also time consuming to analyse.


As a method of data collection I decided to use opinion based questionannires to be filled out by those persons who are directly effected by the area the research is looking at. These questionnaires were made up of a mixture of tick boxes and free text responses.The advantages of using questionnaires are that the responses given are gathered in a standardised way and this means that questionnaires are more objective than interviews.

Generally using questionannires is a quick way to gather information and so may be used in cases where a rigid timescale is in place.It is also a good way to gather information from a larger group than what would be possible through other research methods as larger quantities of the survey can be handed out.The disadvantages of using this method of data collection is that you have to send out a huge number of surveys in order to see a return of the number you want as many people simply disregard surveys.Questionnaires are standardised so should the participants not understand the question asked there is no way of giving guidance and therefore the answers received may not always be accurate. It is therefore critical that the questionnaire is piloted among colleagues to ensure that the questions are clear and easy to interpret. Also if the questions are not designed correctly they can lead to large amounts of data being generated and this means that data analysis can take a long time. There also problems with the fact that participants may not want to answer the questions given or may answer them superficially if they feel that the questionnaire is too long or too invasive. However, for the purpose of this research they are a good way of gathering data from a larger group.

Chapter 3: Literature Review

In this chapter I have reviewed current literature that has been publicised on the topic I have chosen.

o Intr?ducti?n

Y?ung pe?ple, wh? return t? ?n envir?nment where the f?ct?rs th?t cre?ted the c?nditi?ns f?r ?ffending still rem?in, ?re m?re likely t? re-?ffend (Black, 2001, 103-46). With?ut ch?nges t? the envir?nment ?nd s?ci?l situ?ti?n (including supp?rt structures), f?rmer p?tterns ?f beh?vi?ur ?re likely t? re?ppe?r. Signific?nt levels ?f interventi?n ?nd supp?rt ?re required t? ch?nge the beh?vi?ur. There ?re multiple f?ct?rs th?t c?use y?ung pe?ple t? ?ffend ?nd then re-?ffend (Blandy, 2001, 73-92). The presence ?f ?ne ?r m?re s?ci?l determin?nts c?ntributes t?w?rds y?ung pe?ple re-?ffending, ?nd c?n be identified ?s f?ll?ws: Pr?blem users ?f ?lc?h?l ?nd drugs, Experienced multiple dis?dv?nt?ges (Bottoms, 2002, 52-63), Ment?l Illness ?nd beh?vi?ur?l pr?blems, C?m?rbidity in ment?l he?lth ?nd subst?nce use dis?rders, P??r educ?ti?n ?tt?inment, including bel?w functi?n?l levels in liter?cy ?nd numer?cy, Unempl?yment, l?w inc?me/p?verty, In?dequ?te h?using/h?melessness, B?d he?lth, Neighb?urh??d vi?lence ?nd crime (Bottoms, 2002, 52-63), F?mily bre?kd?wn / p??r p?renting / disrupted f?mily b?ckgr?unds ?nd Indigen?us ?nd/?r min?rity ethnic b?ckgr?und (Brown, 2004, 203-11) . Th? multi-disciplin?ry r?-disc?v?ry ?f r?gul?t?ry lif? b?y?nd th? st?t? h?s b??n th? p?int ?f d?p?rtur? f?r ? signific?nt ?nd gr?wing numb?r ?f studi?s. Crimin?l?gists h?v? f?und th?t th? numb?rs ?f ?mpl?y??s in th? priv?t? s?curity industry dw?rf th?s? in th? public p?lic? f?rc? (J?hnst?n? 1992). R?gul?t?ry th??ry incr??singly r?c?gniz?s ? hybridiz?ti?n ?f th? st?t?? th? 'd?c?ntr?d' st?t?? ?nd 's?lf-r?gul?ti?n' (Bl?ck? 2001; Sc?tt? 2001). Simil?rly? g?v?rn?nc? studi?s? inspir?d by F?uc?ult? illustr?t? h?w w? h?v? b?c?m? implic?t?d in? ?nd r?sp?nsibl? f?r? ?ur ?wn r?gul?t?d s?curity. Cl?ssic?lly Sh??ring ?nd St?nning (1985: 341) r?f?r t? 'th? ?mb?dd?d f??tur?s th?t ch?r?ct?riz? disciplin?ry c?ntr?l' thr?ugh th? c?nsum?r c?ntr?ls ?p?r?ting ?t Disn?y W?rld (Garland, 2001, 1780-1918).

o ?n h?using 'pr?bl?ms'? 'qu?sti?ns' ?nd 'crisis'

?ur ?rgum?nt h?r? is th?t th?r? h?s b??n ? shift in h?using p?licy fr?m thinking ?b?ut pr?bl?ms ?r qu?sti?ns t? crisis. M?r? t?nt?tiv?ly th?r? h?v? b??n shifts in th? l?b?l? ?r?und which h?using p?licy h?s pr?bl?m?tiz?d its?lf. ??rly inc?rn?ti?ns r?f?r t? th? h?using qu?sti?n? ?r th? pr?bl?ms ?f h?using p?licy. W? n?w t?lk ?b?ut h?using crisis (Garland, 2001, 1780-1918). Hist?ric?lly h?using p?licy c?n b? s??n ?s h?ving tw? br??d thrusts? b?th ?m?rging fr?m Vict?ri?n s?ci?l p?licy ?nd th?s? h?v? sh?p?d th? ch?r?ct?ristics ?f subs?qu?nt h?using cris?s. Th? Vict?ri?n p?ri?d? ? tim? ?f p?r?d?xic?lly rich int?rv?nti?n in r?l?ti?nships b?tw??n l?ndl?rd ?nd t?n?nt? ?g?inst ? b?ckdr?p ?f lib?r?l g?v?rnm?nt und?rpinn?d by l?iss?z-f?ir? ?c?n?mics ?nd id??l?gy? p?s?d th? qu?sti?n ?f h?w t? h?us? th? p?pul?ti?n in m?r? s?nit?ry h?using ?nd cur? th? ?v?rcr?wding pr?bl?m. This in turn r?s?lv?d its?lf int? qu?sti?ns ?b?ut th? ?c?n?mics ?f l?ndl?rdism ?nd c?pit?lism? ?s w?ll ?s th? c?p?city ?f th? priv?t? l?ndl?rd t? build th? r?quir?d suit?bl? h?using (Garland, 2001, 1780-1918). Put this w?y th? qu?sti?n w?s ?n? ?f qu?ntity. Und?rpinning qu?ntity w?s ? s?c?nd c?nc?rn ?b?ut m?r?l r?gul?ti?n. ?s M?ri?n B?wl?y put it in ?p?ning h?r s?min?l t?xt:

Th? r?f?rm?rs w?uld h?v? sw?pt th? t?wns cl??n? if th?y c?uld: th?y r?mp?g?d d?structiv?ly thr?ugh th? c?ng?st?d c?ntr?s ?f th? industri?l t?wn t??ring d?wn th? r??k?ri?s. . . . Th? f?rc?s ?f l?w ?nd ?rd?r ?nd th? church?s w?r? b?hind th?m. It h?d b??n n?tic?d th?t? ?s w?ll ?s dis??s?? crim? ?nd vic? ?ccumul?t?d in th? l?byrinths ?f th? slums. Th? p?lic? ?nd th? pri?st w?r? ?s un?bl? t? p?n?tr?t? ?s th? sunshin?. (B?wl?y? 1945: 2)

? subtl? shift in ?mph?sis ?ccurr?d fr?m physic?l structur?s ?nd ?c?n?mic disciplin?s t? th? int?rn?l structur?s ?f th? f?mily? imm?r?lity ?nd s?ci?l disciplin?s. Th? c?nc?rn f?r 'h??lth' w?s n?t simply th? ?limin?ti?n ?f physic?l dis??s?? but ?nc?mp?ss?d th? m?r?l ?nd s?ci?l h??lth ?f th? 'd?ng?r?us cl?ss?s' (H?rl??? 1995: 16). J?m?s H?l?? f?r ?x?mpl?? in th? influ?nti?l Th? H?m?s ?f th? W?rking Cl?ss?s (1866)? link?d th? physic?l structur? t? 'm?r?l ?vils' ?nd m?d? sit?s ?f h?using f?r th? p??r crimin?g?nic in th?ir ?wn right. In ? t?lling f??tn?t? (?n p. 21)? H?l? r?minds his ?udi?nc? ?f '?n? ?f th? frightful c?ns?qu?nc?s ?f th? h?rribl? c?nditi?ns und?r which v?st numb?rs ?f th? p?pul?ti?n liv? th?r? is ? v?st ?m?unt ?f ill?gitim?cy ?nd inf?nticid?'. ?nid G?uldi? (1974: 267) in h?r cl?ssic hist?ry ?f h?using ?bs?rv?s th?t? th? first ?nd m?st sw??ping impr?v?m?nt sch?m?s w?r? d?lib?r?t?ly driv?n thr?ugh th? m?st crimin?l ?r??s? with th? disp?rs?l ?f crimin?ls fr?m th?ir h?unts? ?nd th? suppr?ssi?n ?f crim? ?s th? first m?tiv? (Johnston, 2003, 33-41).

Th? f?ct th?t th?s? h?unts w?r? in m?st c?s?s ?ls? th? m?st ins?nit?ry p?rts ?f th? citi?s w?s ? s?c?nd?ry c?nsid?r?ti?n. Th? fr?qu?ncy with which th? ?m?tiv? phr?s? 'd?ns ?f vic?' cr?ps up is s?m? indic?ti?n ?f ?ttitud?. Th?r? w?s ? c?nc?rn ?b?ut th? ung?v?rn?bility ?f th? ?ccupi?rs. Th? 'f??r ?f th? m?r?l d?sc?nt ?f p?v?rty int? p?up?rism' (D??n? 1992: 241) is p?lp?bl?. P?up?riz?d h?us?h?lds c?ngr?g?t?d with th? imp?v?rish?d? ??ch f??ding ?ff th? ?th?r? ?s th? c?us? ?f s?ci?l d?ng?r.

Th? subs?qu?nt crisis in th? s?ci?l st?t? c?nc?rn?d th? f?ilur? ?f qu?ntit?tiv? s?luti?ns t? s?ci?l pr?bl?ms. Th? phr?s? 'h?using crisis' w?s us?d p?rticul?rly fr?m th? 1970s t? r?f?r t? public ?xp?nditur? cuts? ?n und?r-supply ?f ?cc?mm?d?ti?n t? m??t h?using n??ds? ?nd l?v?ls ?f disr?p?ir (M?lp?ss? 1986); ?r t? th? crisis in th? m?n?g?m?nt ?f c?uncil h?using (?udit C?mmissi?n? 1989). In th? ??rly 1990s? th? h?using crisis w?s t?nur? sp?cific? c?nc?rn?d with th? pr?bl?m ?f h?w t? st?m th? l?v?l ?f (r?-)p?ss?ssi?ns by m?rtg?g? l?nd?rs ?f ?wn?r?ccupi?d st?ck. Crisis m?n?g?m?nt w?s ?pit?miz?d h?r? by th? ?ppr??ch ?f th? M?j?r g?v?rnm?nt t? 'm?rtg?g? r?scu?' sch?m?s ?nd ?th?r inn?v?ti?ns cr??t?d ?s ? r?sult ?f th? 'und?rst?nding' b?tw??n th? g?v?rnm?nt ?nd th? m?rtg?g? industry. Th? h?m?l?ssn?ss crisis? th? b?d ?nd br??kf?st crisis - th? list ?f h?using cris?s is ?ndl?ss - ?ll ?f th?s? c?uld b? r?s?lv?d by pr?viding m?r? m?n?y ?r m?r? ?cc?mm?d?ti?n. ?s M?lp?ss n?t?s? th?y ?r? n?t p?rticul?rly diff?r?nt fr?m th? ??rli?r pr?bl?ms/qu?sti?ns. Th?y ?r?? p?rh?ps? m?rk?d ?ut by th?ir s?v?rity ?s ? r?sult ?f ? qu?si-m?rk?t ?c?n?mics. But? lik? pr?ctic?lly ?ll th? h?using qu?sti?ns ?f th? l?st 150 y??rs? th?y h?v? b??n fr?m?d qu?ntit?tiv?ly.

Th? c?nt?mp?r?ry h?using crisis

o Crim? c?ntr?l crisis

Th?ughtful ?n?lysts ?f h?using h?v?? f?r s?m? tim?? ?rgu?d th?t h?using p?licy int?rv?nti?ns ?r? r?l?tiv?ly sup?rfici?l unl?ss th?y t?k? ?cc?unt ?f th? br??d?r fluctu?ti?ns in ?mpl?ym?nt ?nd w?lf?r? p?licy (s??? f?r ?x?mpl?? M?lp?ss? 1999? 2005). Littl? h?s b??n discuss?d until r?c?ntly ?b?ut th? int?r?cti?ns b?tw??n h?using ?nd crim? c?ntr?l (?lth?ugh s?? Muri?? 1997? ?nd th? w?rk ?f th? ?nvir?nm?nt?l crimin?l?gists discuss?d in B?tt?ms ?nd Wil?s? 2002). Y?t? ?ur ?rgum?nt is th?t this h?s b?c?m? th? und?rpinning ?nd l?gitim?ting pr?bl?m?tiz?ti?n ?f h?using p?licy.

Th? crim? c?ntr?l h?using crisis is ? br??d?r pr?bl?m?tiz?ti?n th?n c?nc?rns ?b?ut ?nti-s?ci?l b?h?vi?ur? ?lth?ugh th?t is th? m?st visibl? ?nd ?utst?nding ?x?mpl?r ?f this c?nc?rn. In c?ntr?st t? pr?vi?us h?using pr?bl?ms/qu?sti?ns/cris?s? th? curr?nt pr?bl?m?tiz?ti?n is int?r?sting b?c?us? it is n?t ?b?ut numb?rs ?r c?sts. This ch?ng? in f?cus is ? k?y indic?t?r ?f ?dv?nc?d lib?r?lism ?r l?t?r m?d?rnity? ?s it b?th d?riv?s fr?m ?nd is ? c?ns?qu?nc? ?f th? c?ll?ps? ?f c?nfid?nc? in th? p?st-w?lf?r? s?ci?l c?ns?nsus. Its n?n-qu?ntit?tiv? n?tur? is critic?l t? its s?lf-g?n?r?ti?n. Y?u c?n't thr?w m?n?y ?t it. It is m?r? ?b?ut ?pp??ls t? c?mm?n s?ns? n?ti?ns ?f crim? ?nd d?vi?nc?? with f?ux st?tistics us?d t? b?lst?r its cr?dibility ?nd ?pp??l (C?rr ?nd C?w?n? 2006). It is insidi?us? utilizing risk? f??r? ?nd ins?curity.

Th? crim? c?ntr?l crisis is? ?f c?urs?? w?ll-kn?wn. D?vid G?rl?nd (1996) highlights th? c?ns?qu?nc?s ?f th? ?cc?pt?nc? ?f st?t? f?ilur? t? ?r?dic?t? crim?. R?sp?nsibiliz?ti?n str?t?gi?s th?t turn ?n th? id?? th?t ?v?ryb?dy is r?sp?nsibl? f?r th? s?curity ?f th?ir ?wn p?ss?ssi?ns ?nd s?lv?s ?r? c?mbin?d with ?n incr??singly hyst?ric?l? g?v?rnm?nt ?ff?rt t? c?ntr?l crim? thr?ugh l?gisl?ti?n. Wh?t is ?pp?r?nt is th? c?nsist?nt r?tch?ting up ?f th? f?cus ?n crim? c?ntr?l? ?n ?ff?ct th?t d?riv?s fr?m its qu?lit?tiv? b?s?. ?s G?rl?nd p?ints ?ut? crim? is n? l?ng?r ? s?ci?l pr?bl?m? but inst??d '? pr?bl?m ?f indisciplin?? ? l?ck ?f s?lf-c?ntr?l ?r s?ci?l c?ntr?l? ? m?tt?r ?f wick?d individu?ls wh? n??d[?d] t? b? d?t?rr?d ?nd wh? d?s?rv?[d] t? b? punish?d' (2001: 102).

o ? crisis in h?using ?nd crim? c?ntr?l

?lth?ugh crimin?l?gists h?v? ?xp?nd?d s?m? c?nsid?r?bl? ?n?rgy ?xp?unding ?nd ?g?nizing ?v?r th?s? c?nc?rns? littl? h?s b??n m?d? ?f th? ?xp?nding w?b ?f ?mbr?c? th?t th? crim? c?ntr?l crisis ?x?mplifi?s. ?n imp?rt?nt ?xc?pti?n is pr?vid?d by Munci? ?nd Hugh?s in th?ir w?rk ?n y?uth justic?. Th?y p?int ?ut th?t r?sp?nsibiliz?ti?n pr?vid?s ? 'div?rs? ?nd ?xp?nding ?rr?y ?f str?t?gi?s . . . th?t is c?p?bl? ?f dr?wing in th? crimin?l ?nd th? n?n-crimin?l? th? d?priv?d ?nd th? d?pr?v?d? th? n?gl?ct?d ?nd th? d?ng?r?us' (Munci? ?nd Hugh?s? 2002: 13).

Whilst w? ?ckn?wl?dg? th?t h?using p?licy is n?t th? uniqu? f?cus ?f th? ?xp?nsi?n - ?duc?ti?n ?nd s?ci?l s?rvic?s f?r inst?nc? ?r? r?c?nfigur?d s? ?s t? pl?y ? critic?l r?l? in pr?v?nting crim? - f?r us th?r? is ?n intim?t? r?l?ti?nship b?tw??n th? crim? c?ntr?l crisis ?nd h?using ?nd? sp?cific?lly h?using t?nur?. ? cruci?l p?int ?f d?p?rtur? fr?m th? p?st is th?t h?using p?lici?s must b? justifi?d by r?f?r?nc? t? crim? c?ntr?l. Fl?gship h?using p?lici?s ?bt?in s?li?nc? ?nd l?gitim?cy thr?ugh th? ?x?gg?r?t?d cl?ims th?t ?r? m?d? f?r th?ir imp?ct ?n crim? ?nd s?curity. P?rh?ps th? m?st signific?nt N?w L?b?ur inn?v?ti?n in h?using - ? m?ch?nism thr?ugh which h?us?h?lds c?n ch??s? th?ir 's?ci?l' h?using c?ll?d 'ch?ic?-b?s?d l?ttings' - finds its justific?ti?n p?rtly in this w?y. Th? ?rgum?nt w?s th?t? if h?us?h?lds ch??s? th?ir s?ci?l h?using? this will 'incr??s? p?rs?n?l w?ll-b?ing? ?nd h?lp t? r?duc? ?nti-s?ci?l b?h?vi?ur? crim?? str?ss ?nd ?duc?ti?n?l und?r?chi?v?m?nt' (D?TR/DSS? 2000: p?r?. 9.7). Thus? w? c?n ?rgu? th?t it is n?c?ss?ry t? sp??k ?f ?n int?rdisciplin?ry crim? c?ntr?l h?using crisis in which crim? is th? cl??r s?ni?r p?rtn?r.

o Cr??ting g?v?rning c?mmuniti?s

Wh?t is p?rh?ps m?st striking ?b?ut th? NIH? in Northern Ireland is ? quit? r?m?rk?bl? p?r?d?x th?t ? g?v?rn?bl? c?mmunity is b?ing f?rm?d ?ut ?f r?sist?nc? t? th? NIH?? wh?r? pr?vi?usly th?r? w?s ?nly ?bscurity. It h?s pr?vid?d ?n ?nsw?r t? g?v?rnm?nt's qu?sti?n ?b?ut th? ung?v?rn?bility ?f th? priv?t? r?nt?d s?ct?r. This is? w? sugg?st? ? pr?c?ss curr?ntly in ?cti?n ?nd n?t y?t c?mpl?t?. H?r? w? dr?w ?n publish?d c?mm?nts us?d by th? diff?r?nt ?rg?niz?ti?ns inv?lv?d in th? N?rth?rn Ir?l?nd c?s? which th?y h?v? m?d? publicly t? th?ir m?mb?rship ?ith?r by w?y ?f sp??ch ?t ? g?th?ring ?r by w?y ?f writt?n c?mmunic?ti?n with m?mb?rs ?b?ut th? c?s?. D?t? h?v? b??n g?th?r?d fr?m ? v?ri?ty ?f s?urc?s including w?bsit?s? pr?ss r?l??s?s? ?nd p?rs?n?l c?mmunic?ti?ns.

It is tru? th?t l?c?liz?d f?r? ?xist in which priv?t? l?ndl?rds m??t with v?rying d?gr??s ?f f?rm?lity ?nd timing. S?m? l?c?l ?uth?riti?s h?v? pr?f?r?nti?l lists ?f priv?t? l?ndl?rds? wh? ?bt?in sp??di?r h?using b?n?fit d?cisi?n-m?king ?s ? r?sult ?f b?ing ?ccr?dit?d by th?ir l?c?l ?uth?rity. Th?r? ?r? tr?d? b?di?s with ? n?ti?n?l c?mmunity? such ?s th? N?ti?n?l F?d?r?ti?n ?f R?sid?nti?l L?ndl?rds ('th? NFRL') ?nd th? N?ti?n?l L?ndl?rds ?ss?ci?ti?n ('th? NL?'? f?rm?rly th? Sm?ll L?ndl?rds ?ss?ci?ti?n)? but th?s? tr?d? b?di?s th?ms?lv?s ?p?r?t? in ? hybridiz?d r?l?ti?n t? ??ch ?th?r. Th? NFRL w?s ?st?blish?d in 1996 ?nd c?mpris?s s?m? 40 ?ffili?t?d m?mb?r-l?ndl?rds' ?ss?ci?ti?ns r?pr?s?nting ?v?r 14?000 l?ndl?rds with ?n ?stim?t?d 126?000 pr?p?rti?s und?r ?ctiv? m?n?g?m?nt in th? UK. B?th b?di?s h?v? th?ir ?wn C?d?s ?f Pr?ctic? ?v?il?bl? ?t th?ir w?bsit?s (http:// www.h?lp4l?ndl?rds.?rg/h?m?p?g?.htm; http://www.l?ndl?rds.? T?g?th?r with ?th?r b?di?s? such ?s th? N?ti?n?l ?ss?ci?ti?n ?f ?st?t? ?g?nts? which w?s ?ls? inv?lv?d in th? c?s?? ?n? ?f th?ir ?ims is t? cr??t? ? pr?f?ssi?n?liz?d s?lf-r?gul?t?ry c?mmunity.


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