Question: ADHD & Conduct Disorder?Write a 2-page paper on the questions below, provided an outside JOURNAL reference for each topic. 1. Describe three types of attention deficits seen in children with ADHD, and provide an example of each. 2. How might family dynamics contribute to conduct problems in children? Is there a way to predict which children are more likely to develop antisocial behaviors on the basis of family factors? If so, how could this information be used in terms of prevention or early intervention? 3. Describe Conduct Disorder and if there is or is no relationship to ADHD substantiate with empirical research.
Children who are diagnosed with ADHD are diagnosed with Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder. This disorder can then be further broken down into 3 subcategories or subtypes. The subtypes include ADHD-PI, which is predominantly inattentive type, ADHD-HI, which is predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type, and ADHD-C, which is the combined type.
ADHD-PI, "are described as inattentive and drowsy, daydreamy, spacey, in a fog, or easily confused... they may have a learning disability, process information slowly, find it hard to remember things, and display low academic achievement." (Mash, & Wolfe, 2007).
An example of this subtype would be a 10 year old male, who has a hard time excelling in mathematics, including a hard time focusing his attention on memory recall, ex: multiplication tables, he is unable to recall these on command. (Carlson, Shin, & Booth, 1999).
ADHD-HI, is the rarest group. This group "includes preschoolers and may have limited validity for older children." (Mash, & Wolfe, 2007).
An example of this subtype would be a 5 year old male, who is very accident prone to unintentional injuries, as well as peer rejection problems - such as being on the outskirts of the group. He would also have a very hard time in mathematics, and would tend to not ask for help and keep his feelings and problems inside to himself. (Carlson, Shin, & Booth, 1999).
ADHD-C, this group is "more likely to display problems in inhibiting behavior and in behavioral persistence. They are also most likely to be aggressive, defiant, rejected by peers, and suspended from school or place in special education classes. (Mash, & Wolfe, 2007). These children are those who are most often referred for any type of treatment.
An example of this subtype would be a 9 year old male, who is goal oriented. He is also very anxious and can show signs of being depressed. In addition to being anxious and depressed, he is more prone to being more aggressive - he has a very limited temper and can get angry very easy. (Carlson, Shin, & Booth, 1999).
In addition to children being diagnosed with ADHD, there are also many children being diagnosed with a type of conduct disorder. There are many reasons that a child can be diagnosed with this disorder, including family dynamics. Parenting techniques and behaviors play a large role in children who have conduct disorders, parents who show behaviors such as "punitive discipline, inconsistency, low warmth and involvement, and physical aggression... are correlated with conduct problems". (Powell, Lochman, & Boxmeyer, 2007).
According to an article written in December of 2007, there are clear predictors for conduct disorders. "Physical aggression in early childhood is one of the strongest and most stable predictors of future conduct problems." (Powell, Lochman, & Boxmeyer, 2007) . In addition to physical aggression the article states that "irritability, restlessness, irregular patterns of behavior, lack of persistence, and low adaptability" are all possible precursors for conduct problems. (Powell, Lochman, & Boxmeyer, 2007). Another factor that needs to be considered is the neurobiological factors. There is a lot of research that is supporting the fact that conduct disorders may have a genetic influence, which is resulting in "40% heritability estimate for anti-social behavior." (Powell, Lochman, & Boxmeyer, 2007).
Possible prevention techniques include but are not limited to "universal and indicated preventive interventions." (Powell, Lochman, & Boxmeyer, 2007). The universal interventions include the following: "nurse-family partnership, triple-p positive parenting programme, and the good behavior game." (Powell, Lochman, & Boxmeyer, 2007). The indicated preventive interventions include: "the family check-up, the incredible years training series, and the coping power programme." (Powell, Lochman, & Boxmeyer, 2007).
All of the above are used to prevent the diagnosis of a conduct disorder in a child. The universal interventions are being used to "reduce the prevalence of conduct problems by providing an intervention to all individuals within a certain population." (Powell, Lochman, & Boxmeyer, 2007) . The indicated preventive interventions "target individuals with identifiable risk factors for conduct problems." (Powell, Lochman, & Boxmeyer, 2007).
Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder is strongly related to Conduct Disorder. According to the textbook, there is a 30% -50% chance that the child who has been diagnosed with ADHD can develop into having a CD. Conduct Disorder can be described as "a form of disruptive behavior disorder in which the child exhibits an early, persistent, and extreme pattern of aggressive and anti-social acts that involve the infliction of pain on others or interference with others' rights through physical and verbal aggression, stealing, vandalism, truancy, or running away." (Mash, & Wolfe, 2007).
According to another source, there were 93 boys examined out of 126 patients at an acute children's psychiatric unit. The children were all examined at it was determined that these children were diagnosed with the following: there were 26 children with a conduct disorder, there were 21 children with ADHD, and there were 21 children who were both CD and ADHD. In addition to the above numbers, there was also a control group of the remainder of the boys which was 25, these children showed other disorders other than CD or ADHD. This data clearly shows the strong correlation between ADHD and CD. (Kolko, 1993).
Carlson, C.L., Shin, M., & Booth, J. (1999). The Case for dsm-iv subtypes in adhd. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 5. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.snhu.edu/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=104&sid=001e8e37-e488-4a41-a3b9-4a5cbd553804%40sessionmgr111&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&AN=11782004
Kolko, D.J. (1993). Conduct disorder and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity in child inpatients: comparisons on home and hospital measures. Journal of Emotional and Behaviorial Disorders, 1(2), Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.snhu.edu/ehost/detail?vid=10&hid=3&sid=03193e57-a31c-40f3-8e9d-9d3dd28faf87%40sessionmgr113&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=psyh&AN=1994-17621-001
Mash, E.J., & Wolfe, D.A. (2007). Abnormal child psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Powell, N.R., Lochman, J.E., & Boxmeyer, C.L. (2007). The Prevention of conduct problems. International Review of Psychiatry, 19(6), Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.snhu.edu/ehost/detail?vid=6&hid=3&sid=001e8e37-e488-4a41-a3b9-4a5cbd553804%40sessionmgr111&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&AN=27949678