Since the psychological construct of self-monitoring was introduced by Snyder in 1974 in his article"Self-Monitoring of Expressive Behavior" a very large number of studies have been held in order to investigate in depth the influence that self-monitoring has. Most of the studies have shown that indeed self-monitoring influences human behavior in a variety of settings ( Sue-Ellen Kjeldal).

According to Snyder (1974) people exhibit different behaviors when it comes to social and situational cues depending on what behaviors are most applicable. In other words, different states in self-monitoring have to do with the variations in how willing or apt someone is to regulate his or her behavior and self-presentation in especial situations.

The Self-Monitoring(SM) Scale was also developed by Snyder. The SM Scale's purpose is to detect differences in the types of cues to which people respond. It comprises of items evaluating observation, controlling or adjustment of the expressed behavior displayed by the respondents in different settings (encyclopedia).

People who score high on SM Scale are referred to as high self-monitors. These individuals are sensible to the rightness of the exhibited behavior and are susceptible to the society's perception of correct behavior in different social cues. For example someone who scored high in the SM Scale most probably would have answered positively in a question like: "In order to get along and be liked, I tend to be what people expect me to be rather than anything else". On the other hand low scoring people (low self-monitors) are finding it difficult to adjust in a specific social situation, mostly because they are controlled by their inner feelings and their dispositions. They also do not try to alter their behavior in order to fit in a situation. A low self monitor would have positively answered the following type of question: "My behavior is usually an expression of my true inner feelings, attitudes, and beliefs".

The majority of the research has focused in examining behavioral differences between the two self-monitoring states. Some examples of interesting findings are that high self-monitors often display greater adjustment in social situations than low self-monitors. In contrast low self-monitors seem to show bigger reciprocation between inner attitudes and feelings and displayed behaviors than those who scored high in the SM Scale.

The aim of the specific research is to investigate the relationship between Self-Monitoring, gender and age. More specifically the purpose of the study is to discover if Self-Monitoring orientation is affected by age or/and age differences. Gender differences have been studied in depth during the previous years and most of the studies have shown that actually there are few, if any systematic differences between men and women in self-monitoring orientation. In contrast when it comes to age it is rather obvious, though proved by evidence, that self-monitoring which is strongly connected with identity status is mostly developed through adolescence and early adulthood along with various skills that contribute to the self-monitoring procedure like sensitive perspective-taking skills, increased social acuity, and a greater efficiency to adapt to different communicative settings.



For conducting the specific study, data from eighty six college students from City College Thessaloniki were used. Twenty nine of them were males and fifty nine females. Participation in this experiment partially fulfilled a course requirement. The participants were 2nd year students during the academic years of 2007-2008, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010.


Participants had to complete four different questionnaires; each questionnaire was designed to measure different psychological constructs. Anomy (McClosky & Schaar, 1965), Locus of control scale (Rotter, 1966), Self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965), Social desirability scale (Crowne & Marlowe, 1964) and Self-monitoring scale (Snyder, 1987). For the specific study only Snyder's 25 items Self-Monitoring Scale was used. Participants also had to provide with extra information like gender, age and GPA.

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