Sigmund freud's psychoanalysis

Differentiate between Psychodynamic and Cognitive Behavioural Therapies and then Summarise and Evaluate the Role they have to play in Clinical hypnosis.

This assignment will inform the reader of how Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is derived from Psychodynamic therapies, and explore the notion that the concept of the unconscious mind has been around much longer that even Freud's discovery of Psychoanalysis.

Psychodynamic therapy is a broad term used to encompass many of the psychoanalytical approaches derived from Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis. Freud's theories, ideas and terms stimulated the development of alternative theories. Resulting in the rejection of some his fundamental principles and assumptions, but retaining enough of his influence to be described as psychodynamic Gross (2005).

Amongst Freud's many concepts and theories is the notion that humans are driven by sexual and aggressive urges, are in a constant state of conflict and these conflicting thoughts, feelings and wishes are beyond our conscious awareness Dryden (2002). According to psychoanalytic theory, much of our behaviour is determined by unconscious thoughts and wishes. Freud postulated two types of unconscious: the unconscious proper and the pre-unconscious Colledge (2002) and thought that hypnosis concealed resistances Kroger (1977).

In contrast Jung and Adler rejected Freud's views that sexual drive was primary, and supported the notion that aggression was in response to frustration Bateman, et al., (2000). Jung and Adler went on to define their own schools of psychoanalysis Analytical Psychology and Individual Psychology respectively.

Alderian individual psychology takes an holistic approach to therapy Colledge (2002). The patient is encouraged to gain insight into their faulty perceptions and social values. Which is A process of re-orienting with the short-term and long-term goals to readjust their personal concepts and attitudes is then done.

Adler and Jung both rejected Freuds emphasis on sexuality and went on to form their own schools of psychotherapy. Alder to formulated individual psychology and

Jung placed little importance to childhood experiences, and considered the collective consciousness seeing human being a whole

Unconscious offers a way of healing not just for an individual, but for the collective society. Papadopoulos (2006)

his includes Adler's Individual Therapy, Jungian Analytical therapy and Klienien therapies of an analytic nature.

Psychodynamic therapy is the oldest of the modern therapies. (Freud's psychoanalysis is a specific form and subset of psychodymanic therapy.) As such, it is based in a highly developed and multifaceted theory of human development and interaction. This chapter demonstrates how rich it is for adaptation and further evolution by contemporary therapists for specific purposes. The material presented in this chapter provides a quick glance at the usefulness and the complex nature of this type of therapy.

In traditional psychotherapy the therapist is discouraged from self-disclosing or offering any kind of encouragement. The patient is encouraged to transfer and project their deep feelings about themselves, it is then down to the therapist to translate any feelings and decode any information that emerges from the therapy. This is a long-term therapy which can go on for years and many therapists will expect the patient to attend sessions for up to three or four times per week. Clearly an expensive form of therapy from the patient's perspective.

According to Kroger (1977) Freud took hypnotic rapport and labelled it transference.

Adler also rejected the emphasis on sexuality and supported the notion that people ae an indivisible

Freud in 1902 by invitation to , but parted company in 1911 to perue his own interests in

Epistemology

According to Dryden (2005) Jung's analytical psychology is a blend of Freud's psychoanalysis and Adler's individual psychology.

The greatest part of our mental and emotional life is hidden Kahan (2002)

According to Adler there are three major tasks required in life, these are work, friendship and love. This was probably a sign of the times ass the way people could fulfil their life tasks were seen to get a job have a social life and friends, getting married and having children Dryden (2005)

The idea of the unconscious mind does not of course begin with Jung or Freud. Brown (1966 cited in Bassett, 1986, p.142) f

Klienian psychotherapy

Jung's analytical therapy

In Adlerian psychotherapy, the patient is encouraged to gain

therapy take an holistic

and

In classical psychoanalysis the analyst is to remain faceless not to show any emotions, or self disclose

The patient arrives at their own conclusions through exploring how they feel. The psychoanalyst can do this by pointing out inconsistencies in the patients thinking, ultimately encouraging the patient to explore their own minds and build on the interpretations.

Klienian approach to life is a series of events that have to be endured, experienced and overcome. The belief is that Humans possess the ability to tap into resources deep within the human psyche waiting to be mobilized .

Klienian regressive - trying t understand what went on in early childhood

Klienien psychotherapy anxiety can spur on development to personal achievement providing it's not too excessive.

Rigidity in one discipline, immolated

Elements of hypnosis throughout history

Appraise

Adlerian view is that everyone is born with a desire to belong.

Innocuous

Alder said that the dreams were the factory of the emotions and tat remembered dreams fit within the patient's life style and never contradict it

Adler sometimes used for clients fighting new symptoms was to increase the symptom or behaviour, this is known as paradoxical intention.

Rogers and Wolpe were trained in Freudian techniques

Farrell (1981) criticizes the limitation imposed by strict adherence to one kind of analytic theory.

Criticism of psychotherapy

The role of the psychotherapist is centred entirely on transference and its interpretation

View external events of no primary importance, but we know that these events can either exacerbate or alleviate certain aspects of the personality.

Gestalt therapy

Proliferation

Prevalence

Espouse

Moreover .

Encouragement, reassurance and advice-giving are avoided

Clearly psychoanalysis has many limitations of

Espouses

The aim of psychoanalysis was not to reduce suffering, but was living with one's own limitation and conflicts Drydens book(2005, p39)

Psychoanalytic treatment has changed over the years along with its changing conceptualisations of the psychological problems Steiner (1998) .

Transference

According to Colledge (2002) repression is the result of painful

According to Perelberg (1999) we should not lose sight of the purpose of aggressions

Freud's theory of compulsion to repeat

Freud's model of the mind suggest we live our live in a state of constant conflict generate by opposing demands of the id, ego and superego.

Cognitive neuroscience demonstrates that most of the brain is non-conscious and we are able to attain memories without any conscious awareness, thinking and decision making all involve unconscious aspects of the mind (Milner et al., 1998)

Behaviour therapy is primarily concerned with problem assessment and goal setting whereas psychoanalysis is ambivalent

It is well know that Freud is one of the greatest contributors to modern Psychology offering theories of motivation, the relationship between sleep and dreams, forgetting,

Freud's original model of the mind consisted of three levels of consciousness: the conscious, the unconscious and the pre- conscious.

However his revised model of the human psyche consisted of three opposing forces the id, ego and superego.

his theory of 'free association' helping the patients to bring that unconscious material into consciousness

Kahan (2000).

Freud hypothesis was that the mind was made up of three opposing forces: the id, ego and superego. In contrast Alder believed that

Psychoanalysis questions the trustworthiness of human communication (Lemma as cited in Dryden (2005).

"Another Freudian concept in the psychoanalytic theory of personality includes defense mechanisms, which develop in the unconscious. Defense mechanisms are ways in which the ego deals with endopsychic conflicts. These mechanisms help us deal with inner conflicts in a way that lets the ego remain intact and unscathed. Projection, reaction formation, fixation, regression, and repression are some of the better-known defense mechanisms Freud identified.

Freud also scrutinized the unconscious."

"Freud believed that the definitive force in all activity was sexuality. Unfulfilled sexuality led to pathological conditions. Jung accepted sex as important, but believed that it was only one drive. He contended that humans are also driven by their need to achieve full self-knowledge. He felt many emotions drive psychologically unhealthy patterns of behavior. What unites these was the desire to feel basic completeness. (Ellis-Christensen, 2007; "Carl Gustav Jung," 2003) Jung would not accept the notion that sex underlay every problem. This limited the psyche by having sex define everything. (Trilling, 1974) He had always been cautious about this, while Freud grew increasingly dogmatic. (Davis, 1997; Ellis-Christensen, 2007)"

Aaron Beck (1976) was the first analyst who clearly formulated a method to free associate, giving to the patient on-the-spot technical indications for accessing

spontaneous unconscious manifestations, or, as he called them, 'automatic thoughts

Freud's psychoanalytic was the original psychodynamic theory, in which unconscious motivating forces play a central. Dreams, neurotic symptoms and defence mechanisms represent three types of compromise through which the ego tries to meet the conflicting demands of the id and superego. Gross (2005)

It can be difficult to conceive how much the world has changed from Freudian concepts, even today phases such as the Freudian slip and the Ego stem from Freud.

Understanding just how much our world was changed because of Freud's work can be difficult to grasp, for we are immersed in a world of Freudian concepts. Every time we make reference to doing something "unconsciously", or refer to someone as having a big "ego", we are using Freudian terms. (Most people in our culture in fact find it hard to believe that some cultures have no concept of "unconscious" processes!) As a result, it can be useful to explore the background of Freud's life, and the nature of our culture before his ideas so profoundly altered it.

and remains one of the more influential theorists in the history of Psychology.

Jung shared Freud's belief that dreams are the 'royal road to the unconscious' but he disagreed with Freud that all dreams are wish fulfillment. Jung considered dreams as means of attaining self-knowledge to achieve individuation.

Dreams help to re-establish 'the total psychic equilibrium' and they are useful pointers to the future e.g. by suggesting a solution to a problem/ conflict. According to Jung, dream symbols do not have a fixed meaning. He also encouraged study of dream series (several dreams of the same individual recorded over a period of time).

Major concepts of Jung's psychology include Archetypes which are our primitive images which appear in fairy tales, myths, legends and folklore etc. Unlike memory images of past experience, archetypes are not fully developed pictures in the mind.

Persona, anima, animus, shadow and self are most important archetypes.

The holistic approach of Adlerian therapy is based on Adler's Individual Psychology, which he used to describe the indivisibility of a person. Adler pointed out people should be viewed in their social contexts in order that their goals can be identified. People choose their own goals based on their subjective perceptions of themselves and their world, their bodies, minds and feelings in harmony with their consistent movement towards these goals. According to Adler, everyone develops some sense of inferiority because they are born completely helpless and remain relatively weak and dependent during a long childhood. This

Freud

Shared aim mutual growth

Competition

Self disclosure

The therapeutic relationship itself is important

Other therapeutic psychodynamic therapies derive from Freuds psychoanalysis

A great deal o our inner life is designed to protetct us from anxiety,guilt shame and the defence mechanisms we use are so often maladaptive.

Cause more suffering than good

1humans have a puzzling unconscious compulsion to repeat early painful experiences

Childhood Relationship difficulties are likely to have a lasting impact

Meaningful revealing sense to dreams

Our first relationships make an enduring impression on us and colour of view of subsequent

Ones

Argues persuasively

Personal and collective conscious jung

Instant gratification

Freud's unconscious, preconscious and perceptual consciousness

Three agencies of the mind id, ego and super ego

Gestalt and Cognitive therapies maintain a strong focus on current life and solution focussed therapy and orientation towards the future. (Dryde individual therapy book p16)

and went on to take a broader meaning as Freud extended his ideas about the mind Jarvis (2003). Freud's early works focussed on the parts of the mind ### and between childhood and adult events. However his later works focussed more on the unconscious elements and interactions between people.

A controversial review

Eysenck (1952) published a review discrediting the effectiveness of psychoanalysis concluding it was no more effective than spontaneous remission. However, Eysencks methodology has been discredited

According to Whyte (1960) the concept of conscious processes was conceivable around 1700, topical around 1800 and fashionable around 1870-1880.

Introduction 500

This assignment demonstrates that CBT under hypnosis provides a quicker

Client

Limited

Freud,

1. Manifestation of the unconscious mind

2. Conversion (Hysteria)

3. Parapraxis (The Freudian slip)

4. Dream work

5. Defence mechanisms

a. Denial and disavowal

b. Projection

c. Repression

d. Reaction

6. Psychosexuality

1. Seduction theory

2. Psychosexual development

i. Libido plasticity & object relations

ii. Fixation

iii. Oral Phase

iv. Anal phase

v. Infantile genital (Phallic) phase

Adler,

1. Individual psychology

2. The unconscious mind

3. Determinism & teleology

4. Dreams

5. Inferiority complex and drive for superiority

a. Inferiority and domestic violence

b. Inferiority complex and coping style

c. Compensation

6. Family dynamics

7. Research into birth order

8. Style of life and personality

9. Social Interest

Jung,

1. Analytical psychology

2. The unconscious mind

a. Libido and instinct

b. Dreams

3. The individual consciousness

a. Word association

b. Personality types

c. Research into Jungian types

4. The collective consciousness

a. Archetypes

b. Archetypal parts of the personality

c. Applications of the archetype theory

Kleinian,

1. Defining object relations

2. Klienien theory

a. Instinct and phantasy

b. Introjection and the inner world

c. Developmental positions

Eriksons theory of lifespan development

Jung, Adler, Perls, Beck (Cognitive Therapy), Ellis (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy) provide a brief overview of each theorist.

Cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic therapy are the most commonly used psychotherapeutic treatments of mental disorders in adults (Goisman et al., 1999).

Freud the relationship between dreams and sleep, forgetting, attachment, the effects of

Psychoanalytic theory

Evolution so adult consciousness

An analogy

Learning to drive, in the beginning it's difficult to process all the information, but after practice it becomes unconscious

Rubin's vase

Cognitive approach uses analogies and metaphors when trying to describe what's going on in the brain, in particular the computer analogy and the view of people as information processors (Gross

Culture

Repression- Parkin (1993) cites evidence that regressive mechanisms may play a part in enabling people with PSTD to adjust.

Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams1900

psychoanalysis had significant impact

motivation and mental processes laid the foundation for all psychodynamic theories

All psychodynamic theories stem from psychoanalysis, for Freud first developed the basic ideas which underlie the approach as a whole--particularly the idea that understanding behavior requires insight into the thoughts and feelings which motivate our actions. While the textbook deals extensively with the basic concepts of psychoanalysis, in many ways the theory is intertwined with the man. Indeed, one could argue that in no other approach has one person had such a dominating influence, not even Watson for Behaviourism, or Rogers for Humanistic Psychology. Consequently, it should not be surprising that Freud was ranked higher than any other psychologists on various lists of scientists and thinkers of the last millennium. While many other psychodynamic theories exist today, Freud still casts a long shadow, as the following resources show.

Thus, Freud saw dreams as having a symbolic meaning that could only be fully understood in the context of the individual's overall behaviour

http://www.sparknotes.com/101/psychology/personality/psychodynamic_theories.html

http://wapedia.mobi/en/Psychodynamics

Psychodynamic and cognitive therapies originate from the 19th century

Freud

The notion of psychic conflict is central to psychoanalysis Lemma (2007) Windy Dryden book.

Freud thinks people are stuck somewhere in the past, an unconscious conflict between the id and the ego...

In order to protect the ego defence mechanism are called into place preventing the discomfort of anxiety

Early experiences

An important distinction is that consciousness and self-consciousness / awareness. Self awareness allows us to see ourselves

According to Freud the psychic apparatus consist of the id, ego and superego. The id and the ego are governed by the pleasure principle and reality principle respectively. The superego comprises the conscience and ego-ideal, representing the punishing and rewarding parent respectively

Marvellous intricate complexity.

Important factor that influence self-disclosure includes reciprocity, norms, trust, quality of relationship and gender. Gross (2003)

Cognitive-development theories are concerned with the reasons underlying moral judgments rather than the judgements themselves. Gross (2005)

Bandura's social learning theory investigates Freud's concept of identification, largely through laboratory experiments of imitation aggression. Gross (2005)

The focus lies in the here and now. Individualized, usually time-limited therapy goals are formulated. CBT intends to directly target symptoms, reduce distress, re-evaluate thinking and promote helpful behavioural responses

putting what has been learned into practice between sessions ("homework"). The patient learns to attribute improvement to his or her own efforts (self-efficacy). A trusting and safe therapeutic alliance is viewed as an essential ingredient, but not as the main vehicle of change.

A style of trained questioning (called "Socratic dialogue" or "guided recovery") gently probes for patient meanings and stimulates alternative viewpoints or ideas.

Cognitive therapy, developed by Albert Ellis and Aaron T. Beck in the 1950s and 1960s, is the

application of the cognitive model to a disorder with the use of different techniques to modify the dysfunctional beliefs (Beck, 1995; Beck, 2005).

In combination with behavioral techniques, CBT rapidly became a favorite

intervention to study in psychotherapy research in academic settings

during the last 25 to 30 years (Dobson, 2000)

In the last years, new (cognitive) behavior therapies have been developed

(Hayes et al., 2004). "The new behavior therapies carry forward the

behavior therapy tradition, but they (1) abandon a sole commitment to

first-order change, (2) adopt more contextualistic assumptions, (3) adopt

more experiential and indirect change strategies in addition to direct

strategies, and (4) considerably broaden the focus of change" (Hayes,

2004, p. 6). For example, faced with the challenges of patients with

personality disorders. Young (1994) developed schema-focused therapy.

In the schema-focused model, developmental dimensions of patients'

psychopathology are emphasised, and in the schema-focused therapy,

experiential and interpersonal techniques are integrated.

The emphasis psychodynamic psychotherapy places on the relational aspects of transference is a key technical difference between it and cognitive-behavioural therapies (Cutler et al., 2004).

Interpretive interventions enhance the patient's insight about repetitive conflicts sustaining

his or her problems (Luborsky, 1984; Gabbard, 2000).

Supportive interventions aim to strengthen abilities that are temporarily inaccessible

because of acute stress (e.g. traumatic events) or that have not been sufficiently developed (e.g. impulse control in borderline personality disorder). These abilities are conceptualized in psychodynamic psychotherapy as "ego functions" (BeUak, Hurvich, & Gediman, 1973)

Discussion 2000

Appraise the theoretical concepts attributed to each theorist and summarise how they have been integrated into hypnotherapy.

Conclusion 500

Key cognitions also vary from one individual to the next and treatment is based on the cognitive formulation of the disorder and on the specific conceptualization of the individual client

Briefly assess, evaluate and give your opinion on the positive aspects of each of the school in relation to hypnotherapy.

The role of insight as a factor of therapeutic success is qualified in current concepts of psychodynamic therapy. Not only the insight-erihancing, but also the relational dimension of an intervention (e.g. not only what the therapist says, but the way he or she says it), is regarded as an important corrective factor (Gabbard, 2003). For example, a therapist who empathically interprets a patient's aggressive, sexual, or perverse wish also conveys to the patient that he accepts him in spite of these wishes, thus

increasing the patient's capability to tolerate and accept these wishes himself. In this process, identification with the therapist may play an important therapeutic role. "If the therapy accepts me in spite of these wishes, maybe I can accept them as well."

Helping people to get better rather than feel better is one of the key factors in REBT Ellis (1972).

According to Lazarus (1989) REBT uses a multimodal method cognitive, emotive and behavioural.

Rational thinking leads to a reduction in the intensity, frequency and duration of emotional disturbance Walen et al (1992) Ellis (1980) REBT distinguishes between appropriate and inappropriate emotions and more recently healthy and unhealthy emotions Dryden (1995).

REBT is quicker because

Clients often cling to their irrational beliefs with considerable tenacity

Ellis (1979) advised therapists to attack such beliefs with force. Whilst this approach may work for some clients, other may find it too overwhelming and could be counter productive.

Types of homework,

Cognitive: written / thinking, reading listening to tapes Wessler (1980) to help the clients to become more informed about REBT

Behavioural tasks : typically two types of homework stay-in-there and risk taking. The stay-in-there encourage the client to face the most aversive task early on.

ameliorate

Emotive tasks : The most well known emotive technique is shame attacking exercises Ellis (1969) the purpose of the task is to act in a shameful way in order to attack criticism for example a man walking into a chemist shop and asking for a packet of small sized condoms) just because I act in a foolish manner does not mean I'm a foolish person.

Imagery tasks : Imagining

A client is essentially thinking about their thinking.

Happiness assignment:

The importance of creating a win-win situation. Do not negotiate homework tasks in terms of success or failure emphasis the fact that some learning's can be extracted from the experience.

Self efficacy theory Clients are more likely to carry out the homework if the perceive they have sufficient skills to perform the task.

It uses Jung's concept of self actualisation

Phobias Motivators, if a client was offered a million pounds to hold a snake

Includes Rogers theory and practice of unconditional positive regard or full acceptance.

Homework assignments uses operant conditioning and employs in-vivo desensitisations techniques

Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (REBT) founded by American psychologist Albert Ellis

Introverts should be more easily conditioned than extraverts, but the evidence is equivocal. Eysenck assumes that condition ability is a unitary trait, but this has never been demonstrated and represents a weakness of the theory. Gross (2005)

Rogers theory is the self . Failure to maintain consistency between our self-image and our actions produces incongruence. Defence mechanisms may then be used, but these prevent the self from growing and changing widening the gap between self-image and reality. Gross (2005)

Defence mechanisms involve some degree of self deception and distortion of reality which, in the short term, prevent us from being overwhelmed by anxiety. But as long-term solutions, they're unhealthy and undesirable. Gross (2005)

In jungs analytical psychology, the Freudian unconscious is largely personal. It comprises of much more than repressed material including complexes. Gross (2005)

Complexes originate in the in the collective / racial unconscious, a reservoir of primordial images or archetypes, stemming from our ancestral past. Most important are the persona, anima / animus, the shadow and the self. Gross (2005)

Jungian therapy aims to bring the patient into contact with the healing collective unconscious, largely through dream interpretation. Gross (2005)

Ellis argues that all irrational thoughts are the main cause of all types of emotional distress and behaviour disorders.... Gross (2005)

The aims of psychoanalysis are to provide insight. The analyst remains anonymous which facilitates transference. Interpreting transference is a distinctive feature of psychoanalysis, as is the counter transference. Gross (2005)

Psychodynamic psychotherapy represents a modified form of psychoanalysis.

Cognative-behavioural therapy is based on the view that clinical disorders involve faulty thoughts / cognitions, which produce maladaptive behaviour. Cognitive restructuring is a means to the end of changing emotions and behaviour.

According to Ellis's rational emotive therapy (RET), irrational thoughts are the main cause of all types of emotional / behavioural disorders. Meichenbaum's self-instructional training claims that neurotic behaviour is due to faulty internal dialogue.

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Psychodynamic Psychology: Classical Theory and Contemporary Research (Paperback)

by Matt Jarvis (Author) "The psychodynamic approach to studying human experience, motivation and development derives from the work of Sigmund Freud (see Chapters 2 and 3 for a detailed..."(more)

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Psychodynamic-Psychology-Classical-Contemporary-Research/dp/1861527470/ref=sr_1_4?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1254422012&sr=8-4

References

Kroger WS (1977) Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 2nd edition Lippincott

Bateman, A. Brown, D & Pedder, J (2000). Introduction to Psychotherapy: An Outline of Psychodynamic Principles and Practice 3rd edition Rowtledge

Erwin, Edward. (1980). "Psychoanalytic therapy: The Eysenck argument." American Psychologist 35, no. 5: 435-443. PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost (accessed October 1, 2009).

Michael Kahan (2002).

Whyte

Whyte L.L. (1960). The Unconscious Before Freud" New York: Basic Books.

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