Anxiety is a type of mood that is distinctive due to the extreme negativity. This negativity is shown physically, cognitively, and behaviorally. Anxiety causes the individual to fear the future danger that may be endured. Any person who experiences the above more severe and excessive than usual is now placed into the category of anxiety disorders. There are many individuals, including children who are diagnosed with multiple types of anxiety disorders that either occur together or at different times of their lives. (Mash, & Wolfe, 2007). Anxiety takes place in stages. The first part is the individual's instantaneous response to the danger or threat that is thought of by the individual. This is called the fight or flight response. This reaction basically describes itself. The individual will either stay and fight the anxiety and try to over come it, or will leave the situation or the stimuli that is causing the anxiety. (Mash, & Wolfe, 2007). There are many physical symptoms that go along with an anxiety disorder. They include but at not limited to: an increased heart rate, heavy breathing, upset stomach, dry mouth, numbness, and sweating. (Mash, & Wolfe, 2007). In addition to the physical symptoms, there are cognitive and behavioral symptoms that are indicators of some type of anxiety disorders. Examples of cognitive symptoms are: hard time concentrating, forgetfulness, a feeling of low self-esteem, and a feeling of not being able to complete tasks. Examples of behavioral symptoms are: crying, nail biting, not moving, fidgeting, repeated swallowing, not making eye contact, and stuttering words. (Mash, & Wolfe, 2007). Begin Match to source 11 in source list: (5-13-09) http://www.kptm.com/global/story.asp?s=1230400There areEnd Match many Begin Match to source 11 in source list: (5-13-09) http://www.kptm.com/global/story.asp?s=1230400different types of anxiety disorders,End Match some of Begin Match to source 11 in source list: (5-13-09) http://www.kptm.com/global/story.asp?s=1230400theEnd Match most common ones include: separation Begin Match to source 6 in source list: Submitted to University of Technology, Sydney on 2009-11-09anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder.End Match (Mash, & Wolfe, 2007). Begin Match to source 6 in source list: Submitted to University of Technology, Sydney on 2009-11-09TheEnd Match treatment Begin Match to source 6 in source list: Submitted to University of Technology, Sydney on 2009-11-09of anxietyEnd Match disorders include behavior therapy which is basically exposure of the anxiety and showing the patient ways to cope with that anxiety. (Mash, & Wolfe, 2007). Another form of treatment includes cognitive behavior therapy, which is the most common used treatment. It combines behavior therapy as well as showing the patient how their way of thinking leads them to an anxiety episode. In addition to the above it will teach the patient how to change their thoughts and actions in order to reduce or avoid said anxieties. (Mash, & Wolfe, 2007). According to an article published in 2009, targeting the parent's anxiety in addition to the child's anxiety, may not Begin Match to source 13 in source list: Salkind. Encyclopedia of Human Developmentwork as well asEnd Match it should. Begin Match to source 13 in source list: Salkind. Encyclopedia of Human DevelopmentTheEnd Match study Begin Match to source 13 in source list: Salkind. Encyclopedia of Human DevelopmentthatEnd Match was conducted showed that as the child became less anxious the parents became better parents without treatment of the parent's anxiety. (Silverman, Kurtines, Jaccard, & Pina, 2009). The third form of treatment includes family interventions. This treatment allows for the family to help the patient with their anxiety disorder. Perhaps someone else in the family suffers too and is showing their anxiety to the patient and therefore causing the patient more harm than good. In order for the patient to get the best results, the family of the patient must be aware and understanding of the anxiety disorder and it allows the family to learn techniques to cope with anxiety. (Mash, & Wolfe, 2007). The fourth and final form of treatment is medications. Pharmacology should always be the last resort especially for a child. Medication is a wonderful tool that if it used properly can be very effective. Begin Match to source 12 in source list: Submitted to CSU Office of the Chancellor on 2006-04-02The most commonEnd Match type Begin Match to source 12 in source list: Submitted to CSU Office of the Chancellor on 2006-04-02of medicationEnd Match that is used Begin Match to source 12 in source list: Submitted to CSU Office of the Chancellor on 2006-04-02for anxietyEnd Match disorders Begin Match to source 12 in source list: Submitted to CSU Office of the Chancellor on 2006-04-02isEnd Match SSRIs which is called selective seretonin re-uptake inhibitors. Medications are not used as frequently as cognitive behavior therapy due to the fact that sometimes the medications might not help the patient for the same time period. (Mash, & Wolfe, 2007). Anxiety disorders and mood disorders are similar in the fact that it is dealing with the individual's state of mind. A mood disorder is described as a feeling of all sorts of negative emotions such as not being happy, extremely moody, and thinks very little of themselves in terms of continuing to live their life. This disorder is not to be taken lightly especially for young children. (Mash, & Wolfe, 2007). Depression disorders and bipolar disorders are the two main kinds of mood disorders. Depression disorder is continuously being sad, or upset. There is no feeling of happiness or joy. Some symptoms include being unable to sleep for the night or constantly sleeping, a lack of enthusiasm, and a poor self-esteem. (Mash, & Wolfe, 2007). Depression is then further broken down into two subtypes called Major Depressive Disorder and Dysthmic Disorder. The main difference between the two is the length of the depression. MDD, symptoms occur for at least two weeks, and the DD for a full year. (Mash, & Wolfe, 2007). Treatment for depression includes: behavior therapy - teaching the patient coping skills as well as social skills, cognitive therapy - focusing the individual to become more aware of their negative thoughts and emotions and possibly go from negative to positive, cognitive behavioral therapy - combines both behavior therapy and cognitive therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy for adolescent depression - takes a family approach to depression and shows the individual how to deal with their own negativeness and the effects that it has on themselves as well as their families, and finally medication - pharmacology that is used to help individuals by using SSRIs and anti-depression medications. (Mash, & Wolfe, 2007). According to an article published in 1999, treatment of mood disorders does not only have to do with the individual who is suffering from the mood disorder, but must include the family and the school system too. Treatment of mood disorders must reduce the length of the patient's symptoms and try and stop these stimuli from effecting the patient and causing the mood disorder to re-occur. Finally the treatment must limit the amount of negative effects of the mood disorder in the patient's life. (Emslie, & Mayes, 1999). The second major type of mood disorder is called bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is a time period of extreme moodiness, and irritability. Individuals with bipolar disorder show difficulty functioning in daily life as well as a previous possible hospital stay and anxiety disorders. In addition to the above sleep deprivation, excessive agitation, an increase in the individual's self-esteem, and reckless behavior are also symptoms of bipolar disorder. (Mash, & Wolfe, 2007). There is no cure for bipolar disorder, but there are treatment options. These treatment options include: watching the patient's symptoms and noting any changes, teaching the patient and their family about bipolar disorder - what to expect and how to cope, therapy sessions, and possible medications. The most common medication given to those with BP, above the age of 12, is lithium. The goal for treatment of bipolar disorder is to decrease the individual's symptoms of the disorder and to promote the patient's healthy lifestyle. (Mash, & Wolfe, 2007). According to an article written in 1999, lithium, the drug of choice for bipolar disorder, is effective only 65% of the time. In addition, the relapse rate of those who are taking lithium is 37%. That is a huge number for those who are medicated and going through therapy. There are different types of bipolar disorder, and depending on which type the individual has, there is an increased difficulty to treat those who have the more advanced and more severe types of bipolar disorder. Therefore making the relapse rate increase and the effectiveness decrease. (Silva, Matzner, Diaz, Singh, & Dummit, 1999). Anxiety and Mood disorders are serious disorders that should not be overlooked. They both have some similar symptoms and can be co-morbid at times. They both deal with the individual's state of mind and are not diagnosed as often as they should be in children, although recently there has been an increase. Anxiety and Mood disorders both have treatment plans that do not always have medication attached. They both have the options of therapy of some type, which should always be used first. Medication, no matter the age, should be a last resort and used for extreme circumstances. Some medication can be very useful in controlling the individual's moods and anxiety, but sometimes the medication can do more harm than good.
Emslie, G.J., & Mayes, T.L. (1999). Depression in children and adolescents: a guide to diagnosis and treatment. CNS Drugs, 11(3), Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.snhu.edu/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=2&sid=9b068579-bd89-471a-a16a- 5879410deed6%40sessionmgr10&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&A N=9523406
Mash, E.J., & Wolfe, D.A. (2007). Abnormal child psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Silva, R.R., Matzner, F., Diaz, J., Singh, S., & Dummit, E.S. (1999). Bipolar disorders in children and adolescents: a guide to diagnosis and treatment. CNS Drugs, 12(6), Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.snhu..edu/ehost/detail?vid=1&hid=2&sid=bf50660c-2610-47f6-acd5- 587f4e8e128e%40sessionmgr13&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&A N=9523318#db=a9h&AN=9523318.
Silverman, W.K., Kurtines, W.M, Jaccard, J., & Pina, A.A. (2009). Directionality of change in youth anxiety treatment involving parents: an intial examination. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 77(3), Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.snhu.edu/ehost/detail?vid=1&hid=102&si d=a60228e7-c14a-49b3-b6fb- 1007f2a8714c%40sessionmgr113&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&A N=42012111#db=a9h&A N=42012111