Sandler (1973, 1992, The patient and the analyst, London, Karnac Books) defined transference as " a specific illusion which develops in regard to the other person, one which, unbeknown to the subject, represents, in some of its features, a repetition of a relationship towards an important figure in the person's past or an externalization of an internal object relationship".
Keywords in the abovementioned are illusion, unbeknown, repetition of past relationship and internal object relationship. The specific definition includes both Freudian and Kleinian view of the clinical factor: transference which is going to be discussed in this paper.
Breuer and Freud (1985) saw transference as an obstacle. Freud was afraid that transference was a result of excessive influence that the doctor has on patient and that if psychoanalysis was focused on such phenomenon, then it could be assumed that it is a modifying form of hypnosis. In ???? , when he first talked about transference he mentioned: "But here I will pause, and let you have a word: for I see an objection boiling up in you so fiercely that it would make you incapable of listening if it were not put into words: 'Ah! So you have admitted it at last! You work with the help f suggestion, just like hypnotists!'"(Introductory lectures of Psychoanalysis).
However, he soon realised that transference has vital important for the understanding of the psyche. The transference at that time was adopted as an expression of the pathological oedipal adherence to the analyst, who represents the primitive relations of the patient to the parental figures (Freud, 1905c Fragment of Analysis of a case of Hysteria, S.E 7 Hogarth).
This ascertainment led to the transference neurosis (Freud, 1914c, Remembering, repeating and working through, S.E. 12, London, Hogarth cited in 1998) which include positive and negative transference. These transferences correspond to feelings and wishes of the initial oedipal situation which now relives in the analytic relationship.
In classic analysis, transference is the procedure in which the patient transfers his past experiences and feelings to the analyst while he doesn't know about this illusory connection and he understands that these feelings are connected to the present.
According this theory, transference reveals and allows the reliving??? Or reformation of the past to the present and this is how the patient can overcome the trauma of the past.
Here, the analyst is presented as a neutral screen on which the primitive wishes of the patient are appeared. At the same time, transference could be a source of resistance.
On the contrary, according to the Kleinian theory, Transference is not just a representation of unconscious psychic impulses but it is an emertion of latent meanings who are organized in the analytic relationship and they are recalled because of the relationship per se.
Here, transference has a wider meaning and it includes the interaction between the patient and the analyst, it represents the conflicts and it reflects the interaction between the internal object representations. It constitutes a scene where the internal drama of the patient acts with the analyst.
Whereas Freudian psychoanalysis' definition of transference is the replacement of the past to the present which is shaped from the experiences from the past, kleinian's definition concerns that the organization of the present situation is based on the internal objects. Frosh (????, The politics of Psychoanalysis- An introduction to Freudian and Post-Freudian Theory) states that: "The analyst is involved in the patient's psychological processes and he becomes an internalized object bringing about changes in the structure of the mind".
In classical theory, reality regarding transference is objective and based on distortion, in contrast to kleinian where the reality is subjective.
Motives behind transference in Freud's theory are the aggressive and libidinial impulses connected to the primitive wishes, fantasies and fears. Conversely, in Kleinian theory, motives' aim is adaptation so they organize emotional experiences that are demanded for the cohesion of the self.
The Freudian analyst is objective like a neutral, blank screen but the kleinian analyst contributes through interaction with the patient and he is subjective. Whereas the Freudian analyst functions as a mirror onto which the patient displaces his impulses, Kleinians describe the analyst as a receptacle into which internal figures are projected (Segal, 1981, cited in The politics of Psychoanalysis.....) .The analyst in the Freudian scenario, looks like a 'passive recipient of the patient's impulses and drives. Therapy for Forsh(????) should include 'the interplay of projection and integration' in relation to the analyst who acts as the 'container and transmuter' of the patient's feelings, rather than just trying to make the patient see himself precisely.
While the classic analyst intervenes uses interpretations of distortion, whereas the kleinian analyst is more directive and once the material is understandable, he intervenes immediately (Greenson, 1974, International Journal of Psychoanalysis, Transference: Freud or Klein). In Freudian's concept, interpretation will only be effective if the patient's ego is strengthen enough and they interpret from the surface to the depth, while Kleinians believe that transference should take place immediately and you do not have to know the background of the patient regarding siblings etc. The Klienian analyst is characterized with omniscience, he interprets deep material in the fisrt times and he acts with an air of certainty.
Rosenfield (1974, International Journal of Psychoanalysis, A discussion of the paper by R. Greenson on "Transference: Freud or Klein") assumes that "analytic intervention at the right level is particularly necessary when the anxiety is threatening to overwhelm the patient's ego and interrupt of the present analysis... Some transference phenomena will attach themselves to the analysis form the beginning".
When we talk about change in psychoanalysis we mean the reduction of primitive wishes and less distortion, while in Kleinian perspective the rough psychological schemas become more flexible and new schemas are coming up as a result of the analytic procedure.
Until about 1920, it was assumed that schizophrenic patients were incapable of forming a transference and therefore could not be psycho-analysed (Melanie Klein edited by Juliet Mitchell, ????, The selected Melanie Klein). Freud (???? Introductory lectures) said: "Observation shows that sufferers from narcissistic neuroses have no capacity for transference or only insufficient residues of it. They reject the doctor, not with hostility but with indifference. For that reason they cannot be influenced by him either; what he says leave them cold, makes no impression on them; consequently the mechanism of cure which we carry through with other people the revival of pathogenic conflict and the overcoming of the resistant through repression cannot be operated with them. They remain as they are".