What is ADHD

Question: ADHD & Conduct Disorder?Write a 2-page paper on the questions below, provided an outside JOURNAL reference for each topic. 1. Describe three types of attention deficits seen in children with ADHD, and provide an example of each. 2. How might family dynamics contribute to conduct problems in children? Is there a way to predict which children are more likely to develop antisocial behaviors on the basis of family factors? If so, how could this information be used in terms of prevention or early intervention? 3. Describe Conduct Disorder and if there is or is no relationship to ADHD substantiate with empirical research.

Children who are diagnosed with ADHD are diagnosed with Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder. This disorder can then be further broken down into 3 subcategories or subtypes. The subtypes include ADHD-PI, which is predominantly inattentive type, ADHD-HI, which is predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type, and ADHD-C, which is the combined type. (Mash, & Wolfe, p.124, 2007).

ADHD-PI, children can be described as those who have a short attention spana and who day dream often. These children could also potentially have a type of learning disability and process some information slowly. In addition to the above these children may have a memory problem and show a lower academic achievement than others. (Mash, & Wolfe, p.124, 2007).

An example of this subtype would be a 10 year old male, who has a hard time excelling in mathematics, including a hard time focusing his attention on memory recall, ex: multiplication tables, he is unable to recall these on command. (Carlson, Shin, & Booth, p.201, 1999).

ADHD-HI, is the rarest group. This group of children will include the younger children such as kindergarteners or preschoolers. This type of ADHD may also lack some validity for the older individuals such as elementary school children. (Mash, & Wolfe, p.125, 2007).

An example of this subtype would be a 5 year old male, who is very accident prone to unintentional injuries, as well as peer rejection problems - such as being on the outskirts of the group. He would also have a very hard time in mathematics, and would tend to not ask for help and keep his feelings and problems inside to himself. (Carlson, Shin, & Booth, p.201, 1999).

ADHD-C, this group of children doesn't necessarily have the memory problems like the PI children, but show more behaviorial issues and behaviorial persistence. These children could perhaps show aggression and defiance towards adults around them. In addition to the above, these chilren may also exhibit peer rejection and suspension from school. (Mash, & Wolfe, p. 124, 2007). These children are those who are most often referred for any type of treatment.

An example of this subtype would be a 9 year old male, who is goal oriented. He is also very anxious and can show signs of being depressed. In addition to being anxious and depressed, he is more prone to being more aggressive - he has a very limited temper and can get angry very easy. (Carlson, Shin, & Booth, p.201, 1999).

In addition to children being diagnosed with ADHD, there are also many children being diagnosed with a type of conduct disorder. There are many reasons that a child can be diagnosed with this disorder, including family dynamics. Parenting techniques and behaviors play a large role in children who have conduct disorders, parents who show behaviors such as poor discipline techniques, have lack of consistency in the household, as well as possibly physical aggression and abuse. These behaviors are strongly correlated with different types of conduct problems shown in young children. (Powell, Lochman, & Boxmeyer, p. 600, 2007).

According to an article written in December of 2007, there are clear predictors for conduct disorders. This article states that physical aggression in itself is one of the most strongest predictors of future conduct problems in children. (Powell, Lochman, & Boxmeyer, p.599, 2007) . In addition to physical aggression the article states that signs of irritability and restlessness along with irregular behavior patterns and lack of persistance can all be called precursors to conduct problems. (Powell, Lochman, & Boxmeyer, p.600, 2007). Another factor that needs to be considered is the neurobiological factors. There is a lot of research that is supporting the fact that conduct disorders may have a genetic influence, which is resulting in just about 40% heritability for anti-social types of behavior. (Powell, Lochman, & Boxmeyer, p.600, 2007).

Possible prevention techniques include but are not limited to universal preventions as well as indicated preventive interventions. (Powell, Lochman, & Boxmeyer, p.601, 2007). The universal interventions include the following: "nurse-family partnership, triple-p: positive parenting programme, and the good behavior game." (Powell, Lochman, & Boxmeyer, p.601-602, 2007). The indicated preventive interventions include: "the family check-up, the incredible years training series, and the coping power programme." (Powell, Lochman, & Boxmeyer, p.602-603, 2007).

All of the above are used to prevent the diagnosis of a conduct disorder in a child. The universal interventions are being used to help reduce the amounts of conduct problems by showing ways of intervention to all of the individuals in a particular population such as the entire 2nd grade. (Powell, Lochman, & Boxmeyer, p.601, 2007) . The indicated preventive interventions are interventions that are aimed at individuals rather than groups, and points out specific risk factors that may lead to conduct disorders. (Powell, Lochman, & Boxmeyer, p.601, 2007).

Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder is strongly related to Conduct Disorder. According to the textbook, there is a 30% -50% chance that the child who has been diagnosed with ADHD can develop into having a CD. Conduct Disorder can be described as type of disruptive behavior that is displayed by extreme aggression from the child. The child may get enjoyment out of other's pain, and may also engage in crimes such as theft, valdalism or running away from home. (Mash, & Wolfe, p.467, 2007).

According to another source, there were 93 boys examined out of 126 patients at an acute children's psychiatric unit. The children were all examined at it was determined that these children were diagnosed with the following: there were 26 children with a conduct disorder, there were 21 children with ADHD, and there were 21 children who were both CD and ADHD. In addition to the above numbers, there was also a control group of the remainder of the boys which was 25, these children showed other disorders other than CD or ADHD. This data clearly shows the strong correlation between ADHD and CD. (Kolko, p.75-86, 1993).

References:

Carlson, C.L., Shin, M., & Booth, J. (1999). The Case for dsm-iv subtypes in adhd. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 5. p.199-206, Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.snhu.edu/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=104&sid=001e8e37-e488-4a41-a3b9-4a5cbd553804%40sessionmgr111&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&AN=11782004

Kolko, D.J. (1993). Conduct disorder and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity in child inpatients: comparisons on home and hospital measures. Journal of Emotional and Behaviorial Disorders, 1(2), p.75-86, Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.snhu.edu/ehost/detail?vid=10&hid=3&sid=03193e57-a31c-40f3-8e9d-9d3dd28faf87%40sessionmgr113&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=psyh&AN=1994-17621-001

Mash, E.J., & Wolfe, D.A. (2007). p. 124-125, 467. Abnormal child psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Powell, N.R., Lochman, J.E., & Boxmeyer, C.L. (2007). The Prevention of conduct problems. International Review of Psychiatry, 19(6), p.597-605, Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.snhu.edu/ehost/detail?vid=6&hid=3&sid=001e8e37-e488-4a41-a3b9-4a5cbd553804%40sessionmgr111&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&AN=27949678

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