Anatomy of the brain

Anatomy of the brain

Anatomy of the brain

The parts of the brain and how they function, the cerebellum or the “little brain”, is somewhat like the Cerebrum when the “hemispheres” when they are folded appear to the same the Cerebrum is older than the Cerebrum.

The Cortex has an outer layer of an organ and other structures or Medulla and the Thalamus a large structure and is made up of gray matter and is located at the base of the Cerebrum, the Hypothalamus and is at the base of the Cerebrum, and forming the floor and part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle.

And the Pons is between is the Medulla and the mid brain. The brain stem is a lower extension and it connects to the Spinal Cord, where the neurological functions are located and necessary for survival, like breathing, digestion heart, rate, blood pressure, ( And the cranial nerves are from the brainstem, is a pathway to all fiber tracks going up and down “from peripheral nerves” and the spinal cord to the very top of the brain.

The Cerebrum which is in the back of the brain helps control movements and balance and muscle movements when all moving all together. And when any sort of damage is done to the Ataxia, which is a muscle problem this can interfere with movement of that limb whether it be an arm or leg, it can affect walking, talking, and eating and being able to take care of one's self, losing the independency for a short time or life altering possibly depending on accident and age of patient.

The Frontal Lobe which is the front of the brain and is participates in the planning, organizing and in problem solving and I high cognitive functions, as well as behavior as well as emotions.

Medical Illustrations

Frequently Asked Questions

The image on the left is the outside of the brain, viewed from the side, showing the major lobes (frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital) and the brain stem structures (Pons, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum).

The image on the right is a side-view showing the location of the limbic system inside the brain. The limbic system consists of a number of structures, including the fornix, hippocampus, cingulated gyrus, amygdala, the parahippocampal gyrus and parts of the thalamus. The hippocampus is one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer's disease. As the disease progresses, damage extends throughout the lobes.


The Limbic System consists of:

Cingulate gyrus -- plays a role in processing conscious and emotional experiences.

Fornix—has an arch like structure and connects the hippocampus to the other parts of the system.

Amygdala—is the limbic structure and is involved in many brain functions including emotion and learning and memory.

The parietal lobe is one of two, the parietal lobe of the brain at the front of the brain, the parietal lobe the right controls vision and how for or close an object or person is. And the left side the one that tells how the patient speaks and writes, and the lobes are the ones that have the

Sensory cortex controls, sensation as well.

The Limbic system has the ability to sense of smell loss of control of memory or emotion.

The Temporal lobes again is one of two and are located above the ears. Occipital lobe is the part of the brain that analyzes visual information.

The Cerebral cortex is the outer part of the brain called the hemisphere, and it's made up of gray matter, and the cortices are able to analyze data and also able to perform actions.

Corpus callosum is what connects the hemispheres of the brain together to communicate and forms a “roof”, of the lateral and third ventricles.

The Gyrus, Fissure, Sulcus, Pons, the Fissure divides the two hemispheres' and the Corpus Callsum is a white connecting areas that joins the as one.

And the four chambers in the brain:

“Brain Cells
Brain tissue is composed of several different types of cells. These include neurons and specialized cells called glial cells, such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells, and microglial. Brain tumor types are determined by the type of cell in which the tumor originated.

Astrocytes—Astrocytes are small star-shaped glial cells. This cell type is one of the few types that maintain their ability to reproduce in the mature brain, and it is thought that they might be susceptible to agents that alter cellular replication. This may explain why most primary tumors in the central nervous system have an astrocytic origin.

Oligodendrocytes—Oligodendrocytes are highly specialized glial cells that form the myelin insulation, or myelin sheath, around the axons in nerve cells.

Ependymocytes—Ependymocytes are the glial cells that make up the ependyma, the membrane that lines the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord.

Microglial—Microglial cells function chiefly as scavengers. When central nervous system tissue is damaged, microglial cells migrate to the site where they proliferate and devour the cellular debris.

Regions of the Brain
The brain is composed of several different regions, each of which performs unique functions. The major regions include the brainstem, the midbrain, and the forebrain. Symptoms caused by a brain tumor depend on the tumor's size and location in the brain,

(, when the brain has had a traumatic injury to it and in a certain area of the brain it will affect many parts of the brain and how it will process information, and depending on the injury and how hard the brain was hit will also determine how the brain will be treated, there are tests like a ct scan and or an MRI, can also tell the doctors what part of the brain was hit how much damage was done to it and if the brain will survive the traumatic damage that has been done to it.

And there is also rehabilitation that some patients are able to do as well.

The Pons is a deeper part of the brain and is located at the brain stem and controls you and faces movements.

The Sulcus (, is the fissure of the sylvius is a large deep groove or an indentation and separates parietal and temporal lobe and is the white connective tissue, (lateral sulcus).

When there is an emotional stress or traumatic situation on these systems turn on the hormone called cortisol and can cause brain cells to die and reduce connection between the cells in certain parts of the brain.

When babies are still fetus they are able to have brain waves at 16 weeks and doctors can detect that. But not until the baby is at least 20 weeks along, the fetus can respond to sound and also get startled, the fetus reacts to it and the babies do it while they are sleeping in a dream state. That is when mothers feel their babies move.

And even after the baby is born it's the first few month's that are likely to be fuzzy and unfocused and this is when the baby has a lot of brain development with synaptic connections that are being developed every day.

But the senses (especially vision), are still forming and most of all babies have an immediate sensory input.

Brain development in children are also called “raw material”, and heredity determines the number of “neurons” brain nerve cells, a child thinks and the environment which a child grows up has an “enormous impact” on how cells get connected to each other.

If a baby gets too much cortisol in can make it hard for them to learn and think, and have a hard time by reacting in a negative way. To ensure that a child has a safe environment and good prenatal care, breast feed if possible and get regular checkups , mothers need to make sure the eat healthy diet before the bay is born, both you and baby. Having a warm, caring relationship with people in your life, make sure you are able to always able to read and talk to them and let that child know how special and lived they are , you can sing and read to them also. Make sure your child has a safe play area, discipline your child according to age, have a place where older child can have a place or spot for time out and always come done to see their eye when you do that. In a calm voice tell that child what he/or she did wrong and tell them how to fix it so they make sure not to do that again. Make sure you have a daily routine this is the way the child knows what is going on, so they know what television programs to watch and watch the program with them you and the child will learn together, and you both might have fun too.

And mothers and child care providers have always known that it takes a loving and caring environment and everyday interactions that aids in how a child connects with other children and adults as well.

A baby's brain contains 100billion neurons, and the brain produces trillions more neurons which aid in connecting between other brain cells. In children brains are getting wired for language, sounds, and with repeated words spoken clearly, helps them learn better words later. Children learn best when only one language is spoken daily, and when children are raised in a loving caring environment the child develops better connections in speaking around others, like when there are adults and children are talking.

On the television programs there are plenty that offer bilingual, educational, and fun for both children of all ages and fun for all, plan fun activities and all can participate and learn at the same time. There are games to play some you can buy or make as a group. Make up a new game all your own who cares what it looks like or what it made out of and it does not have to be inside a building and it can done outside as well.

Plant some plants with the kids any side and watch them grow and learn to you watch and observe just remember to make it fun. Need to find ways to explore and have fun at the same time with the little ones of all ages.

Parents and child care providers need to make sure to take care of themselves and well as the children so to ensure that all get healthy food and plenty of rest for the next day.

The parents can make sure the older kids have chore charts all of these kinds of things instill a positive way for children in their minds and gets them to think. Kids these days watch too much television and not enough time learning and letting their minds grow and we as the parents of the children need to find ideas and ways for our families to learn and grow. Let's play sports and watch them get outside and move and think and grow. Let's write books, color pictures that tell stories about what we think and feel, parents talk to your children let them know how you fell and ask them how they fell.

Let's use all of our brain not just a little bit.

The whole brain theory:

The Brain Theory

Human brain is not one organ as neuroscientists led us to believe, but it is rather a whole system that consists of several organs or “microbrains”, according to our latest “Brain Theory”. The established conception of neuroscience: “There are several pathways that serve similar functions. This concept is called “redundancy” and is found throughout the nervous system”. The new “Brain Theory” views the human brain as a “highly organized system”, similar to respiratory and digestive systems, that consists of 33 microbrains. There is no such thing as “redundancy” in the brain. Each microbrain has irregular shape that resembles “Octopus” and has its own independent function, capacity and even its own memory. For example, there are vision microbrain, hearing and balance microbrain, smell and taste microbrain, etc. Also, there is microbrains that are responsible for specific ability such as: mathematical, language, imagination, logical, musical, etc. Some of these microbrains are located predominantly in the right hemisphere; others in the left hemisphere, but all of them extend their arms to the counterpart hemisphere. The main function of the whole brain is organization and integration between these microbrains.

The functional imaging studies show that different microbrains function differently "as seen in the above images" and have different active states. The overlaps of these microbrains give us the final functional imaging of the whole brain.

By studying the work and life of so called “genius people” such as Einstein, Jan Jack Russo, Michael Angelo or Mozart, we can easily find that each of them was able and may be succeeded in using 100% of only one of these microbrains. Einstein himself was able to use the full capacity of one of his microbrains, the mathematical microbrain. Michael Angelo used the full capacity of the imagination (artistic) microbrain. Jan Jack Russo used the full capacity of his argument (philosophical) microbrain. Mozart used the full capacity of his musical microbrain. This means that so called “genius people” properly used less than 4 % of their whole brains capacities. Please, don't envy those “genius people”. They were able to use 100% of one of their microbrains only because all of them suffered from one or more brain diseases (i.e. Mozart had Epilepsy and Michael Angelo had Schizophrenia, and so on). These brain pathologies continuously stimulated the one microbrain that they were able to use fully, but at the same time irritated their whole brain,

It is only a myth that we use only 10% of our brain. We only us 90% of our brain potential muscle, most of the time.

We don't use100% of our brain any more than we use 1000% of lung capacity sitting at our computers. Our frontal lobes have been culturally and socially lobotomized, (which means we do not use all of our brain power that we should). The human brain at only 10% functional at best.

Thought processes

Cogito ergo sum (I think therefore I am). These words of Descartes sum up the importance of thought processes in humans and probably the most important reason we differ from animals. Although animals retrieve and store information, there is little evidence to suggest that they can use it in quite the same way as humans. Humans, on the other hand, are able to use information to reason and solve problems, even when the information is partial or unavailable.

Thinking can be categorized into reasoning and problem solving. Although these are not distinct they are helpful in clarifying the processes involved.


Reasoning is the process by which we use the knowledge we have to draw conclusions or infer something we know about the domain of interest. Reasoning is classified as being deductive, inductive or abductive. Deductive reasoning involves deciding what must be true given the rules of logic and some starting set of facts (premises). Inductive reasoning involves deciding what is likely to be true given some starting set of beliefs or observations.

Deductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning derives the logically necessary conclusion from the given premises. It is important to note that it can lead to a logical conclusion which conflicts with our knowledge of the world. For example,

If it is raining then the ground is dry.
It is raining.
Therefore the ground is dry.

Is a perfectly valid deduction! Deductive reasoning is therefore often misapplied. Human deduction is at its poorest when truth and validity clash. This is because people bring their knowledge of the real world into the reasoning process as it allows them to take short cuts which make information processing more efficient.

Inductive reasoning

Induction is generalizing from cases we have seen to infer information about cases we haven't. For instance, if all the dogs that we have seen are white, we may infer that all dogs are white in color. This is disproved when we see a black dog! In the absence of counter examples, all that we can do is gather evidence to support our inductive inference. In spite of its unreliability, induction is a useful process which we use constantly in learning about our environment.

Abductive reasoning

Abduction reasons from a fact to the action that caused it. This is the method we use to derive explanations for the events we observe. This kind of reasoning, although useful, can lead to unreliability as an action preceding an event can be wrongly attributed as the cause of the event.

Problem solving

Problem solving is the process of finding a solution to an unfamiliar task, using the knowledge we have. There are a number of different views of how people solve problems. We shall consider two of the more recent and influential views.

Problem space theory

The problem space theory was proposed by Newell and Simon. The theory says that problem solving centers around the problem space. This space comprises of problem states which can be generated using legal transition operators.

For example, imagine you are reorganizing your office and you want to move the desk from one end to another. The two different states are represented by the locations of the desk. A number of operators can be applied to move these things: they can be carried, pushed, dragged etc. In order to ease the transition between the states, you have a new sub-goal: to make the desk light. These may involve operators such as removing drawers and so on.

Within the problem space framework, experience allows us to solve problems more easily since we can structure the problem space appropriately and choose operators efficiently.

Analogy in problem solving

People solve novel problems by mapping knowledge in a similar known domain, to it. For instance, to destroy malignant tumor it is essential to fire low intensity rays from all sides, as high intensity rays can damage healthy tissues. An analogous case is that of attacking a fortress. However, people miss analogous information unless it is semantically close to the problem domain.

Skill acquisition

Skills in a given problem area differentiate the novice from the expert. A commonly studied domain is chess playing. It is particularly suitable since it lends itself to representation in terms of problem space theory, in which the initial board configuration and the final position constitute the states while the moves appeared as transition operators. Masters took lesser time than novices to react to a situation and produced better moves. This is largely because chess masters remember board configurations and good moves associated with them. They can chunk the board configuration in order to hold it in short-term memory.

Skilled behavior becomes automatic over a period of time. Experts tend to mentally rehearse their actions in order to identify exactly what they do. Although such skilled behavior is efficient it may cause errors when the context of the activity changes.

Individual differences

The psychological principles and properties that have been discussed apply to the majority of people. However, there are individual differences which affect a small percentage. The differences may be long term such as sex, physical capabilities and individual capabilities. Others are for a shorter duration and may include the effects of stress or failure on the user. Still others may change through time such as age. These differences should be taken into account in interface designs to ensure that a greater population of users is benefited.

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