# Athletic shoes

### Athletic Shoes Assignment

1. It all depends on what type of volleyball you are playing. If it is beach or recreational volleyball, you do not require court shoes.  But if one plays any varsity or elite level of volleyball, certain shoes are suggested for many reasons including, the safety and enhancement of the player to have their own volleyball court shoes. There are many brands of court shoes, but typically they all have the same construction behind them.  With all the various movements in a volleyball game, we can relate Newton's three laws that we learned about in class to the sport of volleyball. When the player is waiting for the whistle to blow to begin their serve, the volleyball is at a rest point in their hand. The ball is staying at a constant velocity and in this case it is zero.  The net force acting upon the ball while it remains in your hand is equal to zero because gravity minus the force of your hand pushing up on the ball. When a player serves the ball, the ball gets thrown into the air which is when Newton's second law comes into play. The ball went from a state of rest to a moving velocity due to a net force acting upon the ball. The net force in this situation is the strength/ muscle in the player's arm that is pushing on the ball in an upward motion.  Basically the throwing force is greater then gravity, making the ball move in an upward direction.  The mass (which is constant) multiplied by the acceleration of the ball will result in the net force (Fnet=ma). To put this volleyball serve into Newton's second law, the net force is throwing the ball up into the air, the mass is the weight of the ball, (which will stay constant) when the net force is divided by the mass you will get acceleration.  The same thing happens for the hitting of the ball. The players hitting force is greater then gravity, therefore the ball will change direction, and the velocity of the ball depending on how hard you hit the ball. Newton's third law is applied when the player's hand (acting force) comes in contact with the volleyball (the mass) and causes an equal and opposite forces on each other. Since the volleyball players mass is greater then the ball, the ball is forced to have a greater acceleration, and move in the opposite direction of the force.

Volleyball relates to kinematics in various forms. In volleyball there are a number of movements in the lower extremities, hence why court shoes are a necessity for safety and optimization.  Usually all these quick movements are performed at high speeds with immense strength. Kinematics could relate to numerous movements when one plays volleyball. You could relate it to serving the ball, spiking/hitting, the players approach to spiking the ball, diving to save a play, or blocking a spike. You could relate volleyball to projectile motion (from the time the ball leaves the hand of the hitter until it hits the opponents arms), you could figure out the speed the ball travels at during a serve, and the angle the ball needs to be approached at in order to successfully spike the ball over the net.

2. Court shoes for volleyball are designed to optimize the performance of the athlete and prevent injury. They are designed to be lightweight so the athlete can have a quick response, they typically have shock absorbing cushioning to help prevent from injuries, “Sensor Point suspension system that connects the Wave Plate to the ground, thereby enhancing stability and traction” (Shop Volleyball, ¶ 1).  Stability and traction are key components to optimizing an athletes abilities, rubber soles on the outside of the shoe give extra traction for quick stops and jumps which would benefit the player by having the ultimate traction possible.  For example reaching for the ball when a players needs to dive for it. The shoes are very supportive, making it less likely for an athlete to roll an ankle as well as they are flexible which allows for the athlete to have full range of motion.

3. In my opinion, the innovations of sporting equipment make better athletes. The technology of the equipment enhances the abilities that an athlete can have. For example, there are special golf clubs created to help seniors play the sport of golf. The clubs are designed to increase the distance at which a weaker person can hit the ball. If you look at hockey sticks that are made, the flexibility in certain sticks allows the player to have a much more harder and accurate shot than if one were to use an old wooden stick that was used centuries ago. It also depends on the level of sport you are playing.  If one plays at an elite level, compared to someone who plays recreational sports, the goal of the athlete is different. As Greenwald and Thibault state, “Clearly, from the perspective of the elite athlete, if the goal is to strive for the ultimate performance, break records, and increase performance efficiency, then technology is improving sport. If, however, "enjoyment" is a factor in defining improvement, the answer may not be so simple.” Therefore when precision comes into play with athletes, the technology makes a difference in performance.

I also believe there could be a mental perspective on the athlete knowing they have equipment that is to optimize their performance. For example when someone wears top of the line sporting equipment, it gives the athlete greater confidence which in turn results in an overall better performance.

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