Environmental Science tornadoes

Environmental Science


When severe thunderstorms are brewing, there is a chance that a tornado may be produced. Heavy winds from these strong storms will produce a dry line, which is an unstable air mass. When wind direction changes, the wind speed will increase in the lower atmosphere. When the winds vary from vertical to horizontal, this creates a funnel cloud. Funnel clouds vary in size, between 2-6 miles wide. The Enhanced Fujita scale is used to measure tornado strength or its intensity. The Enhanced Fujita scale is rated from a 0, (being the least intense) to a 5, (being the most intense.) If a tornado goes above a level 5, it is considered to be theoretical in theory, because it's impossible to be recorded. In July 6, 2001, an F1 and F2 tornadoes crossed over Myrtle Beach, South Carolina and tore up their land. There were 39 reported injuries, but there weren't any deaths.


Tornadoes that form over water are called waterspouts. Waterspouts have a similar structure to tornadoes, but they form in a different matter. A vortex in a waterspout starts off as being invisible, but then the vortex pulls water up from the surface of the ocean and sucks into the cloud. When the winds from the vortex reach about 40 miles per hour, the circular motion of the cloud vortex becomes even more visible. When the winds keep picking up, the funnel starts to form. Waterspouts usually don't last as long as a tornado and it isn't as powerful. Waterspouts die down, and the funnel fades away into the clouds. Some scientists deduced that waterspouts disappear after the rain falls from the formation cloud belonging to the funnel. The only way a waterspout can stick around is if the air from the rain comes back up and stops the supply of the humid air that flows into the waterspout.


Hurricanes are one of the storms that destroy cities and leave them devastated.With the mix of the warm ocean water, horizontal wind hitting the equator, the right kind of atmosphere, and the flimsy capabilities of the atmosphere cause hurricanes. Hurricanes usually produce high winds and downpours that lead to heavy flooding in areas. Hurricanes start off as a tropical storm, and depending how deadly they form, it may lead into becoming a hurricane. Hurricanes are classified by using the Saffir-Simpson Scale, from a scale from 1-5 measuring scale. The center of a hurricane is called the eye. The eye is the “dead” part inside of a hurricane. Hurricanes can change daily, because their speed, size, and direction changes constantly. This is the reason why scientists have to keep record of these deadly storms. Even though hurricanes are hard to determine where they are headed, but they have the noticeable trait of having the eye in the middle of the spiral-shaped storm. In 2005, Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans and it devastated the country.When the class 5 hurricane finally passed, there was a total of more than $100 billion dollars of damage done and 1,577 deaths.


A Microburst is a small and forceful downdraft caused by wind divergence.Wind divergence is when two winds expand away from each other. The winds will flow into an area, and the other wind will flow out of an area. Microbursts are violently capable up to producing up to winds of 168 miles per hour. When water evaporates in clouds after a thunderstorm, a microburst is formed. Microbursts form strong winds, which are called straight-line winds. By using a Doppler radar, a microburst can be recorded by a measurement of wavelengths. Microsofts may be small, but the strong storm could affect an area of about 2.5 miles.s

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