Global warming temperature



Global warming is the observed and projected increase in the average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and ocean.As a result,earth was in critically condition. The causes of global warming is a growing problem, made-man cause, methane's huge impact. Effects of global warming is temperatures changes, greeenhouse effect, water vappor feedback,lapse rate.As a conclusion, phenomena global warming have many effect and causes that was exchanges the surface of the earth.

2.0 BODY

2.1 Definition

The global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continution.Global surface temperature increase between the start and the end of the 20th century. Global warming also is a measurable process that is already underway. Temperature changes, alterations in rainfall patterns, and an increased frequency of storms are occurring and being measured around the world as we speak. The evidence against global warming is not convincing in light of the effects we are witnessing already.

2.2 Causes of global warming

2.2.1 A growing problem

The "green revolution" of the twentieth century has allowed the farmers of the world to use chemical fertilizers and machines to produce far more food than they ever did before. One of the primary components of the green revolution has been the development of nitrogen fertilizers that dramatically accelerate the growth and productivity of plants in the field. Plants "fix," or capture, nitrogen on their own as well, but green revolution technologies have become so popular that humans are now adding more nitrogen to the earth than all of the plants in the world combined

Nitrogen oxides have 300 times more heat-trapping capacity per unit of volume than does carbon dioxide, and we release them every time we apply fertilizer to soil. A recent United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization study found that modern farming is contributing more to global warming than all of the transportation sector combined. This is due partly to the fuel burned in modern farming, but more significantly, to the release of methane and nitrogen oxides.

2.2.2 Made-man causes

Man-made causes probably do the most damage. There are many man-made causes. Pollution is one of the biggest man-made problems. Pollution comes in many shapes and sizes. Burning fossil fuels is one thing that causes pollution. Fossil fuels are fuels made of organic matter such as coal, or oil. When fossil fuels are burned they give off a green house gas called CO2. Also mining coal and oil allows methane to escape

Another major man-made cause of Global Warming is population. More people means more food, and more methods of transportation, That means more methane because there will be more burning of fossil fuels, and more agriculture.. Another source of methane is manure. Because more food is needed we have to raise food. Animals like cows are a source of food which means more manure and methane. Another problem with the increasing population is transportation. More people means more cars, and more cars means more pollution. Also, many people have more than one car.

2.2.3 Methane's Huge Impact
Per unit of volume, it is twenty times more potent than carbon dioxide when its impact is measured over the course of a century. When you consider its effects within a single decade, methane is 100 times as powerful as carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas. Carbon levels in the atmosphere are about 385 parts per million (ppm) currently, whereas
methane is only about 1.8 ppm. But because methane is so powerful, it has the potential to have significant impacts on the future of global warming.

Methane is created when bacteria break down organic matter under oxygen-starved conditions. This occurs when organic matter is trapped underwater, as in rice paddies. It also takes place in the intestines of herbivorous animals, such as cows, sheep, and goats. Because human agriculture has grown over time to engulf most of the arable land on the planet, it is now adding a lot of methane to the atmosphere. Landfills and leakage from natural gas fields (methane is a component of natural gas) are also significant sources of methane.

2.2.2 Air conditionar machine

CFCs and HCFCs (chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons) used in refrigeration are also powerful greenhouse gases. These gases occur in lower concentrations in the atmosphere, but because they are so much more potent than carbon dioxide -- in some cases hundreds of times more potent per unit of volume -- they contribute to global warming as well.

2.3 Effects of global warming

2.3.1 Temperature changes

Ocean temperatures increase more slowly than land temperatures because of the larger effective heat capacity of the oceans and because the ocean loses more heat by evaporation. The Northern Hemisphere warms faster than the Southern Hemisphere because it has more land and because it has extensive areas of seasonal snow and sea-ice cover subject to ice-albedo feedback. Although more greenhouse gases are emitted in the Northern than Southern Hemisphere this does not contribute to the difference in warming because the major greenhouse gases persist long enough to mix between hemispheres.

2.3.2 Greenhouse gas

The greenhouse effect is the process by which emission of infrared radiation by gases in the atmosphere warm a planet's lower atmosphere and surface.As aevidence when sunlight reaches Earth's surface some is absorbed and warms the earth almost of the rest is radiated back to the atmosphere at a lot wavelength than the sun light. Some of these longer wavelengths are absorbed by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere before they are lost to space. The absorption of this longwave radiant energy warms the atmosphere. These greenhouse gases act like a mirror and reflect to the Earth some of the heat energy which would otherwise be lost of space. The reflecting back of heat energy by the atmospheres called the "greenhouse effect".

Different greenhouse gases have very different heat-trapping abilities. Some of them can even trap more heat than CO2. A molecule of methane produces more than 20 times the warming of a molecule of CO2. Nitrous oxide is 300 times more powerful than CO2. Other gases, such as chlorofluorocarbons (which have been banned in much of the world because they also degrade the ozone layer), have heat-trapping potential thousands of times greater than CO2. But because their concentrations are much lower than CO2, none of these gases adds as much warmth to the atmosphere as CO2 does.

2.3.3 Water vapor

If the atmosphere is warmed, the saturation vapor pressure increases, and the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere will tend to increase. Since water vapor is a greenhouse gas, the increase in water vapor content makes the atmosphere warm further; this warming causes the atmosphere to hold still more water vapor (a positive feedback), and so on until other processes stop the feedback loop. The result is a much larger greenhouse effect than that due to CO2 alone. Although this feedback process causes an increase in the absolute moisture content of the air, the relative humidity stays nearly constant or even decrease slightly because the air is warmer.

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