How was the universe created?

How was the universe created?


Currently the big question is “How was the universe created?” there has to be something very powerful to create the whole universe. There are many arguments relating to this topic. There are always two main reasons about the creation. People, who believe in science, believe in the Bing Bang. Whereas people who believe in God, believe that God created the Universe and the creation theory. This case study will give the arguments for and against the Bing Bang theory.


The case study will look at the different theories of different scientists and their discoveries and what people think about their theories. Which one is the real one and is it the best answer we have until now to explain the creation of the universe. As far as we know all the scientists refer to the big bang theory for describing the start of the colossal universe, but is it the right answer? This case study will look at all aspects to the big bang and show everything known about the big bang. For this case study I have used many sources, which I think are reliable and which gives relevant information about the Big Bang and the other arguments.

The big bang is when the universe is thought to be created. This doesn't mean that this is only possible way it could have happened but we think that this theory is the best because it fits in and is very reliable as it has a lot of evidence behind it.

This theory has given us the answers to - How was the universe created? How did everything come to be as it is now? Earlier people thought that the world and everything was there and that it didn't have a start or an end.

About 15 billion years ago an expansion started from the big bang. At the point of the bang everything - matter and energy of space was contained at one point. This incidence was not a straight explosion but rather an event filling all of space with all of the particles of the developing universe rushing away from each other. Due to the expansion, the light from distant galaxies approach earth, there is an increase of space between earth and the galaxy, which leads to wavelengths being stretched. But as we all know that many people didn't like the concept of this theory as it was never seen. Mostly people believed that the universe was never to be born or will never die. But nowadays, by the help of science we are now able to help and change these people's mind and could explain how the universe did actually began.

The study shows different evidence from different sources and analyses the reliability of the sources and concludes with an opinion of which argument is more acceptable with more evidence. It gives a detailed explanation of the theory, about how it was first proposed and also about the evidence and observations that have been made.

The Big Bang Theory - What is it? Is it true?

The Big Bang theory is a method to explain what actually happened at the very beginning of our universe. Discoveries had given us large amount of information and we know that before the big bang there was nothing, no limit it was just an empty space. Then after the big bang event our universe was born with all the different galaxies. According to the standard theory our universe came into existence about 13.7 billion years ago. Our universe is thought to be had began at something very or maybe infinitively hot and infinitively small. After the big bang the universe started to expand and as it expanded it also cooled down. Basically the big bang theory describes the way the universe is cooling down, expanding and which made us living beings. All the different planets, star, solar system and the cluster of galaxies, are still expanding through the cosmos. At first all of the matter of space was contained in this one minute singularity. The singularity which contained all of this matter would have been extremely dense. - Stephan Hawking. {2}

Arguments and evidence supporting the Big Bang Theory

Astrophysicists' also referred the singularity as “vacuum fluctuation”. We also know that before the big bang there was nothing; no time nor space. Majestically this tiny but dense single point contained our universe. this is the source for the explanation above.

This picture represents the expansion of the universe from one singularity till now.

As we can see in the picture that everything started from one tiny place. All of the materials were squeezed in this singularity and then it exploded and the materials scattered.

Expanding in all different directions.

This theory is shows that every single matter in of space was squeezed into this infinitely small point. However as imposing this seems, the fact stays unknown and still today scientists cannot explain what started this massive ‘big bang'.

At start our universe was very dense and also very small. This also leads us to that the timescales must have been also small; explaining that everything must have happened so quickly. This stage is referred as the “primordial fireball”. As we know all the elements for life needed to be built and for the first second, only elementary particles, such as protons, neutrons, and electrons, could exist. But the universe rapidly cooled and expanded, this is one of the strongest proofs of the big bang because we still see this expansion. Approximately for about the 500,000 years, electromagnetic radiation (light) was the most important thing in the universe and hence this time was known as the radiation era. When the universe had cooled to the point where the simplest atoms (hydrogen) could form, radiation no longer dominated and matter took over. The cosmic microwave background radiation was produced at this time.

The big bang theory makes me feel that there is a start to the universe but the tricky part to understand is that if there was nothing at first, how “nothing” could make the whole universe. There has to be something to create the bang (explosion) and some reactions going on at that moment. But we know from the help of chemistry that there has to be something to start a reaction or something to start off anything. Whereas in the big bang theory, there was nothing which started it off. Also surprisingly, we also know that this event of “big bang” - did not have a bang, meaning that it did not produce any sound because as we know sound cannot travel through the empty space.

There is some strong proof that the universe began as a much dense fireball.

The universe expanded and different galaxies moved away from each other. As Edwin Hubble told us that the universe is expanding and in fact the galaxies further away from us are accelerating faster than the one closer to us. So if we work backwards, we will know that if everything is expanding, it must all have started from one singular point. He also discovered that the galaxies velocity is proportional to its distance. {3}

Red shift - galaxies are moving further away from each other. Light coming from distant galaxies approach the earth with their wavelengths being stretched. This is caused by an increase of space between the earth and the galaxies. The light emitted becomes redder, hence this is known as the red shift. If the red shift is greater we know that the speed of recession is greater for that galaxy.

We also know that the universe is also cooling down as it is expanding. “In the 1960s Arno Panzias and Robert Wilson detected the afterglow of the Big Bang”, known as the cosmic microwave background (CMB), which revealed that the Universe was once a very hot, hostile place.

Big Bang in cosmology, theory advanced to explain the origin of the Universe, developed from the ideas of Georges Lemaitre and advanced in the 1940s by George Gamow. “When the Universe was only a few minutes old, its temperature would have been 1000 million degrees. As it cooled, nuclear reactions took place that led to material emerging from the fireball.” {Everyday science explained - By Curt Suplee (National Geography society)}{1} the cosmic microwave background radiation detected in 1965 is considered to be the residual radiation of the ‘Big Bang' explosion.

No one ever knows the real truth behind the universe. It started from nowhere. We cannot revisit that time, so surely everything is a prediction; scientist used the current physics theory and came up with this theory. The hardest features of the universe for us to intuitively understand are the relativistic theories which seem to govern how matter, energy and space-time operate under extreme conditions of temperature, density and energy.

“In 1927, the Belgian priest Georges Lemaitre proposed that the universe began with the explosion of a primeval atom. In 1929 came Hubble's publication of his research on the velocity-distance relationship of galaxies, with observational evidence that the universe is expanding.” {2} Data from Hubble gave us an idea of the numerical velocities of the galaxies. Some problems with the big bang theory remained, however according to the value calculated for Hubble's constant in 1936 the big bang took place 1.8 billion years ago. This then could be taken as the age of the universe: if it is known how fast the galaxies are flying apart (Hubble's constants). Then it can be determined when the expansion began. But geologists have established that the old rocks on earth are at least 3 billion years old. Clearly earth could not be older that the universe. This was the drawback and more evidence was required to back up the theory.

Cosmic Nucleosynthesis

During cosmic Nucleosynthesis, temperatures exceeded to a few billion degrees Kelvin. During this era elements were made and first nucleus reaction occurred which eventually started things off.

A hydrogen nucleus was a proton meaning it didn't contain any neutrons. Some of the protons combined with neutrons to form full hydrogen, deuterium- this also had one proton and one neutron in the nucleus. The universe was still extremely hot for the deuterium element to form. And if it did it was shredded to bits by the highly ionizing Gamma rays. The process carried on and in order to make helium, the element deuterium was required and for that the temperature had to be decreased. Later on as the temperature decreased hydrogen combined to form helium. Four hydrogen particles were needed to make helium. The temperature was now low enough for deuterium to stay stable.

As seen today, the power source which drives our sun, hydrogen fusion made helium. During this stage other elements also started to form, for example - Lithium and beryllium. Later on heavier elements were also made. This stage was very important because at this stage elements like carbon were formed, which is the base and the fundamental element for life. {11} - this source helped me to explain the era of Nucleosynthesis, which was essential. This also shows why the big bang was important because it manufactured all the important elements.

Throughout the progression, after 1000 seconds, the temperature of the universe had dropped from a few billion Kelvin to a few hundred million Kelvin. This expansion meant that the temperature soon dropped, which stopped the helium particles to collide as they did not have enough activation energy to collide and form other elements. So it eventually also became too cool to maintain hydrogen fusions.

Cosmic background radiation

Until 1956 the only existing proof for the big bang theory was the red shift in the spectra of distant galaxies and quasars. In 1948 Russian -American physicist George Gamov stated that the universe as a whole should be emitting radio waves that are the remains of the big bang. If the universe had started with a big bang, it should have cooled down, just as an expanding gas does, to a temperature of about 5k (-450.7ºF). Gamov believed that this radiation would not be perceived with a radio telescope because it would be extremely weak.

“About 1965 two physicists, Arno H. Penzias and Robert W. Wilson, were experimenting with a horn antenna. They picked up radiation coming from every different direction in the universe with the same intensity.” {} {4}

Three observational facts, the red shift of distant galaxies and quasars, cosmic background radiation, and the great quantity of helium, are viewed by cosmologists as confirmation of the big bang. Most of the helium present in the universe would have been formed by fusion during the first minutes following the big bang. For these reason scientists believe that the helium present in the universe proves that theory of the big bang.

In the 1940s, physicist George Gamow thought that if at start everything was so hot, it must have a residue of radiation. Soon in 1960s “Penzias and Wilson discovered the cosmic microwave background radiation: a uniform radio hiss that implied a temperature of about 3 degrees Kelvin {10}. This observation provides strong support for the Big Bang theory.

Still now we can observe the background radiation - these were said to be low as micro waves, are about (2.76 K), this is the most important evidence we have of the theory. And this evidence also changes my views because looking at the evidence I support it greatly because it proves the theory. “If the universe was once very hot and dense, the photons and baryons would have formed plasma, i.e. a gas of ionized matter coupled to the radiation through the constant scattering of photons off ions and electrons. As the universe expanded and cooled there came a point when the radiation (photons) decoupled from the matter”. {10} - This shows what and how the cosmic background radiation was produced.

Many scientists have found many things on this and this evidence is reliable because I found loads of information on every different website. Many different website provide information and all say that this is the greatest evidence on the big bang theory. This makes this argument very reliable as all the information matches with other websites and other sources I used.

Scientist theory about the Big Bang

According to most the physicists all the matter found in the universe including the material in people, plants, the earth, stars, and galaxies - was created at the very first moment of time, thought to be about 13 billion years ago. Scientists believe that the universe began in a small compact point. Then it suddenly exploded in a magnificent blast. This blast created all the matter present in the universe. This particular point was very tiny and heavily dense.

The Big Bang flung mass amounts of energy in all directions at the speed of light - (300,000,000 metres per second). Physicists believe that the Big Bang created and stretched space itself, expanding the universe. The temperature at the event of Big Bang was 1000 trillion degrees Celsius. {3}

These discoveries back up the Big Bang Theory:

The observation of low levels of microwaves throughout space. At the temperature about -270 degrees Celsius, it is the remnants of the extremely high-temperature radiation produced by the Big Bang. {2} - this source was taken from the Stephen W. Hawkins's book. I believe that this source is highly reliable because it is written by one of the greatest physicist present today.

The abundance of the element Hydrogen and the element Helium. Statistically the universe contains 74 percent hydrogen and 26 percent helium. As mentioned earlier in this case study, these two elements were made during the Cosmic Nucleosynthesis which took place after the Big Bang.

Most importantly by far this is the only most reliable and the most realistic theory which is able to explain the origins of our universe. We can say that this theory is very reliable because it has been backed up by so much evidence.

Reasons to believe big bang theory

  1. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis - the elements being made up.
  2. Cosmic Microwave Background - residues from the bang.
  3. Hubble Expansion - moment gained by galaxies from the bang.

The three things above are really good reason why we believe in this theory. All the point above proves the possibility of the big bang theory and they all come together in order to prove it.

Arguments against the big bang theory

Many people still don't believe in the Big Bang theory because they think it is not right. This could be because of some of the problems with the theory itself. Many people ask many different questions and find many flaws in the big bang theory. Most people accept that the universe never had a beginning as that is the only possible solution and the most realistic reason we know. People also believe that the universe never had a beginning so it will never end and will keep expanding forever infinitely.

The biggest problem with the theory is that there isn't such strong proof for what started the big bang. As we all know, to start something or something to start there has to be something to trigger that start and as far as we know the big bang didn't have a start. People don't find the theory convincing because they believe that such an event could have happened without something triggering it. Regarding this some people also believe that the start could have been triggered by God. And God created the whole universe and it is God who started big bang. This is possible but not certain and therefore we require evidence and proof. No one is certain that God exist and many questions can be asked in the existence of God. This question cannot be answered; it is same as asking how was the universe created. To know the real truth we would have to revisit time.

Fred Hoyle constructed a model to show that the universe was infinitely old and has remained steady. This is known as the Steady State theory. This theory was much more acceptable among the religious groups as was less vague. However it was also accepted by the science side because it did include the expansion of the universe. {13} this theory seems to work on both scientific and the religious sides.

Fred Hoyle believed that, if the universe is expanding there has to be something being made up in the spaces between galaxies. In practical I think this is very clear and a simple explanation as it is same as the big bang theory but has a different alteration for the expansion. He concluded that only one hydrogen atom is enough in a year to keep the expansion running.

Experiment - This theory can be easily tested by using a balloon. If we put red dots on a balloon and then blow it, we will notice that the red dots are expanding. If we focus ourselves from one red dot we will notice that the further dots are moving faster because the spaces between the dots are increasing. This increase of the gap between the dots is parallel to the filling of universe and the cause of the expansion.

Other Evidence against the Big Bang theory was that some of the galaxies near our own galaxies were much younger and some galaxies have been discovered to be older than the universe. {13} -clearly this observation is arguing against the big bang theory and proves its argument by giving us real data. This source is very strong and has actually changed my mind because it clearly tells us that the Big Bang theory might just be a wrong way to describe the origins of our universe. This shows that how easy it is to change people's mind on the big bang theory if the argument uses good scientific examples and proves thoroughly. The evidence above shows us a flaw in the big bang theory.

Secondly, the next evidence against the theory is the steady state theory. The steady state theory states that the universe did not have a start but always been present. This again is an assumption; it also says the universe never had a start so therefore it wouldn't have an end. The steady state theory is not telling us that the universe is static. It does take Hubble's idea of expansion into account. I think this theory is as strong as the big bang because it does consider the other facts. It is easier for scientist to believe in this because it does not have a mysterious start; like the “big bang” theory does.

The creationism theory- is it scientific?

Everyone has different beliefs and everyone thinks differently. Some people have believed in the creation story and the idea of God. They say that Almighty God created the whole universe including the life on earth. I suppose you cannot argue with them until you provide some very strong supportive evidence. The theory states that God created the heavens and the earth. However life was not present and the earth was empty and formless. Although this is not scientific and does not have sufficient evidence, we cannot disregard it because there are people who believe in this just like people who believe in the Big Bang theory. {9}

The disagreement is mostly through the religious groups as they believe God created the universe. The Bible Genesis has given me arguments against the theory of big bang as it states the process in which God created the universe. It states that god created life on earth including all the seasons, the oceans, the sun, the moon, etc. {12} - this website provides me with the Bible quotations. It shows how the universe was created in a different point of view and as that God created the universe. This story is basically a belief and faith of religious peoples; although it is unproven they still believe in it and think it is better than big bang.

This theory is fascinating because regarding the lack of supportive evidence it is the second most popular theory after the big bang theory. However it does not have any proof for it beliefs. Although people still believe in it and it is good enough to compete with a much explained theory, such as the big bang theory.

This quotation is from the bible, the religious book of Christians. It states - “God created the earth. In the opening words of the Bible, God is unequivocally declared to be the creator of the earth (Gen. 1: 1, 2). The fact God created the earth is repeatedly taught throughout the Bible.” {12} - This has been taken from the bible. This source is reliable in a religion way. But it doesn't have the science behind it to back its ideas. But this source is reliable because it has been known for many years and many people believe in it. The bible states that God took 7 days to make the earth and the universe. Considering the vast population of Christians now days I think their arguments could be effective and can also affect other people.

“In Christian theology, a domain of special revelation, God's calling (John 6:44, 6:65) enables people to understand God's plan and truth. Only those who encounter God and have their minds supernaturally opened by God can understand the truth in these matters. This rationale limits what secular scientists can learn and understand. Unless a scientist receives such a calling the scientist will be always learning and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth” {12}. This is a very strong statement and it explains what Christians believe in and argues against the scientist and other people who have beliefs in the big bang theory. I think this website is truly against any science views because from the quote you can see that it is very challenging. Basically it states that a person cannot know the real truth and only people who receive calling from God will find out the truth. It also suggests that God has given us knowledge however it is better to limit our knowledge and do not stand against God as he is the only creator.

William Paley's argument - Stretching the matter from the above explanation, this argument can be used as an example and be used as evidence. Using a concept of a watch Paley said - that the world is well designed just like a pocket watch. Everything which makes the watch work needs to be working properly and everything in a watch is designed so perfectly. Therefore if you remove one of the things from inside the watch, it will not work. This applies same with the universe; if we remove the fundamental things such as gravity, it will not work. Thus, the pocket watch and the universe are parallel and they both had a creator. Hence, the universe must have a creator, which is God.


There are many religions in the world and they all have different beliefs. All the religions are anti- science as they all believe in god. For example - Hinduism. Hindus believe that god created the whole universe. Their theory - “Before time began there was no heaven, no earth and no space between. Suddenly, from the depths a humming sound began to tremble, Om. It grew and spread, filling the emptiness and throbbing with energy. The night had ended. Vishnu awoke. Vishnu's servant, Brahma awaited the Lord's command. Vishnu spoke to his servant: 'It is time to begin.' Brahma bowed. Vishnu commanded: 'Create the world.'” The world was soon bristling with life and the air was filled with the sounds of Brahma's creation. - {14} this proves that there is not only one religion that disagrees with the big bang theory. However this is only a myth, even the Hindus don't have proof for this. They cannot support their theory with evidence.

There are over 270 different religions in this world. And they all have different arguments and different mythology. After looking at these religions I can also say that it's not only the religions that have myths, even the scientist have myths- The Big Bang Theory.

Problems with the theory

  1. “Static universe models fit observational data better than expanding universe models.” - Static universe models match most observations with no adjustable limits. The Big Bang can match each of the critical observations, but only with adjustable limits.
  2. The microwave "background" makes more sense as the limiting temperature of space heated by starlight than as the remnant of a fireball.
  3. Element large quantity predictions using the Big Bang require too many adjustable parameters to make them work.
  4. How could plausible you work out what element was made first if we have never seen the explosion. The predictions are not all true.
  5. The universe has too much large scale structure to form in a time as short as 10-20 billion years.
  6. The average luminosity of quasars must decrease in just the right way so that their mean apparent brightness is the same at all red shift, which is exceedingly unlikely.
  7. Invisible dark matter of an unknown but non-baryonic nature must be the dominant ingredient of the entire universe.

The problems above have been taken from the {} {13}- all the information was repeated on many other different website which proves that it is a reliable source and it is true as it is accepted by many other people. The different points all add up to prove that the big bang theory is false and that it has defects in it.


All the arguments, against and for, are all backed up with good and strong information. That information is reliable because the same information has been found on more than one website or a source. “In one of its several variations the big bang cosmological theory is almost universally accepted as the most reasonable theory for the origin and evolution of the universe.” - This proves the acceptance of the big bang theory and why it is the only possible theory. But after analysing the information, the evidences and their sources and looking at their reliability I feel that the argument 'For' the theory of the Big bang is a bit more reliable and conclusive argument. I can say this because it backs up information with good scientific evidence and theories. I think that the big bang theory is one of the main theories and has been developed through many years. It is so well presented and is supported by enough evidence to make me accept it as truth and I believe that I would only change my mind if a different theory is proven to me with more stronger and good scientific evidence.

My opinion - I believe that the universe has have got to have a start but this case study has been a great adventure as it keeps changing my view and both the arguments are well balanced and are strongly supported with evidence. I believe that the big bang theory is the only plausible theory and it is one of the greatest theories ever explained in cosmology. This theory has been backed up with loads of information that the person who disagrees with this would have to show evidence and maybe explain why they think this is wrong, which I think is virtually impossible because more people believe in this theory than anything else. This theory is believed by mostly every scientist whereas not the religious people, as they believe in the creation and the god theory. The evidence with this theory is very clear and shows how the big bang could have happened. Literally I think the evidence we have for the big bang theory is enough to actually make another big bang model and find out what actually happened. But the only thing which makes me disagrees with this theory is that - “what started the big bang- and what could plausibly trigger a massive explosion?” this is the only question which is unanswered and I think we will never be able to accomplish to answer this question because it is to great and us humans are not capable of going back to time. I think most people believe that the big bang theory is correct because the things they hear from the news and other shows which tell them only about the theory, the press wouldn't talk against a scientist, so I believe that the people's mind are changed by the people they hear their information from. But if a person like me who believes in what other people do, my mind can be changed if he information I read is reliable and backs up with good string evidence. However I also think that the big bang theory is one of the best scientific theories ever accomplished because it is so well supported with evidence. This theory is also supported by many scientists, which also makes the normal people feel that this is the right theory, so all the people would have to accept it unless they challenge the theory and prove it wrong.

In this case the arguments FOR the Big Bang theory is a bit more supported and is much more reliable. I can say this because the evidence I found was very reliable and sustain the arguments effectively. For argument - are explained clearly and uses good science which makes me feel that it is right because I believe in science more than the religious arguments. Even the religious arguments are not reliable because they could have been made up by someone because we don't have the proof that God created the universe or we haven't seen it happen. It is same with the Big bang - we haven't seen it happen, so it depends on the evidence we have left over and we can only make predictions because we can't go back in time to really know the truth.

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