Human Genome Project
Human Genome Project was a scientific program aimed at getting to know all of the complementary sequence of base pairs make up the human genome, containing 3.3 GBP, approximately 30 thousand genes.
Beginning of the human genome project was undertaken in 1990 by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health USA decision to allocate for this purpose $ 3 billion. The decision assumed that within 15 years will be more human genome. However, the U.S. authorities' decision provoked a strong appeal in the world. The project has included a number of countries. At the same time there has been progress in the technique is automated DNA sequencing. Project work Francis S. Collins led. As a result, the initial description of the human genome was published back in 2000. On 26 January U.S. President Bill Clinton and British Prime Minister Tony Blair announced this fact at a joint press conference, saying: "Without a doubt, it is most important, most wonderful map, which mankind have succeeded in creating. We learn today language through which God created the world. staying penetrated deeper than ever with admiration, given the complexity, beauty, uniqueness and sacred gift of God.
The project included the following countries:
At the end of the project as quick launch received analogous study by a private corporation Celer Genomics, who wanted to patent the human genome, in case she managed to read it first. This would mean that information about the human genome, required for such studies to the invention of appropriate medicines, would be owned by the company and you would have to pay for them. The company has achieved considerable success through the use of previously published results of a government team, as well as through the development of technique called shotgun sequencing and sequencing. It boiled down to shredding all the DNA into small fragments and analyzing their contents. A computer program to collect received combinations of pairs of complementary in their memory. With the finding similarities, it became possible to re-arrangement of genes in the whole cut. At the news of his intention to patenting the human genome by Celer Genomics, laboratories focused on the government to speed up the sequencing project, going to continuous mode, ie 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
Competition between scientists from the gimp to the interests and those financed from the budget led to an interesting situation. Scientists appointed at that publish the data in February 2001, but in various scientific journals. Researchers from the government put their article in Nature, and those with Celer Genomics in Science. It turned out that scientists know 90% of the genome. What is more interesting work of both teams to complement rather than duplicating. This resulted from the other research techniques.
The draft human genome was one of the international programs of genetic research. Proved to be important to know the genomes of other organisms of interest. Many of these exotic organisms, was important as models of interaction between genes in living creatures.
Achieve its objectives.
The aim was to study the human genome, not only to know of billions of pairs of complementary make up our DNA with minimal error probability. It was also the identification of functional genes in the sea of information. This process has so far been completed. But even dismantle the figures surprised the researchers. It turned out that the human genome contains only 20-25 thousand genes coding for proteins. The rest of the genome encodes proteins, but not manufactured on the basis of DNA-RNA molecules, which includes the Regulatory sequences, repetitive and mobile elements such as transposons and retrotransposons. Recent biochemical studies have shown that the RNA itself is already able to carry out, a series of chemical reactions in the cell. In addition, noted the phenomenon of blocking the expression of certain genes by their complementary copies elsewhere in the genome. Picture which emerged from the human genome project led investigators to the great restraint in proclaiming the triumph of science over nature. DNA is more like a very complex computer program than a set of rules for different proteins. His analysis may take decades to learn.
Work on the application of knowledge about the genome in medicine has just started. However, now some scientists try to use information obtained in the project in the development of biotechnology and medicine.
No less important was the development of techniques for the same DNA test. With the human genome project there has been progress in the study of nucleotides contained in living organisms. Today, knowledge of the genome of the pandemic threat of the agent does not take years longer only weeks or months. Currently, the sequence of human DNA is stored in a database accessible on the Internet. Developed software that allows you to find any meaning in the genetic information. Field of science dealing with the bioinformatics analysis of DNA.
Breakthrough invention associated with the human genome project are the DNA chips. Semiconductor system is applied to the thousands of pieces of deoxyribonucleic acid. If the sample will be a piece of DNA complementary to one of these passages is the corresponding field on the chip will be activated. As a result, it is possible to instantly determine the level of expression of genes contained in the sample. Expression is directly linked to the state of the living organism from which the DNA collected. An obvious application could be here, medical diagnostics, and further development of genetic research.
Comparing the genome of various living creatures gives a huge advantage of evolutionary biology. According to modern theories of the gene is the subject of evolution, rather than each individuals. Studying the history of individual genes in living organisms allows them to trace the evolutionary path. An example is the comparison between the number of genes of mammals and amphibians.