Measurements and Fitness Diary
The following are 10 measurements that will be taken of the participant throughout the duration of the fitness programme. All of the measurements will be taken at numerous stages of the fitness programme such as initial readings before the start of the programme, during the exercise when they are carried out, readings after the exercise and finally on completion after the four week period. The measurements are of important significance as they can be applied to assessing the overall efficiency of the fitness programme. If each are of measurement has been developed on then the conclusion would be that the fitness regime is effective for improving an individuals physical fitness.
Pulse rate: The pulse is defined as the arterial palpation of a heartbeat. Pulse rate is the wave of pressure that travels along arterial walls which are generated from the heart each time the left ventricle is required to pump blood into the aorta. The pressure causes a dilation (widening) of arteries allowing the blood to travel through the arteries and the rest of the body which can be measured in a variety of places; radial artery (wrist), carotid artery (neck), femoral artery, brachial artery, temporal artery. In a healthy adult the pulse rate range is between 60 -80 beats per minute (BPM). Pulse is also applied to measure the frequency of a heart rate to create a pressure wave however the pulse is to irregular meaning that the heart rate can be significantly higher to the pulse rate. However cannot be an accurate measure due to the fact that during an arrhythmia heart beat the aorta is not stretched enough. At the start of the training programme for each week the resting pulse rate will be taken by placing two fingers on the radial artery contained within in the wrist for a total of 15 seconds and then times by three to get the pulse rate for the minute. The reason for measurement with the two fingers placed on the wrist is that there isn't a pulse in the fingers therefore minimising the likelihood of conflicting pulse rates. Additionally the pulse rate of the participant Adam will also be measured using the same technique whilst taking part in the aerobic activity exercises of cycling and running. In terms of measurements each individual has their own specific pulse rate dependant upon many factors. Those with a low pulse rate are said to be beneficial due to the fact that those participating in vigorous sporting activities can help strengthen the heart containing cardiac muscle which will enable more blood to ejected and pumped from the ventricle in one beat known as stroke volume. Because more blood is able to be pumped in one beat allows less pumps to occur as the heart is more efficient endeavouring in a lower pulse rate. In relation to physical fitness if the heart is able to pump more blood per beat then this increases the potential for more oxygen within the blood to combine with haemoglobin which can then break away to supply the group of working muscles with oxygen during exercise. From the course of fitness programme the expectation of the pulse rate is to reduce in beats per minutes. This becomes beneficial to the performer as the volume of blood ejected from the ventricles in fewer beats and therefore becoming more efficient. For this reason I chose to monitor blood pressure as if an increased amount of blood is released then this increases the amount of oxygen in the body that can be diffused to the muscles during aerobic activities.
Vital Capacity: Vital capacity is termed as the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after maximum inhalation. To precisely measure an individual's vital capacity a item of equipment known as a spirometer is applied that are mainly used to test lung function in terms of its volume and air flow. The procedure requires the participant to breath into the mouthpiece of the spirometer while a nose clip is applied to ensure that any breathing through the noise. Participant is required to breathe normally for a period of time that will give a spirometry trace of which additional readings can be taken from such as tidal volume. Once regular breathing in and out has taken place for period of time the individual must then inhale maximum volume of air possible and then exhale the maximum volume of air which will distinguish the vital capacity by taking the reading from the spirometry trace. To measure the vital capacity from the spirometry trace the calculation between the highest and lowest point of the trace of which is the level of lung volume. From the conclusion of the fitness programme the vital capacity is expected to be increased in terms of volume due the mechanics of breathing within the lungs being significantly developed and efficient due to aerobic activities. Regarding a sporting context it can allow for the performance to become more effective as if the volume of air is increased then this allows for more oxygen to be inhaled which can then diffuse to muscles whiles an increased level of carbon dioxide can be exhaled.
Blood Pressure: Blood pressure is defined as the amount of forced blood per unit area that is ejected from the heart and is exerted onto walls of the surrounding blood vessels. The pressure of blood decreases as it moves away from the heart through arteries and capillaries. Blood pressure is determined by the following two factors; firstly cardiac output in which the volume of blood flowing into the system from the left ventricle. And secondly resistance to flow is opposition by the blood vessels to the blood flow. This is dependant upon numerous factors that include blood viscosity, blood vessel length and radius. Therefore the combination of these factors can create an equation to work out blood pressure; Blood pressure = cardiac output (Q) x resistance. From interpreting this information suggests that blood pressure increases when either cardiac output or resistance increases. Furthermore blood pressure in the arteries increases or decreases in a pattern which corresponds to the cardiac cycle during ventricular systole (contraction) when blood is pumped into the aorta and lowest during ventricular diastole.
Blood pressure is usually taken at the brachial artery using a sphygmomanometer and the reading is usually expressed as systolic over diastolic. Systolic pressure is the pressure contained within the arteries when the ventricles are contracting towards the end of the cardiac cycle. Whereas diastolic pressure is the minimum pressure in the arteries which is at the start of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are filled with blood. Blood pressure will alter dependant upon the type of exercise activities carried out. Low intensity aerobic exercise that involve large group muscles have an increased systolic pressure due an increased level in cardiac output while diastolic pressure remains constant ensuring that blood supply to the muscles in carried out quickly. On the other hand during high intensity and anaerobic activity both the systolic and diastolic increase significantly due to increased blood viscosity within the vessels. This is due to the muscles squeezing against the veins increasing resistance due to contraction of abdominals. It is imperative that blood pressure is controlled and maintained as high blood pressure can cause serious implications to the heart and kidneys whereas low blood pressure can resort reduced oxygen and nutrients reaching the muscle cells. Resulting from the programme I expect the blood pressure to be slightly lower as exercise can reduce the volume of blood which endeavours that there will be reduced high pressure to pump blood to organs and muscles etc. It is likely to be helpful within in sport especially when the demand for oxygen from the blood is high as there will be reduced pressure to transport the key areas creating less strain on the heart. The suggested optimal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg but varies within ages and gender.
BMI (Body Mass Index) is a statistical measurement which compares two variables that are height and weight whilst taking into account an individuals body composition. BMI alone doesn't measure the amount of body fat a person contains, however it is a useful measurement when estimating an individuals healthy and proposed body weight in proportion to their height. On the other hand BMI may not be representative to particular athletes that take part in contact sports such as rugby or even athletic sprinters as they train to have more muscle that fat. Due to the fact that muscles weigh heavier that fat because of there numerous strong fibres therefore the athlete may weigh heavier because of the amount of muscle carrying and not be overweight, yet when using the BMI calculator because they weigh more than the proposed level for there height they can be classed as being overweight. Primarily the measurement can be used to identify weight issues and the readings given from the BMI calculation can enable you to indicate whether you are underweight, normal/proposed weight, overweight or obese. BMI can be calculated by dividing an individuals weight in kilograms (Kg) by their height squared in centimetres: weight (Kg) / Height (cm) 2 = BMI. The following ranges are the general measurements for each category in Kg/m2
Dependant upon the effectiveness of the fitness programme will have an impact upon the outcome of the participants BMI. Over the four weeks if the aerobic exercises carried out are effective then the BMI index is likely to be lower due to the reduced fat in the body which will endeavour in a lower weight in kilograms. Therefore because of a lower weight when calculating the BMI it will be lower. On the other hand if the muscular strengthening activities have proved effective and become much stronger due to the exercises carried out, the individuals weight may potentially increase as a result in the build up of muscle. Therefore the calculation of the BMI could increase above the recorded at the initial stage before the programme.
Peak Flow: Peak flow expiratory rate is the maximum amount of air an individual can expire during on breath out of the lungs and is measured using a peak flow expiratory meter. This is able to determine whether the airways is blocked or constricted in any circumstance and is used by asthmatics to assess whether medication they are undertaking is working. Peak flow is recorded using a using a small hand held device called a peak flow meter which measures the airflow through the bronchi and the readings given suggest individuals with high peak flow are well and lower peak flow suggests airways are constricted. Regarding sport a higher peak flow rate can be effective towards performance as if an individuals peak flow is high then it suggests they are able to expire a significant amount of by products carbon dioxide out of the system. Therefore from the programme the expected value of peak flow should increase as a result of the exercises due to the mechanics of breathing being more developed. An individuals peak flow rate is determined by many underlying factors that include sex, height, age and size. An average normal reading for both sexes in between the range of 400-600dm3.
Sit and reach: Sit and reach is a flexibility test design to assess how flexible an individual is by stretching as far as possible. They are also specifically designed to test the flexibility the hamstring group of muscles and the lower back. It is a relatively significant test in terms of identifying implications such as lumbar lordosis, forward pelvic tilt and lower back pain. The following are the average range of which an individual should be able to reach to. To carry out the sit and reach test the individual must sit with their legs straight up against the box and with their arm reach as far as possible along the box. The following are a range of values that can determine an individuals level of flexibility. Women are known to have grater flexibility than women;
Super: Men= 27 cm + Women= 30 cm +
Excellent: Men= 17-27 cm Women= 21-30 cm
Good: Men= 6-16 cm Women= 11-20 cm
Average: Men= 0-5 cm Women= 1-10 cm
Fair: Men= -8 - -1 cm Women= -7 - 0 cm
Poor: Men= -20 - -9 cm Women = -15 - -8cm
Very Poor: Men= < -20 cm Women= < -15cm
The reason for choosing flexibility as an assessment is due to the fact it has a significant benefit to a sporting concept. As muscle strength is increased as a result of the exercises carried out the range of movement and flexibility also improves. With increased flexibility participation is sport can be easier for example in football an individual may be able to stretch further because of the more flexible muscle fibres. Furthermore as a prevention aspect the more flexible muscles will reduce the likelihood of sustaining an injury.
Heart Rate: Heart rate is expressed as the number of times the heart beats during one minute. The beat occurs when the heart contracts as the electrical impulse is passed through and this usually occurs between 60 and 80 beats per minute (BPM). The atria, which are the hearts upper chambers contract just before the lower chambers of the heart which are the ventricles and therefore allow the atria to empty blood into the ventricles before the contraction phase. An individuals rate that is not between the recommended ranges or trace are catergorised into three different heart beats; Arrythmia is an irregular heart rhythm, Bradycardia occurs when the hearts beat is below 60 BPM and Sinus Tachycardia involves the heart beating at a very quick rhythm. An accurate measure of a heart rate is by applying the use of an Electrocardiogram (ECG). However the measurement taken for the heart rate during the fitness programme will be carried out manually. Taking an individuals pulse rate can be used as method for monitoring heart rate and can also be taken from a variety of places; radial artery, ulnar artery, carotid artery, femoral artery, abdominal artery. Heart rate is not to be measured using the thumb when placing it in any of the above places due the thumb having a beat therfore the counfouding beats could be conflicted. However it isnt always a complete measurement recording the beat in these places as if an individual has an arrythmia heart beat as some of the beats are ineffective due to the fact that the aorta isnt stretched enough to as create a wave. As a result the pulse becomes to irregular and can become much higher than the actial heart rate. The outcome from the fitness programme after carrying out the aerobic activities is that the heart rate is expected to decrease slightly. Aerobic traning allows the level of stroke volume to increase reducing the amount of beats (ventricular contraction) and allowing the transportation to the cappillaries more efficient. In relation to sport this is significant during performance as the volume of blood is increased allows for the proportion of oxygen to be higher which can then be diffused to muscle cells. As a result of this aerobic endurance can last a longer duration and reduce the likelihood of the production of lactic acid.
Recovery Heart Rate: Recovery heart rate is the time period in which an individual working at maximal heart rate takes to return the heart rate to their initial resting values. Within trained athletes at an elite level this time period is shorter compared to someone who attends a gym on an occasional basis. Recovery rate was chosen as a measurement as it is an effective way to assess physical fitness from the training programme. The expectancy is that the participants recovery rate in regards to time will be reduced. This is because the aerobic activities carried out will enable on completion of exercise to distribute blood from the heart where oxygen can be diffused to the muscle while carbon dioxide is diffused out due the differentiation in concentration levels allowing muscles to recover efficiently. If the recovery rate is quicker within an individual then during a games situation the are less likely to become fatigued in particular with the build up of lactic acid. It is a similar concept for regular heart rate in that the blood ejected from the contraction of the ventricles will be in a greater volume allowing the greater oxygen levels to be transported to muscle cells.
Strength: One aim of the fitness programme is to significantly improve upon the strength of muscles which are particular related to football. Before the start of the fitness programme the participants strength will be assessed on each exercise equipment to assess at what maximum level of weights can the repetitions be carried out comfortably. Initially the weight settings will be at a level where the repetitions can be carried out repetitively with minimal strain. To distinguish whether physical strength has been improved in the specific areas and whether the fitness programme had been efficient the participant will be required to lift the maximal weight they feel possible and carry out the repetitions. If they are able to increase the weight then the exercise is classed effective. Measuring strength is an important factor of the fitness programme for a football sense. On completion of the programme it is expected that the level of strength the participant has will have increased. This will be evident when observing the during the final session the maximum weight that can be worked with. Improving strength will allow the participant to compete more in a games situation against the opposition in terms of body strength and also adopt more explosive power for shooting.
Body Fat: Throughout the course of the fitness programme the aim is to reduce the amount of body fat either by loosing weight through cardiovascular endurance activities or by converting that excess fat into muscle using weights. There are two types of fat within the body; firstly there is essential fat whereby this is the amount of fat that is required for maintenance of life. Percentage essential fat in men is recommended at between 2-5% and in the region of 10-13% in women due to childbearing and additional hormonal factors. An additional fat within the body is known as storage fat which consist of the accumulation adipose tissue that protects vital internal organs in the chest and abdomen. It is recommended that the amount of storage fat should exceed the essential fat range for men and women as a fuel and energy store. There are various measurements that can be applied when measuring body fat, however the one being adopted to assess body fat in the fitness programme are anthopometric or skinfold methods. It includes measuring areas of the body by taking parts of the skin containing fat and measuring the circumference of thickness. Part of the skinfold test uses callipers that pinch parts of the skin and give a measurement. Regarding a sporting context there are to ways in which the body fat can be reduced. The aerobic activities required can reduce the amount of fat from the regular exercise which becomes beneficial when running as excess weight is not required to be carried around. Additionally the muscle strengthening exercise can assist in transferring the fat into muscle.
Pulse rate: 56 BPM
Heart Rate = 62 BPM
Recovery Rate= 4 minutes
Blood pressure: 116/56
BMI: Height = 166 cm (5ft 5 inches) Weight = 9.65 stone 61 Kg BMI= 21.8
Vital Capacity= 3.26 dm3
Peak Flow = 500 dm3
Body fat = 11.5%
Strength = Varied dependant upon the equipment used
Flexibility (Sit and Reach) 20 cm