minor and major Injures


There are two main categories of injuries and they are minor or major injures. There are a number or different injuries that come under these categories for minor injuries they are such this as cuts, bruises and abrasions. For major injuries they are more like broken bones, dislocated joints and muscle and ligament damage.

Cuts and bruises don't really need much attention paying to them maybe a plaster or an ice pack but that is about it. It is important that when applying an ice pack not to put it straight on to the skin but to have the ice pack wrapped up in either a correct sleeve or tissue. This is preventing ice burns and further skin irritation and damage.

Major injuries are more serious and usually involve a trip to the hospital. For a breaking or a fracturing of the bone the hospital will have to x-ray that particular part of the body. An x-ray is high-energy radiation used in low doses to diagnose disease or injury. However in high doses it can be used to treat such diseases as cancer.

Concussion from the Latin concutere ("to shake violently") or the Latin concussus ("action of striking together"), is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. The terms mild brain injury, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), mild head injury (MHI), and minor head trauma and concussion may be used interchangeably, although the latter is often treated as a narrower category. The term "concussion" has been used for centuries and is still commonly used in sports medicine, while 'MTBI' is a technical term used more commonly nowadays in general medical contexts. Frequently defined as a head injury with a transient loss of brain function, concussion can cause a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms.

Ligaments link bones to other bones and provide support to joints. They allow a normal range of movement to occur within a joint, but prevent unwanted movement that would render the joint unstable. In order to fulfill this function ligaments must possess immense mechanical tensile strength. Ligaments are classified as dense connective tissue, and they consist of a protein substance called collagen. The organisation of collagen fibres gives the ligament its tensile strength.

Another function of ligaments is to provide proprioceptive input to the brain that allows a person to know what position the joints are in, without having to look. This helps to perform the complex coordinated activities needed for sport.

A normal ligament consists of:

· 90% Type 1 collagen

· 9% Type 3 collagen

· 1% fibroblast cells (the cells that produce collagen)

Type 1 collagen is mature collagen tissue and has the greatest tensile strength. Type 3 collagen is immature collagen tissue and does not provide a great deal of tensile strength to the ligament. After being laid down by fibroblast cells it takes approximately three months for Type 3 collagen to mature into Type 1 collagen. As with other cells in the body, this process of renewal occurs continually.

When ligament tissue is examined under the microscope it can be clearly observed that the collagen fibres are arranged in a longitudinal pattern to resist the stress that is placed upon the ligament. The arrangement of the collagen fibres means that a great deal of force is required to damage ligaments. In a collision sport like hockey this force is generated by opposition players or when a player slips and his whole body weight goes over one joint. This force produces structural damage to the joint capsule and ligaments, which is known as a ligament sprain.

Ligament sprains are classified as follows:

GRADE 1 SPRAIN - There is damage to a few collagen fibres, producing a local inflammatory response. This is characterised by pain over the affected ligament.

GRADE 2 SPRAIN - There is damage to a more extensive number of collagen fibres. This produces a more marked inflammatory response characterised by intense pain and joint effusion (swelling).

GRADE 3 SPRAIN - The damage to collagen fibres is such that there is a complete rupture of the ligament. This produces intense pain, joint effusion and marked joint instability. Surgery may be necessary to restore joint stability.

Spinal cord injuries cause myelopathy or damage to nerve roots or myelinated fiber tracts that carry signals to and from the brain. Depending on its classification and severity, this type of traumatic injury could also damage the gray matter in the central part of the cord, causing segmental losses of interneurons and motorneurons. Spinal cord injury can occur from many causes, including:

· Trauma such as automobile crashes, falls, gunshots, diving accidents, war injuries, etc.

· Tumor such as meningiomas, ependymomas, astrocytomas, and metastatic cancer.

· Ischemia resulting from occlusion of spinal blood vessels, including dissecting aorti aneurysms, emboli, arteriosclerosis.

· Developmental disorders, such as spina bifida, meningomyolcoele, and other.

· Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Friedreich's ataxia, spinocerebellar ataxia, etc.

· Demyelinative diseases, such as Multiple Sclerosis.

· Transverse myelitis, resulting from stroke, inflammation, or other causes.

· Vascular malformations, such as arteriovenous malformation (AVM), dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF), spinal hemangioma, cavernous angioma and aneurysm.

(Spinal injury taken from Wikipedia).


When approaching what looks like a seriously injured or unconscious person to administer first aid. This "DR ABC" can help you to remember what to do.

Danger - Check the area, make sure YOU are safe and so are people around you.

Response - Can the casualty hear your voice? Can they open and close their eyes? Are there any movements? Do they respond to touch?

Airway - Is there a blockage in the throat or have they swallowed their tongue? Is the head in a suitable position (check first aid manual for details) to allow breathing? Care should be taken not to make anything worse but the airway MUST be cleared if it is blocked.

Breathing - Can the casualty breathe clearly? Once the airway is clear, is there any other problem - the lungs for example?

Circulation - IS there a pulse? Is the heart beating? Is the pulse weak / strong / racing?

This was not used when I broke my leg however the paramedics did perform all of these checks when I got cross checked into the board at a hockey match. This was because I could not move any of my body and where shaking really bad but I had only trapped a nerve in my spine nothing to major.


If you suffer an injury such as a sprain, strain, muscle pull, or tear, immediate first aid can prevent complications and help you heal faster. One of the most important acronyms to remember if you get a sports injury is R.I.C.E. R.I.C.E. stands for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. Using these 4 immediate first aid measures can relieve pain, limit swelling and protect the injured tissues, all of which help speed healing.

The R.I.C.E. Method of Acute Injury Treatment

* Rest: Resting is important immediately after injury for two reasons. First, rest is vital to protect the injured muscle, tendon, ligament or other tissue from further injury. Second, your body needs to rest so it has the energy it needs to heal itself most effectively.

* Ice: Use ice bags, cold packs or even a bag of frozen peas wrapped in a thin towel to provide cold to the injured area. Cold can provide short-term pain relief. It also limits swelling by reducing blood flow to the injured area. Keep in mind, though, that you should never leave ice on an injury for more than 15-20 minutes at a time. Longer exposure can damage your skin. The best rule is to apply cold compresses for 15 minutes and then leave them off for at least 20 minutes. (Read The Proper Use of ICE).

* Compression: Compression limits swelling, which slows down healing. Some people notice pain relief from compression as well. An easy way to compress the area of the injury is to wrap an ACE bandage over it. If you feel throbbing, or if the wrap just feels too tight, remove the bandage and re-wrap the area so the bandage is a little looser.

* Elevation: Elevating an injury reduces swelling. It's most effective when the injured area is raised above the level of the heart. For example, if you injure an ankle, try lying on your bed with your foot propped on one or two pillows.

This particular technique was not used with my leg injury but I have had it used on me a number of times. This is due with the nature of the sport of roller hockey you get beaten about a bit. However sometimes it might be where someone has taken a shot and it has hit you were you have no padding and this technique will be used then.


Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency medical procedure for a victim of cardiac arrest or, in some circumstances, respiratory arrest. CPR is performed in hospitals, or in the community by laypersons or by emergency response professionals.

CPR involves physical interventions to create artificial circulation through rhythmic pressing on the patient's chest to manually pump blood through the heart, called chest compressions, and usually also involves the rescuer exhaling into the patient (or using a device to simulate this) to inflate the lungs and pass oxygen in to the blood, called artificial respiration. Some protocols now downplay the importance of the artificial respirations, and focus on the chest compressions only.

CPR is unlikely to restart the heart; its main purpose is to maintain a flow of oxygenated blood to the brain and the heart, thereby delaying tissue death and extending the brief window of opportunity for a successful resuscitation without permanent brain damage. Advanced life support and defibrillation, the administration of an electric shock to the heart, is usually needed for the heart to restart. This only works for patients in certain heart rhythms, namely ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia, rather than the 'flat line' asystolic patient although CPR can help induce a shockable rhythm in an arrested patient.


The accident I am going to look at in detail is something that I did to myself when I was a child. I broke my leg and broke both my tibia and fibula. I broke this on a pair of fisher price roller skates when they got stuck in a crack in the pavement. I got taken to hospital by my dad and not in an ambulance so I did not receive any immediate first aid treatment. I was on the back seat with my leg stretched out over the seat to try and support it my leg looked like it had two knee joints and I was in alot of pain. When I got to the hospital I was taken to A.E where they had a look to see what is wrong with me and they did checks on my heart beat and blood pressure. I spent all day on a ward after having x-rays, I went into the operating theatre at about 8 at night where they then pinned my leg back together and put it in a cast.

I spent a further 2 days in hospital whilst they monitored my progress with me having loads more x-rays and constant check on the levels of pain I was in from the doctor. The way he was checking the pain was by poking and moving my toes see if I had feeling in them and can move them properly. He could not check my reflex in my leg as it were in a cast from the middle of my foot all the way up to my hip, the cast kept my leg straight with it fully stretched out. When they sent me home I had to go in a wheel chair as my arm was in plaster so I couldn't use crutches, however I had to sit on a board that would support my leg because of the straight cast that they had put it in.

I had to go back to the hospital every 2 weeks for an x-ray and to check to see how my leg was repairing. The doctor also repeated the checks that he was doing whilst I were in hospital for a few days. After a few months the cast I had on was taken off and I had a smaller cast that only came up to my knee fitted. I tried to walk and I when I walked my foot was bent right so I then had to have physiotherapy for a few months. They gave me exercises to complete and I had to go back every 2 weeks for a few months, for constant check up and to monitor my progress. When I were going for these checks they were checking the reflexes in my knee and that all the nerves were working properly.

I think to avoid this injury I should watched were I were going and avoided the dip in the path. However if I had hit the dip I might have only just broke one of them for example the tibia, I might f broke my fibula as well if I didn't then try walking/skating back to my house. With putting all my weight on the one bone in my shin without the support of the other it could of lead to the other bone snapping.

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