Advancement in technology

Advancement in technology

CHAPTER 1

Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

The advancement in the technology has brought about many changes to the way we live. The development of the Internet has vastly changed and influenced important aspects of how we go about your daily lives. Today, the Internet has become and very dynamic, powerful and interactive medium of information delivery (Nam and Smith-Jackson, 2007). Many new technologies used in different areas or fields have been developed through the availability of information on the Internet.

The use of the Internet as an tool for education have given a wider range of interesting and new experiences and environments to students and also teachers (Khan, 1997). They are able to gain benefits and experiences that are not possible through traditional in class education. The use of the resources available from the Internet has increased the significance and also impacted online teaching and learning and the quality (Kramer, 2000). E-learning or web based learning is one of the applications that were form through the Internet.

According to Gunasekaran, McNeil and Shaul (2002) the web based learning market is wide and covers the academic, corporate and consumer fields. These fields are further segmented according to content providers, technology vendors and service providers. The implementation of web based learning has brought a new dimension to various areas. According to Rosenberg (2001 cited in Poon, Low and Yong 2004) web based learning, also known as electronic learning refers to internet technologies used to deliver a broad array of solutions that enhance the instructional process. Web based learning has the ability to combine online and knowledge management attributes.

According to Mangan (2001), following the current trend towards the use and success of web based learning, technology, research and the marketplace are leading the way towards a significant paradigm shift and cultural change.

Web based learning is able to provide information from greater variety of sources, increased access to knowledge, improve quality of services and also help ease the adoption of new information and programs (Gunasekaran, McNeil and Shaul, 2002).

1.2 Problem statement

Education is one of the key elements or values included in the 1 Malaysia concept introduced by the new premiership of Malaysia. The importance of education for all the people of Malaysia is emphasized by this initiative. The Ministry of Education Malaysia has also set one of its objectives as to provide educational opportunities for all Malaysians. E-learning or web based learning is one of the ways that the nation to look into in order to provide more opportunities for Malaysians to access education. The implementation of web based learning in Kota Kinabalu would be ideal to improve the educational level of the people of the state and indirectly improve the living standard of the state which is considered the poorest within the country. Although the use of web based learning among colleges in Kota Kinabalu is fairly uncommon but there is a large potential for the success of the adoption of web based learning in this field. The successful adoption of web based learning in Kota Kinabalu may help the city to become a major educational hub for the country and even the region. It can also be a model for other cities within the country. The paper tries to identify the factors that may influence the successful adoption of web based learning from the point of the students and lecturers of colleges around Kota Kinabalu.

1.3 Research Objectives

This research paper intends to investigate whether the college students and lecturers around Kota Kinabalu find that technology, the students, the instructors and the institution are factors that can influence the successful of adoption of web based learning in colleges in Kota Kinabalu.

1.4 Research Question

The research questions the paper tends to answer include what are the factors that influence the successful adoption of web based learning among colleges in Kota Kinabalu; does these factors include technology, students, instructors and institute.

1.5 Research Framework

1.6 Hypotheses

H1 : Technology is an influencing factor of effective web based learning

H2 : Students is an influencing factor of effective web based learning

H3 : Instructors is an influencing factor of effective web based learning

H4 : Institution is an influencing factor of effective web based learning

1.7 Limitation of Study

There were some limitations with respect to the analysis and data that may affect the accuracy of the results. The first limitation has to do with the extent to which the findings can be generalized beyond the cases studied. The sample used in the study may not represent the broad Kota Kinabalu population on their perception of factors that may influence the successful adoption of web based learning. The number of sample is too limited for broad generalizations. Besides that, the study reflects the opinion or perspective of the sample that may or may not have experience with web based learning programs. The measures introduced in this study could be refined, made more robust. Since the sample was taken from institutions of higher learning in Kota Kinabalu, the results from the analysis may be biased and not a good indication of the whole population of Kota Kinabalu. This will be the subject of later studies.

CHAPTER 2

Review of Literature

2.1 Introduction

A variety of factors with potential influence on the success of adoption of web based learning can be identified in the literature. According to studies conducted by Dillon and Gunawardena (1995) and Leidner and Jarvenpaa (1993), three main variables affect the effectiveness of online delivery. They are e technology, instructor characteristics and student characteristics. However, although numerous studies done by Volery and Lord (2000), Soong, Chan, Chua and Loh (2001) and Testa and de Freitas (2003) reveal some of the key factors to be considered when introducing web based learning, most studies seem to focus on technological, design and delivery issues. Few researchers have discussed organisational and institutional aspects of web based learning implementation, which is vital to the process at all levels.

2.2 Web based learning

According to Volery and Lord (2000) the literature on online delivery in the field of education has flourished since the early 1990s with the rise of the Internet. There has been a huge interest in a variety of issues that can be connected to online delivery such as distance learning, computer-based learning, distributed learning, and lifelong learning. Distance learning is probably the oldest and best-known concept (Volery and Lord, 2000). Distant learning was originally intended for students who face disadvantage in terms of their geographical remoteness from university campuses. According to Volery and Lord (2000) computer-based learning was, until fairly recently, limited mainly to technological fields such as mathematics, engineering and design. However, computer laboratories now are likely to be visited by students in linguistics, geography, history or business. Computers provide an unparalleled capacity to manage and access large amounts of information, and present it in a novel and interesting way (Volery and Lord, 2000). Similarly, computer-based education allows students to become active learners rather than mere passive recipients of teaching (Candy et al., 1994). Computers are not necessarily linked to a network: computer learning can be achieved by standalone computers using a particular software stored in the hard disk, a floppy disk or CD (Volery and Lord, 2000).

Web based learning also known as e-learning involves the learning that is enabled through the Internet. In web based learning, many components can be included such as delivery of contents in multiple formats, management of learning experiences, learners in a network community, developers and experts of web based learning programs (Gunasekaran, McNeil and Shaul, 2002). Web based learning is able to provide increased access to learning at a reduced cost with a clear accountability for all involved in the learning process. Besides that, web based learning eliminates the barrier of time, distance and social economic status which enables individuals to be in control of their own life long learning. According to Gunasekaran, McNeil and Shaul (2002) in the information age, learning opportunities pan a lifetime and the skill and knowledge of the people need to be constantly refreshed to keep up with new technologies and trends.

2.3 Technology

Some of the key technological aspects such as reliability, quality and richness of medium must be considered for the successful adoption of web based learning (Sanders Lopez and Nagelhout, 1995). The network set up should be enabled for both synchronous and asynchronous exchange and that students should be able to access the network conveniently. Besides that, the network should be efficient so that only minimal time for document exchange is required. The quality of the interface also plays a crucial role (Trevitt, 1995). According to Laurel (1990) and Blattner and Dannenberg (1992) the interface design for online delivery ranges from the highly artistic to highly technical. Reeves and Harmon (1993) identified the ease of use, navigation, cognitive load, mapping, screen design, information presentation, aesthetics, and overall functionality as being important areas within the user interface.

According to Poon, Low and Yong (2004), stable server and broad bandwidth are major concerns in successful adoption of web based learning. Technical problems may undermine the web based learning process. For example, the interruption or loss of files containing essential learning materials because of the failure of servers. The quality of web based learning presentations also depends on high bandwidth capabilities. Institutions currently are encountering technical difficulties to increase or improve the bandwidth due to high cost of the setting up new network systems or upgrading them. However, studies done by Ancis (1998) and Strother (2002) have showed that web based learning can be an economical and cost-effective way of delivering instruction. According to Barron (2001), web based learning technology providers are able to demonstrate cost-savings, develop integrated offerings and propose innovative ways of applying web based learning.

2.4 Instructors

According to Poon, Low and Yong (2004) the instructor's role is another factor that contributes toward the successful adoption of web based learning. Poon, Low and Yong (2004) stated that online facilitators generally have to play three roles which are the motivator, content expert and technology resource person. Therefore, it is crucial that instructors' inputs and commitment are considered during the planning stages of the adoption of web based learning. The instructors must also ensure the active engagement or involvement of the learners during the learning process. Studies done by Gan (1998) show that the failure of an instructor to ensure high level of interaction and discussion among students in a web based learning course can directly affect the success of web based leaning.

According to Lord and Volery (2000), an instructor who has a positive attitude towards distributed learning and who promotes the technology will help the students to experience more positive learning outcomes. In a web based learning environment, students often feel isolated since they do not have the classroom environment in which to interact with the instructor (Serwatka, 1999). Therefore it is important that there is an easy way for instructors and students to interact, share and discuss about ideas and thoughts.

Collis (1995, cited in Volery and Lord 2000) remarked that the instructors play a central role in the successful adoption of web based learning: ``It is not the technology but the instructional implementation of the technology that determines the effects on learning.'' Webster and Hackley (1997) stated that the instructors' attitude towards technology, their teaching style, and also their control of technology are the three instructor characteristics that can influence the learning outcomes. Students participating in web based learning may face technical problems and therefore it is crucial that the instructors have a good control of the technology to be able to perform basic troubleshooting tasks.

2.5 Students

According to Colley, Gale and and Harris (1994), variables such as prior experience, having a computer at home, and personality produce gender difference towards computers of the students may influence the successful adoption of web based learning.

According to Gan (1998), students would prefer to have face to face tutorials compared to pure online learning although most of them would make positive recommendation about web based learning to their friends. Yazon, Mayer-Smith and Redfield (2002) concluded that students would enjoy an enhanced learning environment an improved learning through careful design of technology, with the combination of Web-based and face-to-face elements. Earlier studies by Leidner and Jarvenpaa (1995) and Volrey and Lord (2000) have shown that students who did not have the necessary basic skills and self-discipline did better in the traditional delivery mode compared to web based learning.

Webster and Hackley (1997) suggested that part of the influential factors of successful adoption of web based learning includes students' involvement and participation, cognitive engagement and technology self-efficacy. Schmeck and Geisler-Bernstein (1989, cited in Poon, Low and Yong 2004) students in a new environment would have to develop new perception and change their learning style which can influence their academic achievement.

2.6 Institutional

According to Poon, Low and Yong (2004), institutional factors are also important in influencing the successful adoption of web based learning. The organisational management policies can influence those who are responsible for academic and educational settings through imposition of administrative procedures and availability of resources which can in turn affect the design of web based learning (McPherson and Nunes, 2006).

Poon, Low and Yong (2004) stated that institutional structure and facilities that have influence on the successful adoption of web based learning consist of copyright issues, accreditation system, technology and the availability of the virtual digital library. Copyright issues could affect the quality and performance of web based learning (McIsaac and Rowe, 1997), and standards for accreditation to virtual institutions cab be an issue.

Gan (1998) and Parker (1997) agreed that a well-designed web based learning course should include feedback from students and also instructors. Online resources such as online journals, magazines and international organizations should be provided. Manjit and Shaufique (2002) agreed that students' learning process is enhanced via virtual library facility. This facility is able to provide students with convenient ways to access important learning resources.

McPherson and Nunes (2006) also stated that it is important that organisations wishing to implement web based learning should be familiar with their own organisational culture, structure and strategies, before designing, developing and implementing web based learning solutions.

2.7 Effectiveness

According to Webster and Hackley (1997) the concept of effectiveness can include student involvement and participation, cognitive engagement, technology self-efficacy (i.e. the belief that one has the capability to interact with a given technology), perceived usefulness of the technology employed, and the relative advantage or disadvantage of online delivery.

According to studies conducted by Dillon and Gunawardena (1995) and Leidner and Jarvenpaa (1993), three main variables affect the effectiveness of online delivery:

  1. technology;
  2. instructor characteristics; and
  3. student characteristics

Roffee (2002) suggested six questions on effectiveness which includes:

What is the overall satisfaction of learners with web based learning?

What change is there in the knowledge, skills or attitudes of participants?

What changes are there in on-the-job behavior?

What saving is there in labor?

What productivity changes have occurred as a result of web based learning?

What changes are there for business impact for either individuals or work unit?

CHAPTER 3

Research Methodology

3.1 Research design

This study adopted mainly deductive methodology which consists of quantitative methods. The content of the questionnaire was based on the framework of the appropriate literature in the field of web based learning and measurement of variables for the study was drawn from Poon, Low and Yong (2004) and Reeves and Harmon (1992) and Webster and Hackley (1997).

The reason that the deductive methodology is used in this study is because the paper is a mostly descriptive research. The paper not only tries to identify the factors influencing the successful adoption of web based learning among colleges in Kota Kinabalu, it also tries to explain to what extent does these factors influence the successful adoption of web based learning among colleges in Kota Kinabalu. The paper deals with descriptive statistics from the questionnaire and also opinions of the people in general from the interviews.

3.2 Sample of study

The samples for the study can be categorized into three groups. They are the students, the instructors or the lecturers and the people who are involved or have been involved in web based learning. The samples for the interviews consist of people who are in or have finished a web based learning course, content experts and person in charge of web based learning course. The sample for the questionnaire consists of 200 college students and 50 college lecturers from Kota Kinabalu. The sampling method used is convenient sampling. This is because the sample population selected because it is readily available and convenient. The sample would be from Inti College Sabah, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Institute Sinaran, Sabah Institute of Art to name a few.

3.3 Instruments

Instrument used for the study include technology, instructors, students and institution. These factors or instruments can be linked to the effectiveness of web based learning that is important in the successful adoption of web based learning. Items were also set to further capture the perceptions of the sample towards the influence the above factors may have in the successful adoption of web based learning in colleges in Kota Kinabalu.

Items included into the technology factor include accessibility to information, information credibility, reliability and security of the Information Technology infrastructure, browsing speed and problems free navigation.

Items included into the instructor factor include sufficiency of online learning resources provided by the instructors, instructors' knowledge in the use of internet technology, instructors give quick response to queries, student interaction is encouraged by the instructors and also approachability and friendliness and ease of contact of the instructors.

Items included into the student factor include students' satisfaction with time and place flexibility, students' involvement and participation, students' cognitive engagement, students' technological self-efficacy, students' initiative and motivation and students' anxiety level.

Items included into the institution factor include accreditation, availability of virtual library, and method of delivery of course content and copyright issues.

3.4 Data collection

The methodology consists of one stage. The main stage includes the data collected through an anonymous questionnaire administered.

The questionnaire was delivered to the respondents and collected when the respondents finished all the survey questions or after a specific time frame. Respondents for the questionnaire were asked to indicate their level of agreement based on the Likert scale with “1” indicating “strongly agree” and “5” indicating “strongly disagree”.

3.5 Data analysis

The study deals with descriptive source such as surveys and questionnaires. The main data analysis was done through descriptive analysis. The information gained from the questionnaire requires proper descriptive analysis. The data collected from the questionnaire will be set into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences or better known as SPSS which is a computer program mainly used for statistical analysis.

CHAPTER 4

Findings

4.1 Demographics of the sample

There were a total of 250 usable responses from the questionnaires handed out among local institution of higher learning around Kota Kinabalu. A total of 47.6 percent of the respondents were male and 52.4 percent were female respondents. A majority of the sample which contributes 50 percent of the respondents were in the range of 20-23 years of age. The second largest group consisting of 18 percent of the sample are aged 19 and below followed by the group aged 35 and above with 14.4 percent. The survey showed that 50.4 percent of the respondents were full-time students, 29.2 percent were part time students, 12.8 percent were employed part-time and 7.6 percent were employed part time. A majority which consists of 96 of the sample were computer literate. Besides that, 92.8 percent of the sample has internet access either at home or the office. The break down of the usage of the internet among the sample are 42 percent use the internet more than 7 times a week, 35.2 percent of the sample use the internet between 5-6 times, 12.8 percent use the internet between 3-4 hours, 2.8 percent use the internet 1-2 times and 7.2 percent do not use the internet.

Table 1

Descriptive Statistics of Demographics of Sample

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

TECHNOLOGY

250

1

4

2.16

.546

INSTRUCTORS

250

1

4

2.15

.536

STUDENTS

250

1

4

2.14

.523

INSTITUTIONAL

250

1

4

2.17

.529

4.2 Technology

This factor was related to the successful adoption of web based learning with respect to the existing technology. A set of five items was developed using a five-point Likert scale which the respondents had to indicate their extent of agreement or disagreement to capture the following perceptions:

  1. Accessibility to information;
  2. Information credibility;
  3. Reliability and security of the IT infrastructure;
  4. Browsing speed;
  5. Problems free navigating

80 percent of the respondents with a mean score of 2.15 and a standard deviation of 0.539 concur that easy accessibility to information in the web based learning can influence the successful adoption of web based learning in colleges in Kota Kinabalu. The credibility of the information provided by the web based learning programs is also important as 80 percent of the respondents with a mean score of 2.15 and a standard deviation of 0.539 agree with the statement above. Reliability and security of the Information Technology infrastructures are also important factors that can influence the successful adoption of web based learning in colleges in Kota Kinabalu as 79.6 percent of the sample with a mean score of 2.17 and a standard deviation of 0.529 agree with the statement above. 80 percent of the respondents with a mean score of 2.15 and a standard deviation of 0.539 also agree that the browsing speed can influence the successful adoption of web based learning in colleges in Kota Kinabalu. The ability to have problem free navigation while using the web based learning program is also an important factor influencing the successful adoption of web based learning in colleges in Kota Kinabalu as 79.6 percent of the sample with a mean score of 2.16 and a standard deviation of 0.541 agree with the statement.

Table 2

Descriptive Statistics of Technology items

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

EASE OF ACCESS TO INFORMATION

250

1

4

2.15

.539

BROWSING SPEED

250

1

4

2.15

.539

CREDIBLE AND SECURE IT INFRASTRUCTURE

250

1

4

2.15

.508

SUFFICIENT ONLINE RESOURCE

250

1

4

2.17

.529

PROBLEM FREE NAVIGATION

250

1

4

2.16

.541

4.3 Instructors

There was also a significant relationship between successful adoption of web based learning and the instructors. Web based learning programs focus on academic quality through the services it provides. A set of five items was developed using a five-point Likert scale which the respondents had to indicate their extent of agreement or disagreement to capture the following perceptions:

  1. Sufficient online learning resources is provided by the instructors;
  2. Instructors' knowledge in the use of internet technology;
  3. Instructors' give quick response to queries
  4. Student interaction is encouraged by the instructors;
  5. Instructors are easily contacted, approachable and friendly

82.8 percent of the respondents with a mean score of 2.12 and a standard deviation of 0.519 agreed that instructors had to provide sufficient learning resources online in order to help in the successful adoption of web based learning in colleges in Kota Kinabalu. 80.8 percent of the respondents with a mean score of 2.14 and a standard deviation of 0.523 agree that instructors' knowledge in the use of internet technology is an important factor in determining the successful adoption of web based learning in colleges in Kota Kinabalu. Besides that, 80 percent of the sample with a mean score of 2.15 and a standard deviation of 0.539 agrees that quick response to the queries of the students form the lecturer is also an important factor in the successful adoption of web based learning in colleges in Kota Kinabalu. The encouragement of student interaction by the instructors is also an important factor in influencing the successful adoption of web based learning in colleges in Kota Kinabalu as 80.4 percent of the respondents with a mean score of 2.15 and a standard deviation of 0.536 agree with the statement. 81.6 percent of the sample with means score of 2.14 and a standard deviation of 0.523 agree that instructors that are approachable, friendly and can be easily contacted can influence the successful adoption of we based learning in colleges in Kota Kinabalu.

Table 3

Descriptive Statistics of Instructors items

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

ONLINE RESOURCE

250

1

4

2.12

.519

IT KNOWLEDGE

250

1

4

2.14

.523

QUICK RESPONSE

250

1

4

2.15

.539

ENCOUAGEMNET TO INTERACT

250

1

4

2.15

.536

INSTRUCTORS' FRIENDLYNESS AND APPROACHABILITY

250

1

4

2.14

.523

4.4 Students

One of the most critical factors that can influence the successful adoption of web based learning in colleges in Kota Kinablu is the student factor. Several different dimensions were conceptualized to capture the students' perception following the interactions between the students and the successful adoption of web based learning in Kota Kinabalu. These items were developed using a five-point Likert scale in which the respondents had to indicate their extent of agreement or disagreement. Among the students' perceptions were:

  1. Students' satisfaction with time and place flexibility;
  2. Students' involvement and participation;
  3. Students' cognitive engagement;
  4. Students' technological self-efficacy;
  5. Students' initiative and motivation
  6. Students' anxiety level

85.2 percent of the sample with a mean score of 1.91 and a standard deviation of 0.661 agrees that time and place flexibility that web based learning programs can offer is an advantageous factor in influencing the successful adoption of web based learning in colleges in Kota Kinabalu. Learners were satisfied with the flexibility of the system as an effective way to deliver education that fitted their tight and demanding corporate work schedules. Furthermore, they received technical support even at night hours and presumably obtained the same quality content as the on-campus students. The majority of the respondents which consist of 93.6 percent with a mean score of 1.96 and a standard deviation of 0.501 agreed that active participation in class activities stimulated their learning interest. In fact, 92.8 percent of the sample with a mean score of 1.96 and a standard deviation of 0.501 agreed that higher level of cognitive engagement in web based learning programs would help in the successful adoption of web based learning in colleges in Kota Kinabalu. Only 38 percent of the sample with means score of 2.88 and a standard deviation of 0.825 agreed that anxiety of students to get a degree qualification is important in the successful adoption of web based learning in colleges in Kota Kinabalu. Besides that, 81.2 percent of the respondents with a mean score of 2.14 and a standard deviation of 0.697 agreed that with technology self efficacy they believed that they were more capable in interacting using the given technology, and would help in the successful adoption of web based learning in colleges in Kota Kinabalu. In addition to that, 80 percent of the respondents with a mean score of 2.15 and a standard deviation of 0.539 believed that motivation and initiative to learn play a role in the successful adoption of web based learning in colleges in Kota Kinabalu. These qualities motivated them to be more committed in their studies and drove them to improve their performance.

Table 4

Descriptive Statistics of Students items

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

TIME AND PLACE FLEXIBILITY

250

1

4

1.97

.661

PARTICIPATION AND INVOLVEMENT

250

1

4

1.96

.501

CONGNITIVE ENGAGEMENT

250

1

4

1.96

.501

ANXIETY

250

1

4

2.88

.825

SELP EFFICACY

250

1

4

2.14

.697

INTIATIVE AND MOTIVATION

250

1

4

2.15

.539

4.5 Institution

Another issue that would influence the successful adoption of web based learning in colleges in Kota Kinabalu was institutional factor. A set of four items was developed using a five-point Likert scale which the respondents had to indicate their extent of agreement or disagreement to capture the following perceptions such as:

  1. Accreditation;
  2. Availability of virtual library;
  3. Method of delivery of course content;
  4. Copyright issues

78.8 percent of the respondents with the mean score of 2.20 and a standard deviation of 0.505, perceived accreditation from the relevant authorities as an important factor that can influence the successful adoption of web based learning in colleges in Kota Kinabalu. 78.8 percent of the sample with a mean score of 2.16 and a standard deviation of 0.546 also believes that the availability of virtual library is important in determining the successful adoption of web based learning in Kota Kinabalu. Besides that, 82 percent of the respondents with a mean score of 2.13 and a standard deviation of 0.525 believe that the copyrights issues of the web based learning programs if owned and resolved by the institution would be a advantage in process to successfully adopt web based learning in colleges in Kota Kinabalu. Another factor that the sample believed to have an influence in the successful adoption of web based learning in colleges in Kota Kinabalu is the method of delivery course content preferred by the institution with 82.8 percent of the sample with a mean score of 2.16 and a standard deviation of 0.541 agree with that statement.

Table 5

Descriptive Statistics of Institution items

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

ACCREDITATION

250

1

4

2.20

.505

VIRTUAL LIBRARY AVAILABILITY

250

1

4

2.16

.546

COPY RIGHT ISSUES

250

1

4

2.13

.525

METHOD OF DELIVERY

250

1

4

2.16

.541

CHAPTER 5

Conclusion

The study attempted to study the meaning of web based learning, to review literature involving the factors that influence its effectiveness and with the purpose of in turn influence the successful adoption of web based learning in colleges in Kota Kianablu. Web based learning is an ongoing learning process with skill acquisition at all levels and has a big potential not only in the academic world but also other industries. The study was able indicate that technology, instructors, students and also institution play an important role in the perception of the sample to influence the successful adoption of web based learning in colleges in Kota Kinabalu. From the analysis of the data it can be concluded that sample may have basic knowledge on web based learning but may have yet to experience it themselves. For web based learning to work effectively and successfully adopted in colleges in Kota Kinabalu, all the factors have to be look at and evaluated. The level of technology must be there in terms infrastructure such as internet availability and also internet quality. Instructors should also upgrade and continue to improve their knowledge to keep up with the latest technology and trends. Students should also be more proactive in the learning process to be able to increase their knowledge. Institutions should really prepare themselves to be able to upgrade the faculties and invest in this area.

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