Term of globalization

Term of globalization


The term Globalization would mean the process of forming global institutions. These types of institutions would be considering the world as a single entity and it would be in stark contrast to regional, local and national levels. There have been trends that have been readily available when we look at global capitalism, trends in consumer tastes, transnational migration, and the online communication that has pointed towards the globalization. There have been a section of people who has been supporting globalization and there have been a section of people who has been opposing the globalization. There have been considerable viewpoints about globalization and that has been the dilemma when it comes to define globalization.

History of globalization

There has been no historical evidence of when globalization has started and there has been entry of globalization in the dictionary in the year 1961 and the globalization has been linked with information society, the entry of new capitalism and the end of communism and end of history.

There have been many viewpoints that have said globalization as the child of both technology and power. The concept of globalization has been that human societies have been builded into a single system. Globalization could be said as a general process of integrating families into village, villages into a tribe, tribes into peoples, peoples into cities, cities into states, states into empires and the main key could be termed as development by globalization. There has been focus by the globalization in the form of economic finance, capital flows, decentralization that has been happening in the fields of production and world markets (Sassen, S. 1994).

There has been opening of China in the year 1979 and the collapse of Soviet Union in the year 1989 that has been fuelling the process of globalization. The process of globalization could be termed as complex and multi dimensional and that has been one of the visible and influential aspects.

The main pillars of globalization

The main pillars of globalization could be termed as economic, political and cultural.

There has been wide spread accusations that the culture has been spreading globally and that has been eroding the moral values globally. But as of now it has been seen that the world has become more of sharing the culture across and that could be termed as an example of Yoga being practiced globally and jeans being accepted as a part of culture globally. Social globalization could be termed as many social relations that would be delinked from territorial geography, and human beings are being treated as one. There would be a cultural globalization by using the same thing and by speaking the same language. (Jessop , 1998).

Economic globalization has led to the concept of borderless world and that has been seen as bringing the gap between international economy and local economy. The economic globalization has been seen as flourishing from the year 1990s and Western European integration was seen as the first step in creating an economic globalization. The Uruguay round in the year 1990s saw the development of borderless economy as the GATT and WTO came into existence. The primary aim of the Uruguay round has been to reduce the trade barriers between the developed and developing countries and ways to get over the safeguarding, antidumping restrictions and anti export things.

The bad sides of the globalization could be said as of illegal mp3 trafficking and that would mean that there has been counterfeit dollars and other modes of currency used for terror activities.The dominant form of globalization has been the capitalist globalization.

The theories






Sovereign States in an Anarchic International System

State, Sub-State Actors(firms,

NGOs), International Organizations

States, Classes, Societies, Nonstate actors as part of Capitalist World System

View of Actors

States as Unitary Actors

Domestic actors and processes of decision making matter

Determined by the historical and economic circumstances



Concern about the potential use of force. Maximize national security:diplomacy, deterrence,allying,war

Interests are broadly defined(legitimacy,economic,security). Bargaining is central means.

States and groups act within patterns of dominance


National Security,Conflict,Peace

Broad Agenda

Economic issues (dependency)

Marxism and Globalization

Marxism has been seeing globalization as a process that could be rightly termed as negative and the Marxian theory has never considered the globalization as a new process and they have considered it as development of international capitalism by the west. Marxian theory has been considering globalization as increasing the divide between rich and poor countries. (Keating , 1997)

World Cities and globalization

The key impact of globalization has been the formation of World cities. World Cities have been in existence existed throughout urban history and these have been more prevalent in the Western societies. These cities have been acting as centers of politics, commerce, trade and finance, and they were having large populations and good infrastructure provision.

Rome has been often cited as world first city. The term world city was replaced by the term global city in the 1990s and these cities are being identified as the place of power both economically and politically.

The term global city cannot be defined in clear terms but will be drawing from the concept of world cities. The world cities have been defined as centers of power both nationally and internationally and there have been more organizations that have been related to government in these places. These world cities would be having more centers of national and international trade and they would be acting as center spots for all countries globally. (C. Hewitt de Alcántara , 2008)

The world city would have defined centers of insurance and banking sectors and would be having centers of advanced professional activity of all kinds. These world cities would be having centers of information gathering and diffusion and these places would be rated as places of conspicuous consumption. The global city or the world city would be acting as centers of innovation in which production would be helping the trade in a more direct manner and within the region of city globally.

The city name will be identified globally without having the need to attach the name of the country to it. The popular examples can be said as London, Paris, New York, Washington, and Melbourne and so on. If all these would have country names attached to it, then it would mean the end of the global city as London, United Kingdom, Paris, France and so on.

There will be participation in international events and world affair s and the examples of this type of model can be seen in Washington, Berlin, Brussels where there is more influential organizations (Friedmann and G. Wolff, 2002).The center metropolitan area would be having at least one million and there will be several typical million in the area.

The advanced transportation system like International airport, advanced transportation system like highways, large mass transit network that has been offering like rapid transit, light rail, regional rail, and ferry and bus service and so on and these cities would be attracting a large number of expatriate communities like Moscow, Hong Kong, Singapore, Tokyo, Shanghai, New York and so on.

There have been International financial institutions, law firms, corporate headquarters, international conglomerates, and stock exchanges like the New York Stock Exchange that would be having influence over global economy.

There will be high-speed communication nodes like the Wi-Fi in these areas and world renowned cultural universities and museums will be in these places. There will be also cultural scene and these can be attributed to film festivals like the Berlin film festival, Toronto international film festival and so on. There will be also several media center that has reach all over the world like the BBC, CNN, Reuters, New York Times, Agence France-Presse and so on.

There have been International financial institutions, law firms, corporate headquarters, international conglomerates, and stock exchanges like the New York Stock Exchange that would be having influence over global economy.

There will be high-speed communication nodes like the Wi-Fi in these areas and world-renowned cultural universities and museums will be in these places. There will be also cultural scene and these can be attributed to film festivals like the Berlin film festival, Toronto international film festival and so on. There will be also several media center that has reach all over the world like the BBC, CNN, Reuters, New York Times, Agence France-Presse and so on.( Davis, Diane E. 2005)

There has been argument that states that global city has been due to the globalization process and new technologies, telecommunications, information technology and that have led to the decentralization and agglomeration of economic activities, advancement in the information technology have changed the city hierarchies.

The process of global cities and globalization has changed the economic and social fabric, environment, of large global cities, but has remodeled the spatial structure as well. The outcomes of this process will be differing in very global cities. There have been cases of global cities facing problems like urban life get stifled by the very high rate of economic growth and that can be followed by desertion by companies when financial crunch occurs leading to high unemployment in global cities.

Are all of the processes of globalization equally important?

It has been seen that culture has been invading the global process very fast. That could be seen as more cds.films, books being exported to different parts of the world and the largest film industry in the world has been the Hollywood and they has been exporting films to all parts of the world, These type of cultural invasion has been taking place because of the fact that English has been used as the basic common language and this has been used scientifically and technically. Internet has led to the spread of the English language and that does mean that culture globalization could be a process that could not be turned back. The people could be either in favor of globalization or could be against it, but globalization would continue.

The international media has been presenting national model as an old fashioned one and there has been wide spread of fashion shows and beauty contest that has been considered as cultural invasion. There has been wide spread use of colas and Barbie doll that has been said as cultural invasion.

The political globalization has seen many countries trying to stop the war between countries and get into more economic ties and that has mean that more multinational companies are coming up and they are spreading to different parts of the world.

It is in these back ground that the economic globalization could be considered as a powerful medium and the developed countries has been facing problems of increased age of the population and that does mean that multinational companies would be getting the cheap labor at developing countries and that would increase their profits. Multinational companies/brands, that has been selling their products to countries would affect the country's entire economy, or are affected by its economic makeup.

The economic aspect of the country has been said as the number of increased foreign capital and that has seen as the main factor that would be determining the success of the country.

The most important developments that has been seen in globalization that has been the framework of the European Union has been free travel, the opening of borders between countries and the removal of all trade hindrances. As economic integration increases, there would be increased political integration. Economic dependence would mean that countries would be speaking of mutual dependence that would be on each other.


It has been seen as Economics could be considered as the most important dimension of globalization, that affects politics, and politics would be affecting economics, and these tow combined dimensions would be affecting the cultural dimension of globalization. The information of the society could be termed as the most important factor in globalization..

In normal terms cultural goods could be said as examples of books written by International Authors in English, magazines of big media houses, multimedia products of latest computer big companies like Microsoft, software like the Windows, Google, records, CDs,films from Hollywood, videos, audiovisual programs and fashion designs. Cultural services could be termed as libraries, documentary centers, museums, theatres, and orchestras. There has been circuses in the past but has faded out to digital press, cable news broadcasts, and satellite broadcasts.

In the global economy, culture has been termed as a product of rich and powerful countries and in scientific and cultural areas, the language of dominant cultures has been increased by means of the media and the Internet and becomes the common means of communication. That means there has been change in the present day communication that has become more English oriented when compared with past generation. There has been more folk tales in the past in local language when compared with present day as that could be seen as the big sales of Harry Potter throughout the world.

Income inequality, within and across countries, is on the rise and that has been the main contributing factor of globalization with certain political blocks being created and cultural invasion all around the world.

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