Internet application


Ans 1:When we use the internet application, which is more sensitive to delay i.e. surfing the internet because surfing the internet depends upon the speed of the internet.if the speed of the internet is fast then the surfing will also be fast and if the speed of the internet is slow then the surfing will be slow.


When a party makes a local telephone call to another party it is multipoint connection.

The multipoint connection which are coming in path are-

1.Local loop:It is two which connect the subscribes telephone to the nearest and office.The band width of the local loop is 400hz.The last 4 digit of the telephone define the local loop no.

2.Trunks:The communication between the officers is handle by the transmission media called the trunk.A trunks can handle 1000 connection by using the mux techniques.The transmission is usually with the help of optical fiber and the satilite links.

3.Switching office:A switch connects server at local loops or trunks and allow the connection between different subscribers.

Types of Switching:

(a)Circuit switching



Telephone Network:

Sender End

mux trunck


Two used

Data transfer:-

In this data transfer fhase information can be transmitted from one station to other station through network.The data may be analog signal or digital signals that depends on the nature of the network protocol.

Circuit disconnect:-After sometimes of data transfer,the connections is terminated,generally by the action of one of the two stations.

Signals must be propogated to given node to deallocated the dedicated resources.

Public ckt switching network-

A public telecommunication network combine described using four genertic components.

1. Subscribers

2. Subscribers live

3. Exchange

4. Trunks


The devices that attach to the network i.e still the case the most subscriber device to public telecommunication.Network are telephones,but the percentage of data traffic increase years by years.



Ans 3.-

Circuits switching networks implies that there is a dedicated communication b\w two stations.That path is a connection sequence of links b\w node.In this circuit switching involve there phase they are given below

. Circuit establishment

. Data transfer

. Circuit disconnect

Circuit establishment:-In ths phase the circuit must be established,when signals are transmitted from one stations thish can send information through signals that depends on the receving and sending end must establish their circuit.

Subscriber lines:The link between the subscriber and the network also refered to an the subscriber loop or local loop almost all local loop connection use twisted pair topology.

Exchanges:The switching centers in the network.A switching center that directly supports subscribers is known as an end office will support many thousands of subscriber in alocalized area.

Trunks:The branches between exchanges trunks carry multiple voice frequency circuit using either FDM synchronous TDM.before these were refered to as carrier .

Ans 4(a)

The only relationship between the size of the codeword and dataword is the one based on the definition :n=k+r, where n is the size of the codeword ,k is the size of the dataword and r is the size of the remainider.

(b)The remainider is always one bit smaller than the divisor.

(c)The degree of the generator polymonial is one less then the size of the divisor, for example

,The CRC-32 generator C with the polynomial of degree 32,axes a 33 bit divisor.

(d)The degree of the generator polynomial is the same as the size of the remainder C length .

For example, CRC-32 C with the polynomial of degree 32 creats a remainder of 32 bits.

Ans 5. a.

(10001) EB (10000)

ans: 00001

b. (10001) EB (10001) (What do you infer from the result ?)

ans: 00000

c. (11100) EB (00000) (What do you infer from the result?)

ans : 11100

d. (10011) EB (11111) (What do you infer from the result?)

ans : 011000.

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