The book of Revelation writing is similar in dogma as the other New Testament writing but it is different in literary genre and theme. The authorship of the book of Revelation was attributed to John the Apostle the son of Zebedee. It was written in apocalyptic prophetic narratives,
The date assigned to the book of Revelation is (AD 54-68) allegedly shortly after the reign of Nero.
The imagery and language of the book of Revelation were not outlandish to ancient readers as it is to us today. It is similar in tenor to the book of Ezekiel and Daniel. The book is fascinating and mesmerizing with the presentation of it symbolic and visionary style which causes ambiguity and frustration for many. But it also has been a source of encouragement to countless over the years. "An assurance that the Almighty reigns."
The major protagonist of Revelation 21 is the vision John saw of the new heaven and the new earth
The New Heaven and the New Earth
21.1 The New Heaven means a new innovation. This is the finishing point of what was prophecy in (Isaiah 65:17; 66:22; 2 Peter 3:13). The present heaven and earth, including the sea, were burned up in the great white throne judgment in (20:11, 13), Faussett says "The sea was once the element of the world's destruction, and is still the source of death to thousands, whence after the millennium, at the general judgment, it is specially said, The sea gave up the dead in it. Then it shall cease to destroy, or disturb, being removed altogether on account of its past destructions."
21:2 Then I, John, saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband
Here this shows personification a figure of speech where the new heaven and the new earth are refers to a bride decked out for her husband. William MacDonald says, "The fact that the names of the tribes of Israel are on the gates indicates that redeemed Israel will have access to the city, even if they are not part of the church itself." Throughout The chapters, it presents a peculiarity between the church as the Bride, the Lamb's wife, (21:9), Israel (21:12), and the nations of the earth (21:24).
21:3 John heard a loud voice from heaven saying, "Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men
This is a hyperbole which give an effect that the tabernacle is God's "shekhinah" is with humankind, he is now among his people and he will live with them. Therefore, his people will have the benefit of close association with him much closer than was ever vision. Just visualize God himself, "El Shad-dai" will be with his people and be our God in a closer and dearer relationship. I cannot wait even so come Lord Jesus.
21:4-5. And God will wipe away every tear from their eyes there shall be no crying. Then He who sat on the throne said, "Behold, I make all things new
There is a parallelism between 4 and 5. "God shall eradicate all tear from their eyes" as Thomas Nelson puts it, "does not mean that there will be tears in heaven. It is a poetic way of saying that there will not be." In addition, neither will there be any bereavement, nor grief, nor lament. For all these will vanish eternally for the people of God. Because the Almighty one, who sits on the throne, will construct all things brand new, and his words are accurate and authentic, and will without doubt, come to pass.
21:6 I am the Alpha and the Omega the Beginning and the End
"(Gk. to A kai to O) (1:8; 21:6; 22:13) Strong's 1; 2532; 5598: Alpha and omega are the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. In every context this phrase is used, it is difficult to tell whether the title applies to the Father or to Christ or to both. Most likely, it can be attributed to both. God in Christ comprises everything, all that goes between the Alpha and the Omega, as well as being the First and the Last. This expresses God's fullness, comprehensiveness, and all-inclusiveness. He is the Source of all things and will bring all things to their appointed end."
21:7 He who overcomes shall inherit all things, and I will be his God and he shall be my son
This flow of thought shows that those who are victorious will become heir to all these good things, entire legacy of God, the same way as between God the father, and Jesus the son. (1 John. 5:5; 5:4) the ones who believe that Jesus is the Son of God wins this battle against the world and be an overcomer.
21:8 But the cowardly, unbelieving, abominable, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters
"Not everyone that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven" (Matt.7: 21).
The metaphorical figure of speech speaks of individuals who are coward, who are too scared to acknowledge Christ, skeptical, and reluctant to trust Christ as Savior, everyone who lingers in their sins. Those given over to atrocities, repulsive immorality, executioner, wickedness, witchcraft, corrupt, committed fornication and other forms of sexual immorality, sorcerers, idolaters, insolent to ward God by worshiping images, and all liars, habitual deceivers. The ultimate destiny "of the wicked" will be in the lake of fire.
21:9 Then one of the seven angels talked with me, saying; Come, I will show you the bride, the Lamb's wife
the same angel who had shown John Babylon the harlot, is here occupied to show him in contrast a more comprehensive view of the new Jerusalem, (Re 17:1-5), which he called the bride, the Lamb's wife. Speaking hyperbole for the sake of effect may perhaps imply that the city is where the bride will reside.
21:10-11 And he carried me away in the Spirit and showed me the great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God. Her light was like a most precious stone, like a jasper stone, clear as crystal.
J.B Phillips writes, "It is no less than a revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave him and which was disclosed to John through an angelic intermediary." John again saw New Jerusalem descending out of heaven, beaming brightly with the glory of God which lights up the city and dazzling like a priceless cut stone.
21:12-13 Also she had a great and high wall with twelve gates, and twelve angels at the gates
I supposed this is written as a metonymy a figure of speech when an object or concept is used for another which is related. The twelve gates, titivated by twelve angels bearing the names of the twelve tribes of Israel is a representative of all of God's people. The "number twelve is used twenty-one times in this book and seven times in this chapter; it is commonly understood to stand for government or administration."
21:14 Now the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and on them were the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb
May possibly, proffer a suggestion what they taught pertaining to Christ was what had laid the foundation of the church in (Eph. 2:20).
21:15-16 By the gold reed to measure the city
The angel was able to establish that the city was roughly 'twelve thousand furlongs (1400-1500 miles) in length, breadth, and height.' Bear in mind in Ezekiel 40-41, "By this measure is understood the greatness of the city, with the exact order and just proportion of every part of it; to show, figuratively, that this city was prepared for a great number of inhabitants."
21:17 Then he measured its wall one hundred and forty-four cubits, according to the measure of a man, that is, of an angel
This is a personification that the metaphors points to the city as the residence of presence God's. It is impractical to be sure that normal dimensions could be useful to the New Jerusalem, even though it reference to the measure of a man.
21:18 The construction of its wall was of jasper and the city was pure gold, like clear glass
I do not believe this is hyperbole, the general effect symbolizing an amazingly dazzling city.
21:19-20 The foundations of the wall of the city were adorned with all kinds of precious stones
These stones were parallel to those the high priest wore on the breastplate that symbolizes the twelve tribes of Israel, also they represents the twelve apostles (v. 14)
21:21 The twelve gates were twelve pearls: each individual gate was of one pearl. And the street of the city was pure gold, like transparent glass
In (Matt. 13:45-46) Jesus contrast the kingdom of heaven like a treasure of beautiful pearl. The twelve gates in lieu of the twelve tribes of Israel (V. 12), which articulates magnificence glory
21:22-23 But I saw no temple in it, for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb is its temple. The city had no need of the sun or of the moon to shine in it, for the glory of God illuminated it. The Lamb is its light
Since the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb will be there, and his glory will illuminate the city, there will be no night; consequently there will be no need to shut the gates. For the Lamb will be the continuous lantern.
21:24 And the nations of those who are saved shall walk in its light, and the kings of the earth bring their glory and honor into it
People from every nations (Matt. 28:19; Luke 24:47) will enjoy the beauty of the city and the kings of the earth who had been renewed now bring their glory and place it at the feet of their King of kings and Lord of lord's.
21:25 its gates shall not be shut at all by day there shall be no night there
Since there will be a flawless safeguard there will be no more darkness; it will be a city free from threats and defeats.
21:26 And they shall bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it
The figure of relation everyone shall be together, no more racism or sexism thank God, the richness of the nations will flow thought the city, for the first time all the nations will honor and respect one another.
21:27 But there shall by no means enter it anything that defiles, or causes an abomination or a lie, but only those who are written in the Lamb's Book of Life
There will in no wise enter there anything that defiles "by no means, can the devil, the great dragon" (Rev.12: 9), who is behind all atrocities and father of lie (John 8:44), can never appear again to initiate any transgression (Genesis 3). His eternal fortune will be fire and brimstone (Rev.20: 10). Only those, whose names are written in the Lamb's Book of Life, will be permitted by God to cross the threshold of the New Jerusalem.
- MacDonald, William. Believer's Bible Commentary Edited by Art Farstad Thomas Nelson Publishers Nashville Atlanta London Vancouver
- Marshall, Howard. Travis, Stephen. Paul, Ian, Exploring the New Testament, The Letters and Revelation, (Publisher Bath Press, Great Britain 2002).
- Phillips, J.B. The Book of Revelation, A New translation of the Apocalypse, (Wyman & Sons, Ltd, London, Fakenham & Reading, 1957).
- Simon Jenkins NELSON'S 3-D Bible Map book A graphically exciting new way to experience the great events and places of the Bible Thomas Nelson Publishers Nashville Atlanta London Vancouver
- Barnes, Albert, Commentary on Revelation 21, Barnes' Notes on the New Testament.<http://www.studylight.org/com/bnn/view, 30/04/2009 8:30 pm
- Clarke, Adam, Commentary on Revelation 21, The Adam Clarke Commentary. <http://www.studylight.org/com/acc/view, >. 1832 30/04/8; 20 pm
- Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown Classic Bible Commentaries History's Most Renowned Commentary Writers Courtesy of E-Word Today 30/4/2009/ 7:00
- Wesley, John, Commentary on Revelation 21, John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". <http://www.studylight.org/com/wen/view,1765, 4/30/2009 7:50 pm
- Scofield, C. I. Scofield Reference Notes on Revelation 21, Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition). <http://www.studylight.org/com/srn/view, 1917 30/4/2009 7:55 pm
- Henry, Matthew, Concise Commentary on Revelation 21, Matthew Henry Concise Commentary on the Whole Bible, <http://www.studylight.org/com, 30/4/2009 6:00 pm
- Abbot, Jacob. Abbot, John S. C. Commentary on Revelation 21, Jacob Abbott Illustrated New Testament. <http://www.studylight.org/com/ain/view.cgi>. O.A Browning & Co. Toledo, Ohio. 1878. 30/04/2009 6:30 pm.
- Marshall, Howard. Travis, Stephen., Paul, Ian., Exploring the New Testament, The Letters and Revelation, (Publisher Bath Press, Great Britain 2002) 307
- Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown Classic Bible Commentaries History's Most Renowned Commentary Writers Courtesy of E-Word Today 30/4/2009/ 7:00 pm
- William MacDonald, Believer's Bible Commentary Edited by Art Farstad Thomas Nelson Publishers Nashville Atlanta London Vancouver
- Thomas Nelson, New King James Study Bible, Inc. PO Box 141000 Nashville, TN 37214
- William MacDonald, Believer's Bible Commentary
- Scofield, C. I. Scofield Reference Notes on Revelation 21, Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition). <http://www.studylight.org/com/srn/view> 1917 30/4/2009 7:55 pm
- Phillips, J.B. The Book of Revelation, A New translation of the Apocalypse, (Wyman & Sons, Ltd, London, Fakenham & Reading, 1957) 3
- MacDonald, William. Believer's Bible Commentary
- Wesley, John, Commentary on Revelation 21, John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible, http://www.studylight.org/com/wen/view 1765, 4/30/2009 7:50 pm
- Albert Barnes, Commentary on Revelation 21, Barnes' Notes on the New Testament <http://www.studylight.org/com/bnn/view, 30/04/2009 8:30 pm