The theme Prologue is an approach -- an opening portion that initiates themes. Along with the themes that it initiates are the pre-existence of the Word (1:1-2); God/Word and Father/Son as individual but, at the similar occasion one (1:1); Jesus as God (1:1, 18); life (1:4); light (1:4; 1:9); the wrestle connecting light and darkness (1:5); the authority of the light over darkness (1:5); the affiliation flanked by John the Baptistand Jesus (1:6-8, 15); denunciation (1:11); the miracle of our being able to see God's glory (1:14); Jesus as the only Son of God (1:18). But the fundamental argument is how the Word became flesh and dwelt amongst us overflowing of grace and truth. This is an attempt to exegesis on the gospel of (John 1:1-18). Early Christian tradition has it that, Apostle John, the son of Zebedee wrote the Gospel.
The Prologue unlike the synoptic Gospels closely parallels the great hymn of (Philippians 2:5-11), and also has a great deal in familiar with (Colossians 1:15-20) and the opening chapter of Hebrews. These were on paper previous than the Gospel of John, and it looks like the Prologue scrounges from them. This prologue of John is highly literally and symbolic and does not begin with the historical background of Jesus but rather introduce Jesus as the Geek Word (Logos).
The Pre-existent Word in (Jon1:1-5)
In The Beginning
Jewish people are familiar with the books of their scriptures by their opening words -- in the same way that we identify hymns by their opening appearances. "In the beginning" is their name for the book we call Genesis. In Greek Septuagint (LXX), the primary words of Genesis are (en arche).This Gospel starts with those accurate words by diagram because the Prologue models itself is after the creation account.
Was the Word
The Greek word (logos) is a luminous option of words to viaduct the hole between the Jewish and Greek worlds. The earliest Christians were Jewish, but the Gospel extends rapidly to Greeks, who have no thought of the messiah or the fulfilment of prophecy. John's mission is to express this Gospel in language that they can understand and appreciate.(Logos) is a universal word in Greek philosophy. Greeks consider that the world is extremely explosive but is under the control of (Logos).The evangelist is saying to the Greek world, Jews also understand logos ("the Word"), and sometime use the expression "the Word" as a replacement for God's name. Jewish idea of the Word (logos) of God is deep-rooted in the Old Testament. God created the world by speaking a word, "Let there be...." God's words have authority or power.
The Word Was With God
The Word was with God (ton theon -- the God -- with the article), "and the Word was God" (theos -- without the article) (verse 1). "When Greek uses a noun it almost always uses the definite article with it.... Now when Greek does not use the definite article with a noun, that noun becomes much more like an adjective; it describes the character, the quality of the person. John did not say that the Word was ho theos; that would have been to say that the Word was identical with God; he says that the Word was theos--without the definite article -- which means that the Word was, as we might say, of the very same character and quality and essence and being as God." By using theos with the article in the first instance and without the article in the second instance, the Prologue distinguishes between God and the Word while, at the same time, emphasizing their unity.
The Word Was God
This is not traditional Jewish theology of the messiah, whom Jews expect to be like King David -- a great man -- a God-empowered man -- but only a man. The Jews are fiercely monotheistic, and the expression "the Word was God," must set their teeth on edge.
The light shines in the darkness (John1: 5).
God's first creative act was light (Genesis 1). The light of creation was the first step in bringing order to the formless void, and the light brought by the Word is the first step toward bringing order into the confusion of our lives."The darkness stands for the state of mind in which mankind fails to welcome the light," the promise is that the darkness did not -- and will not or never -- defeat the light.
The Witness of John the Baptist
This Gospel creates a figure of allusion to John -- at all times obviously instituting that he was inferior to Jesus. He was not the light, but came to bear witness to the light (verse 7-8)."He came as a witness (eis marturian) to testify (marturese) to the light" (verse 7a). The word for witnessing -- martureo -- is the word from which we get the word martyr.To witness for Christ often provokes the forces of darkness to violence, and Christian witnesses often become martyrs -- a reality as true today in many parts of the world as it ever was in the Roman world. John died as a martyr because of his testimony regarding Herod's marriage (Mark 6:14-29).
The Baptist's purpose, stated early in this Gospel, is very much like the purpose of the Gospel itself -- a purpose stated at the end of the book -- "But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name" (John 20:31).
The light coming to the World (John 9-13)
"The true light...was coming into the world" (kosmos) this is quite a statement, because the kosmos, in this Gospel, is a world in rebellion against God -- a dark world. The fact that the light comes into the kosmos or that God loves the kosmos (John3:16) is not endorsement of the kosmos, but instead bears testimony to God's capacity for love.
He came to the Israelites, God's chosen people. God prepared them for centuries to receive him into their midst, but they rejected him.However, much of the world today is still in rebellion -- still prefers darkness to light, because its deeds are evil (John3:19-20). That is true of all of us at certain points in our lives.
However "to all who received him, to those who believed in his name, he precisely gave the right to become children (tekna) of God" (verse 12). In this Gospel, Jesus is the Son (huios) of God -- and is the only one who is called (huios). This Son is empowered to bring those who receive him and believe in his name into the family of God as children (tekna) of God -- adopted into the family, but full heirs -- entitled to all the rights and privileges of family members. "Children born not of natural descent, nor human decision or a husband will, but born of God." (Verse13a). The Jewish people trace their ancestry to Abraham (Genesis 12:1-3), but what really counts is being a spiritual descendant (not merely a physical descendant) from Abraham.
The incarnation of the Word (John1: 14-18)
And the Word became flesh which according to Barclay is centrepiece of the Prologue. (Sarx) is an ugly-sounding word that describes an often ugly reality. For dualistic Greeks, who believe that all matter is evil, the thought of God becoming sarx is unimaginable -- the equivalent of God becoming a pornographer or a prostitute. John may have used this stark language, in part, to counter Gnostic heresies that would reject Jesus' humanity because of their dualistic philosophy. This verse declares that the God who once dwelled among them in the tabernacle and the temple now chooses to dwell among them in Jesus' (sarx). In (John 2:19-22), Jesus makes it clear that his (sarx) supersedes the tabernacle and temple.
And we have seen his glory (John 1: 14c)
Moses asked to see God's glory, and was allowed to see God's goodness, but not his face -- "for no one shall see me and live" (Exodus 33:20). Now, however, we are allowed to see Jesus' glory -- and his face -- and thus the Father is fully revealed to us, because "Whoever has seen (the Son) has seen the Father" (14:9), "the glory of the One and Only Son, monogenous-- one and only offspring) full of grace and truth" (verse 14d).That God the Father's only Son is full of grace and truth is another way of asserting his close relationship to God. For God is ultimately the source of grace, as outgoing beneficent love, and the ground of truth, as what is real and reliable as opposed to all that is fake.
Grace upon Grace in Verses15-18:
John testified to him in chapter (1: 15).
The Prologue has previously mentioned John as the one who bore witness to the light (verse 6-8). Now it mentions him again in this parent note as bearing witness to the person, one can say in (verse 17) that his name is Jesus Christ) who is the light. Just as the Prologue assisted John to Jesus in (verse 8), so it also subordinate him here.
His fullness in (verse 16a) (pleromatos)
To understand "fullness," one must go back to (verse 15), which tells us that the Word is full of grace and truth -- point to God -- attributes that the Word shares with God as the "Father's only son" (verse 15). It is from this one who is full of grace and truth that we as Christians today receive grace upon grace. "Grace upon grace" (charin anti charitos) (verse 16b). This phrase tells us that we draw grace from the total resources of God, an unlimited warehouse. Regardless of our need for grace, the supply is greater. "The law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ" (verse 17). This is the first mention in the Prologue of Jesus' name.We received the law through Moses, but we receive grace and truth through Jesus Christ (verse 17). Moses was not allowed to see God's face, but Jesus makes it possible for us to know God.
John is the only Gospel to speak of Jesus' pre-existence as the Logos and the only one to include a poetic prologue. John wrote the Prologue, that all may believe that Jesus is the only Son of God, and that by believing we may have eternal life (John 20:31).The testimony of the writer is that in Jesus, God enters into all of the ambiguities difficulties, and trials of the human condition: he comes to live among his people as one of them, revealing God first hand, and offering new life as the source of life from the beginning.
- Barclay, William. The Daily Study Bible: The Gospel of John, Vol. 1 (Edinburgh: Saint Andrew Press, 1955)
- Brook-Howard, Wes. Becoming the Children of God: John's Gospel and Radical Discipleship (New York: Mary knoll publishers, 1994)
- Christ Plays in Ten Thousand Places Conversation in spiritual theology (Michigan: Wm.B.Eerdmans Publishing 2005)
- Carson, D.A., et al. New Bible Commentary, 21Century Edition, (U S A: Inter-Varsity Press 2002)
- Dake, Finis J. Dake's Annotated Reference Bible (USA: Dake's Publishing, 1991)
- Dunn, James D. G., Rogerson, John W. Commentary on the Bible (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm.B. Eerdmans Publishers, 2003)
- Keefer, Kyle. The Branch of the Gospel of John (Philadelphia: Continuum International Publishers Group, 2006)
- Merrill C. Tenney, John the Gospel of belief (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eergmans Publishings, 1997).
- Paulien, John. John the beloved Gospel (Canada: Pacific Press Publishing, 2003)
- Phillips, John. The Gospel of John: An Expository commentary (Grand Rapid MI: Kregel Publishers, 2001)
- Ridderbos, Herman N. the Gospel According to John: A Theological Commentary (Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1997)
- Sadananda, Daniel R. The Johannine Exegesis of God: An Exploration into the Johannine Understanding of God (New York: de Gruyter Berlin publishers, 2004)
- Stallings, Jack Wilson et al. Randall House Bible Commentary 1st Edition (Nashville: Randall House Publications, 1989)
- Herman N. Ridderbos, the Gospel According to John: A Theological Commentary (Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1997), 1.
- Daniel R. Sadananda,The Johannine Exegesis of God: An Exploration into the Johannine Understanding of God (New York: de Gruyter Berlin publishers, 2004)151-152
- Finis J. Dake, Dake's Annotated Reference Bible (USA: Dake's Publishing, 1991), 93.
- Christ Plays in Ten Thousand Places Conversation in spiritual theology (Michigan: Wm.B.Eerdmans Publishing 2005), 85.
- D.A Carson, et al, New Bible Commentary, 21Century Edition, (U S A: Inter-Varsity Press 2002),1025-1025.
- William, Barclay. The Daily Study Bible: The Gospel of John, Vol. 1 (Edinburgh: Saint Andrew Press, 1955), 16-18.
- Wes, Brook-Howard, Becoming the Children of God: John's Gospel and Radical Discipleship (New York: Mary knoll publishers, 1994), 466.
- John Paulien, John the beloved Gospel (Canada: Pacific Press Publishing, 2003), 8-15.
- John Phillips, The Gospel of John :An Expository commentary ( Grand Rapid MI: Kregel Publishers, 2001),20-25.
- Kyle Keefer, the Branch of the Gospel of John (Philadelphia: Continuum International Publishers Group, 2006), 21.
- Jack Wilson Stallings, et al, Randall House Bible Commentary 1st Edition (Nashville: Randall House Publications, 1989), 23-25.
- James D. G. Dunn, John W. Rogerson. Commentary on the Bible (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm.B. Eerdmans Publishers, 2003), 1161-1162.