Types of counselling model

Introduction:

Discuss the various models of Counselling and identify which ones are best suited to a local church context

What is a Model?

Different Types of Counselling Model

  • Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis
  • Carl Rogers and Client-Centered Therapy
  • Minimum Change Therapy

Fitting for the Local Church

Conclusion:

Discuss the various models of counselling and identify which ones are best suited to a local church context

Introduction

In order to answer this question properly I need to talk about an assortment of models of counselling and to recognize which ones are paramount and appropriate for a local church perspective.

Clinbell writes, "One hopeful sign on the contemporary religious scene is the rising wave of activity in the field of pastoral counselling. He says the ministry of counselling has been flowering with increasing vigour. He alludes to some of the remarkable signs such as the availability of clinical pastoral education. The remarkable proliferation of church-related counselling programs, and pastoral psychology and counselling, denominational counselling programs, the increasing number of women and the impact of their thoughts in the field, and the growth of global intercultural in the field. He says it is a thrilling and renaissance period in the church's age-old ministry to the burdened. Which provides fresh responses to the needs of those lying beside our modern Jericho roads, robbed of their self-esteem and beaten by the crises and tragedies of life?"[1]

What is a Model?

"According to Greve a model has been defined as sets of postulates, data and inferences presented as a description of an entity or state of affairs,"[2] The dictionary defines it as "something took as obvious or believed without corroboration as a basis for explanation the act of explanation from accurate knowledge or evidence."

Different Types of Counselling Model

Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis

There has been writing about counselling and psychotherapy since the late 1800's, by the methodical society of psychologists and psychiatrists. Which much of the secular field dates back to the early writings of Sigmund Freud. "Freud was clearly antagonistic toward religious faith, and did not hold to a world view that was compatible with the gospels. Freud went so far as to say that religion was the 'universal obsessional neurosis."[3]

With his method of treating people as if they were emotionally sick which is known as the medical model? Freud believed that Christianity was not meeting the total human needs some of his patients must have been professing Christian that were coming to his office for treatment, which Clinbell seems to attest to in his writing. He asserted that "Pastoral care can and should occur in all diverse functions of ministry, including preaching, worship, and social action. He also speaks of wholeness that is described as life in all its fullness."[4] Since Freud's writings, the Christian church has struggled with how to approach the field of psychology and psychiatry.

Over the years Christians has been struggling with whether or not the Christian faith are similar in temperament with psychology and have developed a diversity of approaches. However, as Worthington "suggested that there were four possible positions that counsellors might take regarding the integration of counselling"[5]

The first category he calls "across the gap." This proposal would be relevant to the therapists who do not value religious faith and see it as harmful to clients and choose to ignore it.

The second position is the "collaborative approach." In these proposal therapists who respect religious faith and values in their clients although they are not personally religious.

The third position "represents those who are religious and have a faith orientation but who have been trained in secular proposal and were taught that dealing with religious issues were irrelevant or inappropriate in counselling."[6]

The fourth position is the "conjoint" in this position the therapist are devoted to dealing with the religious obligation and spiritual issues of their clients and in my opinion chose to cleave to a religious worth system.

Carl Rogers and Client-Centered Therapy

According to Dagmar he writes that "Carl Rogers was most interested in improving the human condition and applying his ideas. Hisperson-centered therapymay well be his most influential contribution to psychology. He says Rogers' pervasive interest in therapy is what clearly differentiates him from Maslow, despite some similarities in their ideas. The person-centered approach has had impact on domains outside of therapy such as family life, education, leadership, conflict resolution, politics and community health (Krebs & Blackman, 1988). He writes in my opinion, Rogers greatest contribution may lie in his encouraging a humane and ethical treatment of persons, approaching psychology as a human science rather than a natural science."[7]

Clinebell points out that probably "Rogers and Freud have had more influence on counseling that any other people, although he is not intended to reject the older model, but his intention is to broaden and modify it models and goal."[8]

Minimum Change Therapy

Dr Tyler was a university professor and professional counselor diverge from Carl Rogers premise when he wrote the necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change which " consist of the well-known therapist conditions of empathic understanding, respect or warmth and therapeutic genuineness, as well as the client conditions of vulnerability, anxiousness and perception of the therapist conditions. There are now widely recognized and accepted as common elements in psychotherapy."[9]

However Dr Tyler's position regarding the relationship between psychotherapy and that of the therapist condition can be summed up into one word "agape" which means love. She believed that is the most important thing a counselor can do for the client is to love them.

On one hand she is correct, but on the other hand I believed it takes more than love, don't get me wrong love is vital but for a person to be completely well love has to be combine with symmetry and personally accountability.

Fitting for the Local Church

"Pastoral care some have found it useful to make a distinction between pastoral care, pastoral counseling, and pastoral psychotherapy. Of the three terms, pastoral care is broadest. It refers to the church's overall ministries of healing, sustaining, guiding, and reconciling, people to God and to one another.[10] Ever so often it is describe as the concern of the spirit this comprises preaching, coaching restraint and encouraging people, to be considerate and show compassion in times of need. From the time of Christ, the church has been devoted to caring for people.

The purpose of counselling is to endeavor to provide support and direction for those who are faced with fatalities, choices, or disenchantment; it can motivate behavior growth and expansion. It can aid people to handle more successfully coping with internal clashes and with various sentiments, it can also support families, married and unmarried alike to determine personal conflict and to communicate well to each other, and help to further self confidence. The pastoral counsellor sole objective should try to transport people into an individual affiliation with Jesus and as Collins puts it "to help them find forgiveness and relief from the crippling effects of sin and guilt. Ultimately, the Christian hopes to help others become disciples of Christ and disciples of others."[11]

Conclusion

According to Clinebell as he writes about the church as a "Caring Liberating Community, and Pastoral care as it is understood in the New Testament, it is the task of the whole congregation functioning as a caring, healing, and growth enabling community."[12]

Pastoral counseling should be able to uses an assortment of techniques such as healing to aid people cope with the weights and evils of life in ways that are reliable with biblical instruction.

Bibliography

  • Adam, Jay A,. A Theology of Christian Counselling; More than Redemption: (Grand Rapids, MI, Zondervan, 1996).
  • Bremer, David G, Strategic Pastoral Counselling, A Short-term Structed Model, 2nd ed, (Grand Rapids MI, Baker Academic, 2003).
  • Collins, Gary R. Christian Counselling Handbook: (Carol Stream, IL,Tyndale House, 2007).
  • Clinebell, Howard, Basic Types of Pastoral Care and Counseling: (Nashville, TN Abingdon Press, 19804).
  • Dawn, M & Peterson, E., The Unnecessary Pastor, (Grand Rapids MI, Cambridge, Eerdmans, 2000).
  • Fall, Kevin A, author, Holder, Janice Miner, author, Marquis, Andre, Theoretical Models of Counseling and Psychotherapy: (New York Brunner-Routledge, Publisher, 2003),
  • Greve, Fred J., Pastoral Counselling: (Mattersey Hall Distance Learning, Fourth Edition, USA, ICI Press, 1980).
  • Hall, C.S., Gardner, L. Introduction to the theories of personality. (Toronto, Canada: John Wiley & Sons, 1985).Krebs, D., Blackman, R. Psychology: A first encounter.Toronto, Canada: (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1988).
  • Lynch, Gordon, Clinical Counselling in Pastoral Setting, Clinical Counselling in Context, (United Kingdom, Routledge, 1999).
  • Maddi, S.R. Personality theories: A comparative analysis (6th ed.).(Toronto, Canada: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co, 1996).
  • Maxwell, J.C., Becoming a person of Influence, (Nashville, TE, Thomas Nelson, 1997). McGee, Robert S., The Search For Significance: Seeing Your True Worth Through God's Eyes, (Jacksonville, FL, McGee Publishing, 2003).
  • Nietzel, B.M., Bernstein, D.A., Milich R. Introduction to clinical psychology (4th ed.)(N.J.: Prentice Hall Inc, 1994).
  • Seamands, David A., Healing for Damaged Emotions: (Wilmore, Kentucky, Theological Seminary in 1991).
  • Tyler, Leona, The Counselling Psychologist, 1996: The Division of Counselling Psychology of the American Psychological Assocation, 1994.
  • Bowden, McElroy, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary http://mcelroycounseling.com/about/> 10/08/2009
  • Dagmar, Pescitelli, Carl Rogers Theory of Personality, 1961, http://pandc.ca,cat,carl, 10/08/2009
  • Worthington, T.K, Observation of a vortex-glass phase in polycrystalline, Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York1991 The American Physical Society http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.43.10538
  1. Howard, Clinebell, Howard, Basic Types of Pastoral Care and Counseling: (Nashville, TN Abingdon Press, 19804).
  2. Fred J, Greve,, Pastoral Counselling: (Mattersey Hall Distance Learning, Fourth Edition, USA, ICI Press, 1980).
  3. Fall, Kevin A, author, Holder, Janice Miner, author, Marquis, Andre, Theoretical Models of Counselling and Psychotherapy: (New York, Brunner-Routledge, Publisher, 2003), 183
  4. Clinebell, Howard
  5. Worthington, T.K, Observation of a vortex-glass phase in polycrystalline, Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York1991 The American Physical Society http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.43.10538
  6. Worthington, T.K Observation
  7. Dagmar, Pescitelli, Carl Rogers Theory of Personality, 1961, http://pandc.ca,cat,carl, 10/08/2009
  8. Clinebell, Howard, 50
  9. Tyler, Leona, The Counselling Psychologist, 1996: The Division of Counselling Psychology of the American Psychological Assocation, 1994
  10. Gary R, Collins, Christian Counselling Handbook: (Carol Stream, IL,Tyndale House, 2007)
  11. Gary R. Collins
  12. Howard, Clinebell

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