Foundations of tourism

In this essay the usefulness of the 'tourism area life cycle' model will be explained with an understanding of how tourist destinations develop and progress. To help to explain the tourism area life cycle two phases of the model will be chosen with named examples of your chosen two phases.

The development of tourism in a region can lead to many benefits for the economy of the region. But once the resort is successful, are those benefits here to stay?

The tourism area life cycle is also known as TALC, the TALC model has seven stages

The tourism area life cycle model identifies seven stages of tourism development over time:

Starting with Exploration which is when a small number of tourists independently explore a new location for example back packers, it is either done for personal adventure or to experience new cultures with new destinations. But for the destination its economic, social and environmental impacts are virtually nothing compared to the later stages.

Then there is Involvement which is to do with the acceptance by the locals and government as they recognise the destination becomes more popular. So the government start to develop and improve the travel and accommodation facilities in the destination so they can accommodate the expected tourists. The Local people become more involved within the promotion of the area to get the destination known.

Stage three is Development which the Local people become even more involved in promotion, attracting more visitors to the destination and the area becomes established as a tourist destination, with a defined market.

Then there is Consolidation which means that Tourism has become an important economic and social activity within the destination, affecting lifestyles. Land is given over to resort building, with a benefit of increased wealth, jobs, etc within the local community. Then Resentment occurs from the locals the tourists because of the destruction of the destination.

Stagnation which is when there is an increased local opposition to tourism, plus a growing awareness of environmental, social and economic problems within the destination, prevents further growth from happening this then results in the decrease in tourist visits. Stagnation is also a stage were a destination is at a cross roads, the cross roads are either go to decline or rejuvenation.

Decline only happens if the destination does nothing to improve its self then the destination will lose tourists which result in loss of economic wealth so then the destination will deteriorate

Rejuvenation this when a destination will want to improve itself in order to keep tourists coming this will either be done by inventing a new attraction or simply re branding the destination. The new tourists may be of different socio-economic groups or different age groups to the original the original tourists that used to go to the destination

The two phases of the tourism area life cycle chosen to be focused on are decline and rejuvenation:

Reasons for a destination to go into decline are:

Failure to recruit new visitors will result in the destination losing sufficient income which is the British sea side resort, Cooper, C. Department of Management Studies for Tourism and Hotel Industries states "the medium rather than the short term in order to match the holiday product to the needs of emergent market segments" 2006 which shows that the British sea side resorts need to focus more the medium periods rather than focus on the short term periods. British sea side resorts do not have a lot they can do in order to improve and to be able to create a new attraction for tourist which is inevitable for British sea side resorts

Tourism product not revitalised after it becomes popular then after a while it will become out of season which is similar to fashion

Host antagonism is when there is a force or factor that is an active resistance; this could simply be locals not liking tourists on the grounds that they see them as people destroying their land. But in most places governments do encourage the local residents to engage with tourists

New competitors emerge because they will find a niche market where the target audience is either not being satisfied or has not been recognised yet.

Reasons for a destination to rejuvenate:

Rejuvenation is a stage when a destination will take something old and turn it into something new this has been applied in London for example the millennium dome which was rejuvenated to become the o2 this is a form of re branding it shows that Britain was able to see a decline and decided to rejuvenate what assets they had in order to regain tourists.

Also previously untapped resource is another factor which can affect a resort in rejuvenating for example when Iran first found oil, Masjed Soleyman is the site of the first discovery of petroleum in Iran (1908), (encyclopaedia 2009) this gave Iran a massive increase in power and money.

Appeal to a new market occurs when a resort is changing is image for example re branding itself this has taken place in sharm el sheikh Egypt as people that it is appealing to "18-30's" (sharm-club 2009) holidays but sharm el sheikh has a image of being a family holiday resort so know they are appealing to a new market, clubs and all over facilities like that will need improving in order to keep tourists flowing to prevent them from going places like Ibiza which is sharm el sheikh most competition.

The TALC model has established a key function on how destinations are recognised and what processes take place in forming a destination into a tourist resort but (Butler, Richard 2005. p 356) states "To model the infinite variety of pathways that development can take is unrealistic except at a general level". Shows that there are many pathways on developing a destination therefore with this simple model the resorts worldwide are not always on chart as there many different stages but if a resorts wants to stick to this simply model then they would know where about they are and what they could do if they want to keep the destination a resort before anything drastic happens for an example the decline stage but it is shown by (Butler, Richard 2006.) "It is clear that more than one cycle may be in operation at any one time in many destinations". Therefore how can destination know what stage they actually are at? Well as butler stated that there is many stages on the tourism area life cycle model which have not been stated because to have them all on a chart would be unrealistic so simply a destination will have to find key terms which have a similarity with the named stages

With this model in place, the tour operators know what is up and coming and what is in decline further more without this model all resorts would go into decline (Butler, Richard 2005. p 356) says that providing the TALC model really fits each and every destination to a reasonable and acceptable degree is yet to be determined, and probably never will be. so if a resort is on stage which cannot be found on the chart, then over time the simple version of the chart would become more complex, but in order for a resort to remain on the chart they would need to find a stage which they can compare to, so they will be able to see future events that may unfold and how to go about dealing with them.

The argument is that with this model knew destinations which are going to become resorts know what to do and how to go about it but this model has its "implications for destinations" (Butler, Richard 2005. p 356.) like for example some resorts which are only seasonal would go into decline during seasons where there not in high demand and when they d there is not much they can do in order to rejuvenate so resorts which are seasonal compared to resorts with a all year round is that they have less competition but on the economic side they have a down because there only good for certain time so this resorts have to make do with what assets they have.

All year resorts on the other hand have more assets to play around with and more economic income but because they are year round resorts the competition is much stronger so they will always have to create a new attraction more often which can damage the environment and case an up roar from the local citizens and if they do not then the decline stage will happen more quickly than those of a season resort.

The tourism area life cycle has convinced people that it is necessary to have in aid of helping resorts maintain a constant level of tourists coming to the destination. Also it shows how a destination becomes a resorts and what stage occur during this process with the involvement of the local people and governments Yes the tourism area life cycle is useful because it lets destinations see what stage they are in the TALC model and whether or not they need to improve to keep tourists coming. If they need to improve then rejuvenation would be the way forward but if the destination was not to improve then they would slip into decline and with this a loss would occur.


  • Berry, T. (2006). The predictive potential of the TALC model. In R.Butler (Ed.), The tourism area life cycle: Conceptual and theoretical issues, Vol. 2 (pp. 254-279). Clevedon: Channel View Publications. Journal Citation Database: PsycINFO References
  • Butler, R. (1980). The concept of a tourist area cycle of evolution: Implications for management of resources. Canadian Geographer, 24(1), 5-12. Journal Citation Database: PsycINFO References
  • Butler, R. (2006). The future and the TALC. In R.Butler (Ed.), The tourism area life cycle: Conceptual and theoretical issues, Vol. 2 (pp. 281-290). Clevedon: Channel View Publications. Journal Citation Database: PsycINFO References
  • Butler, Richard W. (Editor). Tourism Area Life Cycle, Volume 1: Applications and Modifications. , Channel View Publications, 2005. p 355.
  • Cooper, C. Department of Management Studies for Tourism and Hotel Industries 2006
  • Manente, M., & Pechlaner, H. (2006). How to define, identify and monitor the decline of tourist destinations: towards an early warning system. In: R.Butler (Ed.), the tourism area life cycle: Conceptual and theoretical issues, Vol. 2Cleveland: Channel View Publications (pp. 235-253). Journal Citation Database: PsycINFO References
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