Gendered identities in work of overseas

Article 1: summary-Gendered Identities in the Work of Overseas Tour Reps

The work of the author is entrenched in the investigation of how work in the tourism industry is gendered. Yvonne and her fellow had there interest in the investigation of tourism employment trends concerning gender identities in the oversea countries. Though the overarching aim of the study is on the gender identity in the tourism work, a lot more important subjects are also revealed in the work. These include feminism and masculinity in the field of tourism, behavior disparities portrayed by the different workers in the industry and general male and female relationships in the developing nations. The explanation of the work identities in the tourism industry yields much significant information on how different people in the society have different perception on the tour opportunities. According to the study, it's a field which is dominated by men, however, the work that they do is viewed as women's job. They further disclose the effects of feminization of the work with its effect on behavior changes for both men and women. The writer shows that feminizing of the work categories makes certain groups to be vulnerable to some behaviors risks. Females are thus seen to be at risk of sexual harassment due to feminized works of arranging for guests rests, entertainments and being friendly to them (Guerrier and Adib, 2007).


During the end of the mid of the 19 century, there has been numerous changes which has taken place allover. The developed and developing nations saw a revolution on the division of labor and work. Due to the efforts to root out the notion of men's masculinity nature, this has brought about jargon in the work specialty. With women empowerment and the conception of women's liberty to work equally like men, this has obliterated the traditions of the past generation. In this particular case, feminism and masculinity on job related matters can be viewed on the basis of personal benefits or group interest. However, like any other business, the recruitment process of workers perhaps is the main source of the feminism issues. Moreover, we cannot deny of the reality that there are certain areas where men are best suited than women, and the vice versa is equally true that women will always perform better on specific jobs than men. Thus, human resources in tourism industry have to select the suitable transport means that leads to business improvement. For instance, men can be viewed as most suited in the control of rowdy crowds, but under the authority control, both men and women would perform equally the same. The view that women work are feminized making them vulnerable to work harassment, each kind of work has its own risks. We therefore believe that the management and the control measure taken are the most important in reducing the risk vulnerability.

Article2: summary-Tourism, the Global City and the Labor Market in London

The work content in this paper deals with the labor market in the London. It's a city with extensive tourism activities. The author Church and his colleague Martin were interested in establishing the conditions of the labor market in UK. The pertinent goal in revealed in the article was to establish the influence of a global city in the labor market in connection to the tourism industry. Church and Martin developed several explanations on labor flow as the main goal of global city in the labor market. Further, they also related the flow of the labor force to other factors of production and the society. In this particular area, it was overt that they explored the working conditions and terms including remunerations, job security and other benefits or disadvantages the employees may experienced in working in global city. According to their study, tourism industry gets its labor from both local and foreigners, who are hired as either full-time or part-time employees. Their argument shows that the foreigners, who are mostly student from the poor countries, form the largest proportion of the part-time employees. Apart from this, working conditions are not favorable for the working migrant, which means the international labor transfer has influence on the local employment (Church and Frost, 2008).


The tourism industry in major metropolitan places like in the City of London has large market source of labor force. Although the industry draws workers from the local community, a considerable proportion of the labor comes from foreigner students and immigrants in the country. Despite the fact that tourism is a major contributor to the growth of the country's economy, the working conditions and standards in the industry are alleged as being unfavorable. Furthermore, there is inequality in the industry remunerations between the foreign immigrants and those from the local communities, which is likely to affect the tourism in the area. The low payments being offered to workers discourage in their work environment. Low salary and wage payments make workers feel unmotivated, which leads to poor service delivery. As result, there is lack of customer satisfaction leading to shifting into other countries.

Trade articles

Article 1: summary- The influence of tourism on the woodcarving trade around Cape Town and implications for forest resources in southern Africa

The subject matter on this paper was to highlight to contribution of the informal sectors in the tourism industry. The authors were interested on getting an insight understanding of South Africa, where woodcarving is believed to contribute a great part of trade. Depending on their work, the alleviated trade in South Africa wood products results from the neighboring nations including Zimbabwe and other far countries like Kenya. Several advantages have been identified as related to increasing production of woodcarving in the country. While the South Africa is becoming a metropolitan place, it's also being recognized as tourists centre. This has contributed to its attraction of new market from other countries like Kenya and Zimbabwe. In addition, the opening of woodcarving in South Africa has opened new job opportunities for the local communities settled in the Western Cape (Mikolo and Paxie, 2009).


The growth of South Africa's Western Cape Town as major tourists' destination is attributed to its geographical strategic location. Its establishment has brought many benefits to the country. First, it has opened market for the locally produced goods and services. The Western Cape acts also as an international market for the neighboring countries like Zimbabwe, Kenya, and Congo among others. This is integrated with the opening of new opportunities to the local communities. Although the Western Cape seems to offer unprecedented advantages, the operations of the tourism industry is posing great threat to the affiliated surrounding nations. Whereas South Africa is among the developed nation in the continent of African, it's developing its economy under the pride of its affiliated developing country by squeezing their chance expanding their markets and opening opportunities for their local communities.

Article2: summary- Cultural Tourism: Marketing Challenges and Opportunities for German Cultural Heritage

This is an article which explores the tourism in German based on the specificity on cultural tourism. The author of the paper focuses on the cultural tourism as potential sources of income in the country which can bolster the economy of the state but it's under-exploited due to low funding by the federal, state and the communities. He studies certain tourism related institution of great importance in enabling the growth and development of tourism in the country as the world as whole. He in particular pin point heritage institution as a major player in advancing tourism a German. As elucidated on the paper, the main tourism activities in the region has been affected in the recent times due to institutions cutting down of expenditure on personnel required to support tourism. According to the writer's canon, music and artistic institution have been greatly affected. Consequently, cultural tourism which is considered as mega part of the tourism industry has been destabilized (Hausmann, 2009).

Beside the exploration on crucial factor of low funding on the industry, there are numerous other factors which are revealed concerning the development of sustainable market in the state. Generally, there is need of integrating both cultural sites with other cultural offerings which are in demand for tourists' attraction. The integration of the two aids in the successful positioning of the tourism industry. That is, tourism is bolstered through the partnering between cultural and the non-cultural markets, hence marketing of the tourism industry would also increase the market for other local products.


German tourism industry is well grounded on cultural tourism. The most important contribution of tourism in the country is based on the development of different cultural products. This mostly comprise of artistic work such as music and other artwork. In addition, heritage sites play important part in developing the tourism in the country. Home tourism contributes the larger part than the foreign tourism. Hence, heritage site though important in the overall development of the industry has got low impact on the industry development without other supportive means. Lack of cooperation of the German institutions is thus view to affect the industry in the recent past. However, the claims are thus involving the diminished funding on the institutions of paramount importance in producing both the needed services and products in the endeavor of marketing tourism in the country. The industry should however consider the recent effects of financial crisis as major affecting the industry and others in the general economic growth which has lead to the low funding. This implies that the human resource as the main sources of the management team should be held accountable of the low funding absorption of the incompetent labor force, which is devoid of the ability to come up with sound strategies and decisions.


Tourism industry is very important in the development of the economy of many countries. It involves the proper management of the available resources which comprise of both natural and man factors. Heritage sites, cultural products and services general contribute to the successful productivity in the industry. However, the integration of the various institutions is a major determining factor in the growth of the industry.


  • Church, A. and Frost, M. (2008).Tourism, the Global City and the Labor Market in London: Tourism Geographies
  • Guerrier Y. and Adib A. (2007) Gendered Identities in the Work of Overseas Tour Reps: Blackwell publishing.
  • Hausmann, A. (2009). Cultural Tourism: Marketing Challenges and Opportunities for German Cultural Heritage: journal International Journal of Heritage Studies
  • Mikolo Y. and Paxie W. (2009). The influence of tourism on the woodcarving trade around Cape Town and implications for forest resources in southern Africa: Development Southern Africa,

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