Perception on tourism in Tanzania
Tourism is one of the giant and the worlds fastest growing industries which have huge adverse effects on peoples life
In most of developing countries endowed with significant tourist attraction , tourism has emerged as new impetus for economic growth given its ability to generate foreign exchange and employment. In Tanzania the tourism sector has become a pillar of the economy particular in the last decade
The main objective of this paper is to examine the overall involvement , perception and participation of Tanzanian local communities. This paper is divided into three main parts in which the first part is all about introduction where by in this I explain the overall concept of tourism in LDCs , also the general profile of tourism in Tanzania , tourism supply and demand , apart from that also tourism administration framework and tourism objectives has be examined
Literature review is the second part where by in here I was able to give various concept concerning community participation, factors influencing community participation, tourism benefits sharing, community participating and involvement in tourism development process and the barriers and restriction of community participation in tourism
And the third part which is the last part is explain the overall concept of community involvement which mainly based on host community perception concerning tourism and community involvement where by it explain the positive knowledge in which local community have concerning the impact of tourism and last is general impact of tourism on community
Key worlds: Tourism; Local community participation; Community based tourism
Definition of concept
According to Hohnholz 1994 tourism is described by various author as being a activity as consisting interrelated system and as an industry
Tourism is an activity includes all temporary travel for whatever purpose which results in one or more night being spent away from places of work or home
Tourism as a number of interrelated systems includes tourists and the associated services that are provided and utilized (attractions, transportation and accommodation) to aid in their movement
Local community participation
Basing on this study purpose local community participation emphasize giving the local people more opportunities to take part in development activities , empowering people to mobilize their own capacities be community actors rather than inactive subjects manage their resources , put together decisions and manage the activities that effect their lives
Community based tourism
Community based tourism is defined as the ownership of tourism assets and enterprises either wholly or in party by the local community
Successful community based tourism requires that communities are capacitated or empowered to participate meaningfully in the mainstream ( formal) tourism economy
Community based tourism concept offer great potential for improving the lives of local communities and their opportunities
The general idea of tourism in LDC`s
Tourism is the world's largest industry and one of the best top emergent industries worldwide. Today, tourism is gradually being the key essential economic sector in many Least Developed Countries (LDCs), including Tanzania,
At present 50 countries has been classified by t he United Nations as LDCs based on their low level of their GDP per capita, weak human assets and high economic weakness (Spenceley, 2008; UN-OHRLLS, 2007).
In many of these LDCs where by one of their main features is high level of poverty tourism sector has been able to give continuous and strong growth to these countries.
Tourism growth and development in these least developing countries has been effectively connected. Growing demand of tourist coming from developed countries which has been due to the lack of powerful attracted tourist assets available in their countries is one of the main reason that contribute to the expansion and improvement of tourism in these countries.
The industry's economic potential in LDCs is positively reflected in its outcome as a source of foreign exchange earnings and its involvement to national economies
Tourism has become one of the main source of GDP in most of these least developing countries. Due to tourist arrivals, income , revenues , foreign exchange and jobs being earned from tourism activities the tourism development in LDCs at the moment is impressive
The tourism revenue has been doubled over the last ten years in many of LDCs from US$ 2,257 million in 1995 to US$ 5,955 in 2006. where by as a result, the annual growth of international tourism revenue in LDCs has also doubled and the overall market share has rise impressively
Over the last ten years tourism has develop to be the leading export sector and the major contributor of foreign exchange revenues for most of these least developing countries . the below table showed the tourism trend of the top ten least developing countries based on international tourism receipts in 2006.
Nine of the least developing countries have been able to receive over 500,00 international tourist annual this statistics was put together or provided by UNWTO
The below table shows the trends of international tourism arrivals in these top ten least developing countries tourism exporters in 2006. in which Tanzania has achieved to ranked the seventh in it although it has been the second in terms of tourism receipt where by Cambodia ranked the first
International tourism arrivals in selected LDCs
These records reveal the substantial position tourism already occupies and the encouraging high growth rates currently recorded in LDCs that experience the widespread poverty, there is an increasing recognition that tourism is one of the best placed influential tools for poverty alleviation in LDCs (Honeck, 2008; Wilkerson, 1996; Chok and Macbeth, 2007; Zhao, 2007; Scheyvens, 2007; Scheyvens, 2008).
TOURISM AND POOR COUNTRIES
According to WEF ( the world economic forum) tourism industry has been able to create most new jobs in developing countries
Tourism is also the major services export for many developing countries and has much potential to provide competitive advantages fro them
Apart fro that tourism in developing countries is also growing rapidly. Developing countries foreign earnings from less than us $ 50 billion in 1990to more than US $ 260 billion in 2007
And for some countries ( on third of developing countries) tourism is already the main source of income
It is also the main source of foreign exchange in 46 of the 49 LDCs
Further in more than 50 of the worlds poorest countries tourism ranks either first, second or 3rd largest of their economic sectors
Tourism is the only service industry
Tourism account for between 3 and 10 percent of GDP in advance economies and up to 40 percent in developing countries
Tourism in Tanzania
Introduction to Tanzania ( general profile of tanzania )
The United Republic of Tanzania with its territory of almost a million sq. kilometers and 38 million habitants is the world"s 31st-largest country
Tanzania is one of the world's poorest nations-Least Developed Countries (LDCs), whose national budget is still 46 per cent donor-supported (URT, 2008). Tanzania is the 11th largest and the 6th most populated country in Africa Tanzania is located in East Africa, where by on north is bordered by Kenya and Uganda while Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of Congo on the west, and on south by Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique also It borders the Indian Ocean to the east. Its capital, Dar es Salaam, is also the nation's chief commercial center. Roughly double the size of California
Tanzania was formed in 1964 after the union of two countries: Tanganyika, which is the large mainland territory; and the Islands of Zanzibar, which consist of Unguja and Pemba islands. Its area approximately 945,087 square kilometres and an estimated population of 35 million
The country has tropical climate with average temperatures of between 25 and 30degree Celsius. Long rains last from March to May, short rains from October to December with some heavy showers in the south and Southern Highlands from December to April. The central plateau is dry and arid with hot days and cool nights, while the northwest highlands are cool and temperate. Coastal areas are hot and humid although sea breezes cool the area pleasantly between June and September.
The nation is plentiful in natural resources. Rich in mineral wealth, Tanzania counts diamond and gold mining among its leading industries.
Tanzania is blessed to be surrounded by lakes namely Lake Victoria the biggest in Africa and world's second-largest freshwater lake,, Lake Tanganyika the deepest in Africa and Lake Nyasa ( Lake Malawi), this makes Tanzania to be among the countries in the Great Lakes Regions.
Zanzibar islands are also part of the United Republic of Tanzania; these islands are famous for their serene beaches, snorkeling and scuba diving.
Tanzania's economy depends heavily on agriculture, which accounts for half the GDP and employs 76.5 percent of the workforce. Other major economic sectors include tourism, textiles, mining, fisheries, and energy. The country has made significant measures to liberalize its economy along market lines and encourage both foreign and domestic private investments (UNDP, 2008). Today, it has emerged as one of Africa's growing economies. Between 2000 and 2006 for example, annual GDP growth rate averaged around 6%, making Tanzania's economy one of the best performers in sub- Saharan Africa (UNDP, 2008).
Tourism supply- tourism resources
The tourism system has two major components . the supply and demand side . the tourist flow model describes these two sides as the tourist generating area and tourist receiving area. The supply side is the receiving area or attraction surplus area, while the demand side is the tourist generating area or attraction deficit area
The receiving area comprises all the tourist attractions in the region while the generating area comprises the residents and over night visitors from within the region or state and other parts of the country and beyond
In a destination country such as Tanzania, tourism can be broadly defined to include the provision of good and necessary to maintain tourist example transportation , accommodation and restaurants.
The country is endowed with various natural resources form a mainstay of tourism attractions. Almost a third of the land area is allocated to national parks
TANZANIA TOURIST ATTRACTIONS
Tanzania is one of the unique destinations on the African continent that has yet to be discovered by many. It is a land of many wonders harboring an un-paralleled diversity of fauna and flora. The country has many extraordinary tourist attractions. More than 25 per cent of Tanzania's land area is covered with magnificent game reserves and national parks Kilimanjaro, the highest permanently snow-capped free standing mountain in Africa, the exotic Islands of Zanzibar, the finest game sanctuaries of Serengeti, Tarangire, Lake Manyara, Ngorongoro Crater, Ruaha, Selous and the Marine Park of Mafia Island are only but a few of the living examples. The scenery, topography and very friendly people make Tanzania one of the best places to visit and promise the best wildlife photographic safaris on the continent. Tanzania indeed has it all Tanzania has 14 National Parks, 29 game reserves 40 controlled conservation area, and several marine parks, a breathtaking coast and Lake Zone and gently undulating highlands that are a hiker's paradise and Tanzania is also home to the famous Roof of Africa - Mount Kilimanjaro.
TOURISM TREND IN TANZANIA- DEMAND
After Tanzania adopted economic reforms in 1990s it helped to improve the performance of the country touridm industry and enhance the growth of the sector through improved marketing and promotional campaigns, improve tourism services , accommodation facilities and other tourism supporting infrastructure
The growth of Tanzania tourism industry can be measured by looking at the trends in tourism receipts , tourism arrivals tourism annual growth , its contribution to the country GDP and direct jobs created by the industry
Over the last seven years tourism in tanznia has recorded significant growth potential with the industry contribution to the countrys Gdp growing
The trend of Tanzania tourism industry recorded over 10 years period showed on table below
While Tanzania tourism industry continues to be one of the key source of foreign exchange earner in Tanzania , the industry depends primarily on the flow of international tourist to the country
Tanzania main markets sources ( tourist) are Britain , Germany, Usa, Italy , France ,Spain and Scandinavians countries. While there are some new emerging markets around or from Africa in countries such as . Africa, Kenya, Namibia, Uganda. Where by 70% of the tourist market are arrival from European countries
World travel and competitiveness report show that Tanzania is number one world wide in terms of nature based tourism resources and therefore the majority of international tourists come to Tanzania to visit wildlife protected areas and enjoys the country beautiful and exceptional wildlife
Some tourism forms which may be found in Tanzania are historical, archeological, cultural adventure and beach resort tourism all together making Tanzania a quality nature destination
The number of international visitors to the country has been growing steadily while the number of domestic tourists is very small and dominated by non resident visitors due to life situation caused by financial limitation. Lack of knowledge and many people see tourism as solely based only for foreigners
Tanzania's receipts from foreign tourists incre ased from US$ 823.05 million in 2005 to a record US$ 1.269 billion in 2008
Tourism institutional frame work
Early after independence ( 1961) Tanzania government didn't view or pay more attention on tourism as an important sector they may bring benefits on achieving economic development.
Mostly the government pays attention only on wildlife conservation and not on actual utilization and promotion of the country tourism attraction and this cause Tanzania not to have any definite Tourism policy back then until 1991
But Tanzania government was able to establish board which may help and contribute to the promotion of tourism which may help and contribute to the promotion of tourism which is called Tanzania Tourism Corporation (TTC) in 1971 which is now known as Tanzania Tourist Board (TTB) where by the main task or work of it is to promote and marketing tourism with in and outside the country
From 1990 Tanzania government started to view tourism as an important economic sector. The government efforts to support tourism was realized after recognition of the following key facts
- Tanzania is endowed with various natural resources which may play a role as tourism attractions
- tourism is a source of diversified foreign exchange earnings for the country economy like Tanzania in which traditionally depend on agricultural exports
- tourism led to the growth of many other economic sectors and benefits the people through providing income , employment , tax revenue etc
Tanzania formulate or develop or produce a tourism master plan in 1996 that mainly serves as a roadmap and strategiec framework for the sector and in 2002 the plan wa updated.
Tourism master plan focus on : creating greater awareness of Tanzania in the tourism resources market and secure a more competitive position
The main objectives of tourism sectors are Maximize tourism contribution to the development of the country through increasing foreign exchange earnings, employment creation , human resource development and rural development prevention of the environment , conservation of tourism attraction and sustainable development of the tourism industry
Community participation and development initiatives
Community participation has grow to be a common element in many development initiatives, such as community-based programmes, which believe participatory methods and has been promoted by development organizations, to address the incompetence of highly centralized development approaches particularly in the developing world (Baral and Heinen, 2007).
Nowadays, many development initiatives solicit the participation of all concerned stakeholders, at the relevant level. Consequently, the real outcome for Soliciting such community participation is to create and produce an enabling environment needed by stakeholders, especially local communities who have been vulnerable to negative impacts of tourism attributed partly to the fact that many tourism resources occur in their areas, to have a real stake in development activities (Havel, 1996; Songorwa, 1999).
This requires involving local communities in decision-making and strengthening their ability to act for themselves. One way to achieve this is "through investments in human capital, such as education and health, investments in social capital such as local-level institutions and participatory processes, and support for community based development efforts planned and implemented from bottom up" (Havel, 1996).
However, given the fact that the essential point underlying people's participation may be the degree of power distribution, these efforts are less likely to accomplished unless responsive institutions and the legal and policy framework that facilitate and support local participation are in place (Havel, 1996; Tosun, 2004; Wang and Wall, 2005).
Marisa and Ghoguil 1996 argues that community participation must not be seen as a means to enable people to influence decisions in the political arena about the issues that affect them but as a means to foster mutual help initiatives
Factors influencing community participation
There are various ways through which communities can be involved in the tourism activities so as to attract their support and participation which in turn boost development of the tourism industry.
This section will focus or based on two factors: involvement in the tourism decision-making process; and employment opportunities.
Communities can participate in the decision-making process (Zhao and Ritchie, 2007)
One of the key basic ethics of pro-poor tourism clearly declares that local communities "must participate in tourism decisions if their livelihood priorities are to be reflected in the way tourism is developed" (Chok and Macbeth, 2007 ).
Based on Zhao and Ritchie (2007) this can be achieved through enabling local communities to be engaged as members in the public and tourism related decision making bodies
Community participation through decision-making is a essential determinant to ensure that the benefits local communities get from tourism are assured, and their lifestyle and values are treasured. This approach is not often found in developing countries like Tanzania Base on the same arguments , Kibicho (2003) in his study about community and tourism in Kenya, he explain that local communities had the feeling that they were not completely involved in their country's tourism, particularly in decisions regarding its development, despite the fact that the industry has huge effect on their well-being.
In Tosun (2006) study based on the nature of community participation he observed that the local community should be part and package of the decision making body or committee through discussion by elected and appointed local government agencies or by a committee elected by the public specifically for developing and running tourism activities It should be noted that community participation on decision making is not only desirable but it also required so as to maximize the benefits of tourism for the community.
This is one of the most important elements of tourism management to enable communities who frequently serve as tourist destinations and it most of the time they suffer from the negative impacts of tourism, so by enabling local community to be involved and eventually participate in planning decisions regarding tourism development. This is important and it can create better handling of the negative impacts of tourism development (Li, 2004; Tosun, 2000).
Many of writers seems to support the idea that inorder for the local communities to benefit from tourism they must be included into the decision-making process concerning tourism activities taking part in their areas.
Zhao and ritchies 2007 explain that another way to enable local community to participate fully and ultimately to support tourism development in their community can be through creation of local jobs
Due to that tourism offers better labour-intensive and small scale opportunities (Chok and Macbeth, 2007; Scheyvens, 2007) and since it mostly happens in the community, it is thought to be one of the best placed potential sources of employment opportunities for local communities, inclusive of women and the informal sector
According to Tosun (2000) local community participation through working in the tourism industry has been recognized to help local communities not only to support development of the industry but also to receive more than economic benefits
Based on Ahmed 2000 research he identifies that 80 percent of local community stated that encouraging local people to invest in and work in tourism industry is the mostly effective ways to enable community to participate fully in tourism activities while Kweka (2000)explain that most of developing countries community participation through employment as workers in the industry "has been recognized to help local communities get more economic benefits rather than creating opportunities for them to have a say in decision making process of tourism development"
Participation through employment has more direct effects on the lives of poor households
Tourism benefits sharing
Sharing tourism profit with local communities has always been seen as one of the different mode of community participation in the tourism industry. Where by participation of local communities through sharing the benefits of tourism is one of the main points for community participation in tourism (Timothy, 1999).
Many different studies have explain and shown that tourism is one of the potential gear for poverty alleviation, especially due to its potential economic gains and also due to the fact that tourism is a important or growing economic sector in most of countries with high levels of poverty (Chok and Macbeth, 2007).
There are many programmes in different protected areas in Africa that aim to benefit local people through development projects. Where by in Tanzania the community participation in the benefits of tourism can be seen through its out reach programmes such as community conservation services (CCS) which is under the Tanzania National Parks Authority (TANAPA) where by the major aim of the program is to promote tourism development and to protect the major tourism area and to ensure that local communities to enjoy tangible benefits or profits from the tourism industry while participating in wildlife conservation ( Treves 2001)
In Tanzania Community Conservation Service (CCS) that operate in all 14 national parks, it seem to support community development in the areas in which they conduct their business. Also in Tarangire National Park (TNP) which is in Tanzania, tour operators through their approach to benefit sharing programme allocate to the respective village a collected fee of USD$ 6 per visitor (World Bank, 1997 For example in 2002 , 29 percent of tourism revenue at Jozani National Park which is found in Zanzibar goes to community development projects such as schools, health services, safe water supply others (Makame and Boon, 2008).
We should know that it is important to understand that in some cases community participation is seen as a major way which made people to do some activities while the benefits are not well seen to those expected to participate (Havel, 1996).
This implies that a major key factor to the accomplishment of any community-based tourism project is the incentive to benefit sharing which is usually attractive enough to make people highly motivated to participate. Where by according to Havel (1996) asserted "people will not participate unless they believe it is their interest to do so" Community involvement and perception in the tourism development process Various researcher have been able to examine and explain the involvement of community participation in the tourism development The main process of tourism development has been pointed and shown in the work of doxey (1976), Butler 1980 and many more. Where by they suggest that there is a high level degree of dependence on the residence for their axxeptance of the industry before it starts in a particular destination.
Community involvement and participation is very indeed for the development of tourism so as to avoid more likely uncertainties and misunderstanding about tourism development in the area (Simmons 1994) Community participation in the whole process of tourism development is very important and is being described as an element of development
It is important to understand that the well and active involvement and participation of the local community in the whole process of tourism activity is very crucial in the early stage ( exploration stage ) Also by providing local communitys with the opportunities to own and operate tourism facilities is thought to increase their tolerance to tourist activity in the area ( D`amore 1983)
Barriers or restriction to community participation in tourism in developing countries Different people have examine community participation and identified a number of inter-related restrictions that prevent effective local communities' involvement and participation in the tourism industry (Manyara and Jones, 2007).
According to Tosun (2000) he acknowledged a wide range of obstacles to community participation in the context of developing countries
The truth is that the majority of people in developing countries struggle to meet their basic and felt needs and that mere survival occupies all their time and consumes their energy, implies that getting closely involved in issues of community concern such as community participation in the tourism development process which often demands time and energy, may be a luxury that they cannot afford.
On the other side of the coin, apathy and a low level of awareness in the local community is normally accepted. whereas a low level of interest in taking part in matters beyond their immediate family domain (apathy) can benpartly attributed to many years or centuries of exclusion from socio-cultural, economic and political affairs that impact their dignity, a low level of awareness of such issues stops the poor from demanding that their needs be accommodated by the institutions which serve them.
Lack of ownership, capital, skills, knowledge and resources all hold back the ability of communities to fully manage their participation in tourism development. In addition to lack of skills, knowledge, ownership of tourism resources, Manyara and Jones (2007) also added that elitism, empowerment and involvement, leakage of revenue, partnerships, access to tourists, transparency in benefit-sharing, and lack of an appropriate policy framework to support the development of community initiatives have major impacts on community participation in the industry.
All these show the obstacles of community in participation in tourism development but in order to ensure that local communities can overcome those barriers and ultimately participate actively in tourism development is to empower them (Van der Duim et al, 2006; Zhao and Ritchie, 2007; Tosun, 2000).
HOST COMMUNITY PERCEPTION ( TOURIST DESTINATION RESIDENTS)
Local communities, often they are very people living along with the natural resources on which tourism activities depend, but they have not become main participants in or beneficiaries of tourism activities If tourism is to continue growing and is to be an effective poverty reduction tool, then this must change, and local opportunities and benefits must grow substantially According to SMITH & BRENT ,2001 the people who leave and working in tourist destination are often reffered to as host. This conveys the idea that residents populations are willing partners in the tourists activity but its all depend where by insome instances this may be the case while in others may not In Tanzania attitudes and perception towards tourism held by its local residents varys according to various reasons where by the direct and indirect economic gains and impact of tourism also plays a major role.
Local communities commonly come under pressure when tourism develops. Foreign values, money and inevitably alter the cultural landscape sometimes permanently Local residents perceptions of the potential negative impacts of tourism function as the derectly depend on the ratio between the number of tourist and the number of residents. Thus the growing pressure from tourism heightens perceptions of the environmental problems that tourism causes for the community such as congestion of cities, tourist centers and natural reserves, noise, waste generation and pollution, the destruction of local flora and fauna and urban pressure This in turn generates stronger criticism of tourism in Tanzania and with a growing public awareness among its population in general of the environmental problems that brings about and a subsequent increase in opposition to tourism development .
By focus on Tanzania we found that there is a direct relationship between tourism development and the presences of certain negatives attitudes towards tourism by the communitys residents Where by the stronger presence of tourist industry in Tanzania implies greater economic development and higher income for residents
LOCAL COMMUNITY KNOWLEDGE ON THE POSITIVE IMPACT OF TOURISM
Tourism can bring substantial benefits to local communities only if it is carefull planned developed and managed (Mametja 2001) In Tanzania mostly tourism have positive impact on its local community by enabling local people and country to generate income from it. Where by most of local people understand and appreciate the contribution of tourism as a source of income. For example the area called Mto wa mbu most of people incomes comes from tourism either directly or indirectly Also through tourism most of Tanzania local community came to understand the important of tourisn due to that tourism contribute to the revitalization of their arts , crafts and local culture and to the realization of cultural identity and heritage where by indorder for them to attract more tourist , they have to be proud of their culture example Masai people who are one of the people who have been able to leave with their own style no matter how the world changes and also to protect and restore the community or nation architectural and historical sites Apart from that also through meeting tourists Tanzania ( greater mutual understanding and respect one another culture). Though exchange can be positive or negative but mostly of Tanzania local people find that tourism present an opportunity for cultural exchange between then and tourist which is good..
Most of tourist visits tanzanania mainly consume social cultural products and their sources of fascination is the understanding of differents cultural and unusual experiences which result from close contact with indigenous group of people
Also for local community the recognize well the benefits of tourism due to that it provide many worthwhile employment opportunity. Tourism may provide directly and indirectly employment opportunity for both formally and informal people. For example some community members have been employed by tourism establishments such as hotels, campsites while others have their own vegetables gardens and animals that sell their produce o tourism establishments Tourism encourages a variety of cultural activities. Local communities had some positive views of the direct impact in which tourism has on cultural activities
GENERAL IMPACTS (POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE) OF TOURISM ON COMMUNITY
Tourism also has economic ,social, cultural, and environmental implications in both positive and negative ways depending on the historical establishment of tourism activities and the perception of local residents about those impacts
Mostly the economic impacts of tourism are usually perceived positively by the residents ( community)
Tourism acts as an export industry by generating new revenue from external sources where by the host community will be able to gain foreign exchange which will contribute to improve the nations balance of payment ( Gee et al , 1997)
Apart from that tourism decreases unemployment by creating new job opportunities, also it increasing demand fro tourism encourages new infrastructure investiment and communication and transportation possibilities. The amount of taxes collected by government will also increase with the higher level of economic activity and the residents of the tourism area might have a better standard of living and higher income by participating in tourism activities.
However if not well planned and controlled tourism may lead to negative impacts or reduce the effectiveness of positive ones. The process of goods and services might go up with the increased demand from foreign customers. Increased demand for accommodation especially in tourism seasons might push up the rents as well as the land costs or prices for building new houses and hotels. Also new revenues from tourism usually flows to the landowners and businessmen while the residents suffers from increasing cost of living. This might cause a maldistribution of income.
And new employment opportunities attract people to migrate to the resort areas and lead to new social and cultural problems.
The economic benefits have brought prosperity mainly to urban communities and entreprenuers. The rate of economic return to local communities has been low.
- Facilities such as resorts, hotels and tour companies belong mainly to investors from cities; who take most of the profits.
- Food, drink and other daily necessities used by tourists are normally imported from outside, not produced locally.
- Revenues in the forms of taxes and fees do not go direct to benefit local communities but return to the central government.
- Local labor is employed only at a low level. Employment opportunities forlocal people are thus very limited.
Social cultural impacts
Social cultural impacts refer to the changes in the norms and values of the society that are more apparent in the short time but lead to longer term and gradual change in a society values, beliefs and cultural practices (Brunt& Courtney 1999)
The extent to which social cultural impacts are experienced by host communities depends on a number of factors such as the number and type of tourist
Tourism has the potential to promote social development through employment creation, income redistribution and poverty alleviation. These kinds of social impacts may be positive or negatives. Other potential positive impacts of tourism include:
first it lead to Cultural understanding
Traveling brings people into contact with each other and, as tourism has an educational element, it can foster understanding between peoples and cultures and provide cultural exchange between hosts and guests. Because of this, the chances increase for people to develop mutual sympathy and understanding and to reduce their prejudices.
Revaluation of culture and traditions
Tourism can boost the preservation and transmission of cultural and historical traditions, which often contributes to the conservation and sustainable management of natural resources, the protection of local heritage, and a renaissance of indigenous cultures, cultural arts and crafts. Tourism also helps raise local awareness of the financial value of natural and cultural sites and can stimulate a feeling of pride in local and national heritage and interest in its conservation. More broadly, the involvement of local communities in tourism development and operation appears to be an important condition for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity Tourism might cause a gradual change in a societies values beliefs and cultural practices where by local residents feels this impacts are more heavily where by one of the impact is Tourism can turn local cultures into commodities when religious rituals, traditional ethnic rites and festivals are reduced and sanitized to conform to tourist expectations, resulting in what has been called "reconstructed ethnicity.
Also Loss of authenticity and staged authenticity Adapting cultural expressions and manifestations to the tastes of tourists or even performing shows as if they were "real life" constitutes "staged authenticity". (Ibid) In order to differentiate their product from other tourism products on the market, destinations have highlighted environmental, climatic and cultural differences. In this last instance, they are using their cultural heritage as a promotional device to attract increasing numbers of tourists. Although this may be considered to be a positive step in achieving greater awareness concerning cultural differences and, perhaps, a greater empathy between tourists and hosts, it also exposes a deeper layer of the sociological structure and thereby risks of further contamination
Cultural clashes which lead to Economic inequality
Many tourists come from societies with different consumption patterns and lifestyles than what is current at the destination, seeking pleasure, spending large amounts of money and sometimes behaving in ways that even they would not accept at home. Especially in less developed countries, there is likely to be a growing distinction between the 'haves' and 'havenots' which may increase social and sometimes ethnic tensions.
Negative socio-cultural impacts can also be generated if the tourism development is not managed properly and the full economic potential of that development is not realized. For instance, foreign employment in tourism-related jobs and foreign investment in tourism projects both add to the local resentment of tourism development. The exclusion of hosts from certain tourists facilities (such as private beaches, bars, casinos and transport services) will further increase the pressure of resentment and may create conflict between the host population and the tourists.
And Irritation due to tourist behavior is another impacts which can be cause by tourism Tourists often, out of ignorance or carelessness, fail to respect local customs and moral values. When they do, they can bring about irritation and stereotyping. They take a quick snapshot and are gone, and by so acting invade the local peoples' lives.
Crime, prostitution and sex tourism
The link between tourism and crime is hard to establish. But crime rates typically increase with the growth and urbanization of an area, and growth of mass tourism is often accompanied by increased crime. The presence of a large number of tourists with a lot of money to spend, and often carrying valuables such as cameras and jewelry, increases the attraction for criminals and brings with it activities like robbery and drug dealing. Repression of these phenomena often exacerbates social tension. (Ibid)
The commercial sexual exploitation of children and young women has paralleled the growth of tourism in many parts of the world. Though tourism is not the cause of sexual exploitation, it provides easy access to it. With the development of tourism in an area , there might be changes in social structure of the community .basically two different classes : a rich class which consists of businessmen and landowners and lower class which contains mostly immigrants might emerge in the community ( Dogan 1987) where by intense immigration from different cultures of people brings about social conflicts in the area.