Strategic hospitality developments

Complexity and Chaos are a reflection of the reality of Hospitality Industry?

The concepts are discussed with reference and provide illustration regarding complexity and chaos in the hospitality industry and the procedure of strategic development within the industry such as management issues, socio cultural and the technological complexity. It also investigates the influence of the external environment on the preference of strategic management activities, from a chaos and complexity perspective, since a business environment is a complex adaptive system. Using complexity theory to increase understanding of how to cope in complex and turbulent environments is necessary, The hospitality industry has not fundamentally changed since the first 'hotel' opened its doors to travelers many millennia ago. The core of the business is still to provide accommodation and food to people away from home. What has changed significantly is the global structure of the industry and the manner in which those core services are delivered to guests. In the 21st century this industry can be characterized by speed of change, rapid advances in the use of technology especially the technology of communications, rising standards of living in the developed world, higher and higher expectations of people in terms of choice and value and the continuing need for almost instant satisfaction. In hospitality industry all customers are very demanding and also sophisticated whereas their expectation is very high level because of the complexity and competitive market. According to Edgar Nisbett (1996) "Hospitality org anisations should not try and overcome their environment by predicting future outcomes but instead should change and adapt with the environment.

Deterministic

What exactly is chaos? The name "chaos theory" comes from the fact that the systems that the theory describes are apparently disordered, but chaos theory is really about finding the underlying order in apparently random data Chaos theory tries to understand the relation between chaos and order. In this way, it is possible to follow both directions, from order to chaos, or from chaos to achieve order. (Dolan et al. 2003). Chaos is normally considered to be about disorder or confusion. However, in science it describes an important conceptual paradox which has a precise mathematical meaning: "A chaotic system is a deterministic system which is difficult to predict".

We normally think that a deterministic system is completely predictable, and this is a mathematical truth. By definition, a deterministic system is one whose state at one time completely determines its state for all future times. Chaos, however, is not a mathematical contradiction; it is a conceptual contradiction with practical consequences. The real question is how accurately you can predict over what length of time given a certain amount of information. The reason a deterministic system can be difficult to predict is that what happens in the future can be very sensitive to its current state. This property, called "sensitivity to initial conditions," has been described as the "Butterfly Effect": the possibility that a large storm in New England may be due to a butterfly wing flap in China.

Chaos is not the only source of unpredictability of a system's behavior. Conceptually, there are three sources for the lack of predictability. The first is the influence of random noise, the second is the effect of the environment on the system, and the third is lack of knowledge of the initial conditions. The third is the one dealt with by studies of chaos.

Complexity is defined as the measure of heterogeneity or diversity in environmental, sub-factors such as customers, suppliers, socio-politics and technology (Teopaco, 1993; Lane and Maxfield, 1996; Chae and Hill, 1997; Chakravarthy, 1997). As complexity increases, the ability to understand and use information to plan and predict becomes more difficult (Black and Farias, 1997). As all systems increase in complexity over time (Farrell, 1998), the increasing complexityleads to more change (Conner, 1998). As the system becomes more complex, making sense of it becomes more difficult (Black and Farias, 1997) and adaptation to the The world of complexity, fuzziness and theatre reveals the shifting paradigms of management and organisational behaviour that are a response to the forces that are causing rapid change. Go and Pine (1995) in their work on globalisation strategy in the hotel industry, make that point very succinctly when they suggest that; "the complete rethinking of their (hoteliers) management philosophy should be the main concern, just making a few improvements will not do." Conklin and Tapp.(2000) go even further when they suggest that corporate structures are being broken down and decentralised in a transformation process to maintain the competitiveness of the business. A transformation to new structures that Rosabeth Moss Kanter (2004) suggests are characterised by the four Fs:-Focused and directed, Fast and responsive, Flexible with broader based skills friendly where work is pleasurable and satisfying. In the conventional world of the organisation of the 20th century, structures were formal, ordered and understood. Boundaries were defined, relationships between departments, businesses and organisations were clear. Employees were managed by their specialism in defined areas of activity. Those structures are changing as this commentary has identified.

According to Alexandros Paraskevas (2006) complexity is not a new to any business sector. He described in his journal review that all organization will obtain complexity but needs to be deal with appropriate plan or else it will appear as a chaos in the industry and also have to manage those crisis according to competitive market. Most of the hotels in UK are a based on hotel chain where all performance are performed by the controlled centre or head office even all franchise hotels follow the same way. If the hotel needs to take any decision during the weekend then the management have to wait until they get back form the head office in Monday. General Manager and Deputy General Manager don't work in weekend where as only departmental manager run the businesses As a result if they found major crisis, in some case have to wait until they get back to work after weekend or need to call them to discuss about the crisis.

Technology now dominates our lives; it is all pervading and ever present. In the future industry it will have a major impact not just on how we do business but the business that we do. In hotels for example technology will allow 'virtual' rooms preset and pre programmed to guest needs. No real windows but 'plasma windows' with the view of your choice - changing by the minute if you wish. All hotel services will be accessed via wireless technologies from one hand held access device, all rooms will be equipped with internet technology to allow access to the world wide entertainment and business facilities on demand. The changes in technology are strategically important in shaping and developing the industry of the future, "Everything slowly comes to life in the room," said Patrick Hatton, general manager of the James, adding that the hotel was taking time to receive feedback on the Control4 technology to make sure the innovations did not create headaches. "The most important thing for us is to make sure the technology is easy touse."Another company working with Control4 is the Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group, which plans to use the system to create a welcome experience at its Las Vegas property, scheduled to open in late 2009. Guests arriving in their room after checking in will be greeted by the drapes opening, the lights automatically turning on and the television displaying a customized message with the guest'sname."When you open the door, that's what will welcome you instead of a dark room where you're fumbling for a light switch," said Monika Nerger, Mandarin's vice president of technology for theAmericas.She said, though, that the main technology challenge for hotels was increasing their Internet bandwidth to keep up with guests doing more file-intensive activities online. The Las Vegas hotel will offer 400 megabytes of bandwidth; more than double the 160 megabytes at the new Mandarin Oriental inBoston.

It is clear that hoteliers spend a huge amount of resource, time and effort to create that leading edge that is needed to survive highly competitive market. This can be done to anticipate well on environmental and social changes as new technologies are incorporated constantly. Because of the high technology using in the hotel industry it's making more chaotic and complex world for staff and customers.

According to Collins et.al. (2003), in tourism and hotel industry have been found unskilled worker or very shortage of skill worker and the yearly turnover statistics of staff show the out flow compare to intake.(HEFCE, 1998). But it is very important to trained staff to cope complexity and chaos within the industry to give better service to the customer/ guests and also deal in complex and active environments. But the main concern is that as employees salaries are relatively lower than other industry alternatively also the highly labour oriented service therefore getting complexity and chaos in this industries

The main complexity in the hospitality industry is working hour. The standard European work hours currently 48 hours in a week although this is not practiced by all the EU nations especially the UK which has one of the longest working hours in Europe ( BBC, 2005). The standardisation of the working hours to a maximum of 48 hours could especially affect the hospitality sector where working hours are generally longer than others (BBC, 2005). The major complexity within the industry is longest hour and low salaries. And also the European region as a whole puts a major emphasis on environmental issues and protection of its environment such as restrictions of on smoking in public areas including club, bar and also all hospitality industries where guests adapted with this environment.

On the other hand political situation can be complexity and chaos for the Hospitality industry such as Zimbabwe's political situation. Once a time Zimbabwe's hospitality industry used to contribute lot of foreign currency and increased GDP of the country. But now a days showing different picture as the country, "many jobs have been lost and those affected have not been able to find new employment, there is no social security in Zimbabwe and people have suffered". (Zimbabwe, 2003). And also the same complexity found after attacked in World Trade Centre in USA.

In the example of hotels that started this discussion, Go and Pine cited a complete rethinking of hoteliers management philosophy as being the main concern and essential to future strategic development. This can manifest itself in a number of ways one the idea that hotel groups are moving out of the property business in terms of ownership and working on sale and management leasing schemes, where they sell the property but contract to run the property on a management lease arrangement. Why would hotel groups do this? Is it because they now wish to focus on the core activity of managing hotels rather than owning real-estate? is it because they wish to release capital from those assets and invest in new ventures and developments? or to remove any debt liabilities from the balance sheet? The answer may be all or none of the above but clearly the management thinking behind these ideas is major changes in management philosophy, not merely improvements. According to the Mulcahy, (1999), at present hospitality and tourism industries service is technologically complex as a result few customers able to technical quality of service experience but they can make assessment regarding skill and service of the staff. Therefore complexity of the structural changes of organization, technology and political environments are big challenge for the industry.

Bibliography:

  • http://www.necsi.org/guide/concepts/complexity.html
  • International herald tribune (2008), Hotels offer guests the latest technologytools.[online]Accessedfrom:http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/11/12/technology/11technology.php?page=1 [accessed on 16 march ,2009]
  • Paraskevas, A. (2006), "Crisis management or crisis response system"? Management Decision, vol. 44 No. 7, pp. 892-907
  • Anckear, B. and Walden, P. (2001), "Introducing Web technology in a small peripheral hospitality organization", International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 13 No. 5, pp. 241-250
  • BBC (2005) UK Working culture under threat. [Online] (s.l.) Accessed from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/4536735.stm [Accessed 0n 3 march, 2009]
  • European Commission (2007), Innovation and Research. [Online] (s.l.) Accessedfrom:http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page?_pagied=1996,45323734&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&screen=welcomeref&open=/&product=STRIND_INNORE&depth=2 [Accessed on 3 March, 2009]
  • Frontier (2001), Hospitality travel towards new technology. [Online] (s.l.) Accessed from: http://www.allconferences.com/conferences/20010904102819/ [Accessed on 1st March, 2009]
  • Zimbabwe - To go, or not to go (2003), [Online] Accessed from http://www.travelafricamag.com/content/view/567/125/ [Accessed on 4 March, 2009]
  • Daneke G A, (1997) The International Journal of Organisational Analysis, Vol 5, No 3 pp 249-266
  • Pine B.J & Gilmore J.H,(1999) The Experience Economy: work is & every business a stage, Harvard Business School Press, Boston
  • Rosenhead J (1998) Complexity Theory and Management Practice, in Complexity, Organisations, Fuzziness, University of Western Sydney
  • Stacey R (1996) Complexity and Creativity in Organisations, Berrett-Koehler

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Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04Thames Valley University Faculty of Professional Studies Strategic HospitalityEnd Match Developments Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04Module Code TH70023E Module LeaderEnd Match Andrew Pennington Assignment Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04Complexity and chaos are a reflection of the reality of hospitality organization?End Match Presented Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04by: Student ID-End Match 21009971 Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04Complexity and Chaos are a reflection of the reality of Hospitality Industry?End Match The concepts are discussed with reference and provide illustration Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04regarding complexity and chaos in theEnd Match hospitality Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04industry and theEnd Match method Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04of strategic development within the industry such as management issues, socio cultural and the technological complexity.End Match It also investigates the Begin Match to source 6 in source list: Management Decision, Volume 45, Issue 1 (2007-02-04)influence of the external environment on theEnd Match preference Begin Match to source 6 in source list: Management Decision, Volume 45, Issue 1 (2007-02-04)of strategic management activities, from a chaos and complexity perspective, since a business environment is a complex adaptive system.End Match Begin Match to source 6 in source list: Management Decision, Volume 45, Issue 1 (2007-02-04)Using complexity theory to increase understanding of how to cope in complex and turbulent environments is necessary, but has not beenEnd Match extensively discussed Begin Match to source 6 in source list: Management Decision, Volume 45, Issue 1 (2007-02-04)Keywords:End Match Chaos theory; Begin Match to source 6 in source list: Management Decision, Volume 45, Issue 1 (2007-02-04)Complexity theory,End Match Crisis Management, Technology, and Political environment Introduction Begin Match to source 10 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2007-05-10The hospitality industry has not fundamentally changed since the first 'hotel' opened itsEnd Match doors Begin Match to source 10 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2007-05-10toEnd Match travelers Begin Match to source 10 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2007-05-10many millennia ago. The core of the business is still to provide accommodation and food to people away from home. What has changed significantly is the global structure of the industry and the manner in which those core services are delivered toEnd Match guests. (Module study guide 09) In the 21st century this industry can be Begin Match to source 4 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-05-09characterized by speed of change, rapid advances in the use of technology especially the technology of communications, rising standards of living in the developed world, higher and higher expectations of people in terms of choice and value and the continuing need for almost instantEnd Match satisfaction. (Handouts week 1). Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04In hospitality industry all customers are very demanding and also sophisticated whereas their expectation is very high level because of the complexity and competitive market.End Match According to Edgar Nisbett (1996) "Hospitality org anisations Begin Match to source 16 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2009-03-20should not try and overcome their environment by predicting future outcomes but instead should change and adapt with the environment.End Match Chaos: Begin Match to source 7 in source list: http://www.imho.com/grae/chaos/chaos.htmlWhat exactly is chaos? The name "chaos theory" comes from the fact that the systems that the theory describes are apparently disordered, but chaos theory is really about finding the underlying order in apparently random data ChaosEnd Match Begin Match to source 15 in source list: http://www.minessence.net/pdfdocs/valuesasAttractors.pdftheory tries to understand the relation between chaos and order. In this way, it is possible to follow both directions, from order to chaos, or from chaos to achieve order.End Match (Dolan et al. 2003). Begin Match to source 2 in source list: http://www.necsi.net/guide/concepts/chaos.htmlChaos is normally considered to be about disorder or confusion. However, in science it describes an important conceptual paradox which has a precise mathematical meaning: "A chaotic system is a deterministic system which is difficult to predict". We normally think that a deterministic system is completely predictable, and this is a mathematical truth. By definition, a deterministic system is one whose state at one time completely determines its state for all future times. Chaos, however, is not a mathematical contradiction; it is a conceptual contradiction with practical consequences. The real question is how accuratelyEnd Match you Begin Match to source 2 in source list: http://www.necsi.net/guide/concepts/chaos.htmlcan predict over what length of time given a certain amount of information. The reason a deterministic system can be difficult to predict is that what happens in the future can be very sensitive to its current state. This property, called "sensitivity to initial conditions," has been described as the "Butterfly Effect": the possibility that a large storm in New England may be due to a butterfly wing flap in China.End Match Begin Match to source 2 in source list: http://www.necsi.net/guide/concepts/chaos.htmlChaos is not the only source of unpredictability of a system's behavior. Conceptually, there are three sources for the lack of predictability. The first is the influence of random noise, the second is the effect of the environment on the system, and the third is lack of knowledge of the initial conditions. The third is the one dealt with by studies of chaos.End Match Begin Match to source 7 in source list: http://www.imho.com/grae/chaos/chaos.htmlThe human heart also has a chaotic pattern. The time between beats does not remain constant; it depends on how much activity a person is doing, among other things. Under certain conditions, the heartbeat can speed up. Under different conditions, the heart beats erratically. It might even be called a chaotic heartbeat. The analysis of a heartbeat can help medical researchers find ways to put an abnormal heartbeat back into a steady state, instead of uncontrolled chaos.End Match Complexity: Begin Match to source 6 in source list: Management Decision, Volume 45, Issue 1 (2007-02-04)Complexity is defined as the measure of heterogeneity or diversity in environmental, sub-factors such as customers, suppliers, socio-politics and technology (Teopaco, 1993; Lane and Maxfield, 1996; Chae and Hill, 1997; Chakravarthy, 1997). As complexity increases, the ability to understand and use information to plan and predict becomes more difficult (Black and Farias, 1997). As all systems increase in complexity over time (Farrell, 1998), the increasingEnd Match complexityleads Begin Match to source 6 in source list: Management Decision, Volume 45, Issue 1 (2007-02-04)to more change (Conner, 1998). As the system becomes more complex, making sense of it becomes more difficult (Black and Farias, 1997) and adaptation to theEnd Match The world of complexity, fuzziness and theatre reveals the shifting paradigms of management and organisational behaviour that are a response to the forces that are causing rapid change. Begin Match to source 18 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04Go and Pine (1995) in their work on globalisation strategy in the hotel industry,End Match make Begin Match to source 18 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04thatEnd Match point very succinctly when they suggest that; "the complete Re thinking of their (hoteliers) Begin Match to source 14 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2009-03-20management philosophy should be the main concern, justEnd Match making a Begin Match to source 14 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2009-03-20few improvements will not do."End Match Conklin Begin Match to source 14 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2009-03-20and Tapp.(2000)End Match go even Begin Match to source 14 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2009-03-20furtherEnd Match when they suggest Begin Match to source 14 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2009-03-20that corporateEnd Match structures Begin Match to source 14 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2009-03-20are being broken down and decentralised in aEnd Match transformation Begin Match to source 14 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2009-03-20process to maintain the competitiveness of the business.End Match Begin Match to source 4 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-05-09A transformation to new structures that Rosabeth Moss KanterEnd Match (2004) Begin Match to source 4 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-05-09suggestsEnd Match are characterised Begin Match to source 4 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-05-09by the four Fs:-Focused and directed, Fast and responsive, Flexible with broader based skills friendly where work is pleasurable and satisfyingEnd Match In the conventional world of the organisation of the 20th century, structures were formal, ordered and understood. Boundaries were defined, relationships between departments, businesses and organisations were clear. Employees were managed by their specialism in defined areas of activity. Those structures are changing as this commentary has identified. Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04Crisis Management: According to Alexandros Paraskevas (2006) complexity is not a new to any business sector. HeEnd Match described Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04in his journal review that all organization willEnd Match obtain Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04complexity but needs to be deal withEnd Match appropriate Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04planEnd Match or else Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04it will appear as a chaos in the industry and also have to manage those crisis according to competitive marketEnd Match Begin Match to source 3 in source list: (3-20-09) http://www.hotelexecutive.com/bus_rev/pub/003/991.aspIs it any wonder that people in the hospitality community are finding that taking precautions in this environment requires a new discipline? High-profile public buildings serving thousands of guests each year, hotels and conventionEnd Match centres Begin Match to source 3 in source list: (3-20-09) http://www.hotelexecutive.com/bus_rev/pub/003/991.aspneed to be particularly well prepared for emergency and crisis situations..End Match Begin Match to source 3 in source list: (3-20-09) http://www.hotelexecutive.com/bus_rev/pub/003/991.aspWe'll explore the key issues at hand, including the challenges of creating a plan that fits multiple scenarios, how to build the right response team, the importance of testing the plan, and critical communication techniques and protocols. Ever since crisis communications plans have recently became a hot topic at conferences for the Association of Convention Operations Management (ACOM), members and speakers have stressed particularly that communications is often the first aspect of a crisis to go awry due to lack of planning or infrastructure failure such as a power outage.End Match Having experienced the Begin Match to source 3 in source list: (3-20-09) http://www.hotelexecutive.com/bus_rev/pub/003/991.aspKatrinaEnd Match Begin Match to source 3 in source list: (3-20-09) http://www.hotelexecutive.com/bus_rev/pub/003/991.aspdisaster first-hand, Karl helped spearhead development of a post-Katrina crisis management plan in effect today which integrates the crisis response of the city, the CVB and individual properties in use today.End Match (Hotel Executive.Com 2008). Begin Match to source 8 in source list: (3-20-09) http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/94598821.htmlThe terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, constitute an extreme example of the many crises that a business operation might face. In thisEnd Match paper Begin Match to source 8 in source list: (3-20-09) http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/94598821.htmlwe review a typology of crises and examine the crisis response of hotels in Washington, D.C., as a case to illustrate how the local hospitality industry worked closely with other tourism partners to manage this unprecedented situation and to develop recovery strategies. Given that many commentators anticipate an additional attack of some kind, the lessons and experience gained from managing the 9/11 crisis serve as recommendations for the hospitality industry in other destinations as they prepare for and handle future crises should they occur. TheEnd Match Begin Match to source 11 in source list: (1-23-09) http://www.allbusiness.com/management/change-management/349297-1.htmlimmediate aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attacks was a sudden and severe disruption to normal operations--in short, a crisis. In the context of business, a crisis is definedEnd Match as Begin Match to source 11 in source list: (1-23-09) http://www.allbusiness.com/management/change-management/349297-1.htmlan event that can tarnish a company's reputation or is severely detrimental to a company's long-term profitability, growth, or even its survival.End Match Technology: Technology now dominates our lives; it is all pervading and ever present. Begin Match to source 4 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-05-09In the futureEnd Match industry it Begin Match to source 4 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-05-09will have aEnd Match major Begin Match to source 4 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-05-09impact notEnd Match just Begin Match to source 4 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-05-09onEnd Match how Begin Match to source 4 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-05-09we do business butEnd Match the Begin Match to source 4 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-05-09businessEnd Match that Begin Match to source 4 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-05-09weEnd Match do. In hotels for example technology will Begin Match to source 4 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-05-09allow 'virtual' rooms preset and pre programmed to guest needs. No real windows but 'plasma windows' with the view of your choice - changing by the minute if you wish. All hotel services will be accessed via wireless technologies from oneEnd Match hand held Begin Match to source 4 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-05-09access device, all rooms will be equipped with internet technology to allow access toEnd Match the world wide Begin Match to source 4 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-05-09entertainment and business facilities on demand.End Match Begin Match to source 10 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2007-05-10The changes in technology are strategically important in shaping and developing the industry of the future.End Match (Module study guide 09). Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04It is clear that hoteliers spend aEnd Match huge Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04amount of resource, time and effort to create that leading edge that is needed to survive highly competitive market. This can be done to anticipate well on environmental and social changes as new technologies are incorporated constantly.End Match Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04Because of the high technology in the hotel industryEnd Match it's Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04making more chaotic and complex world for staff and customer.End Match Political issues Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04According to Collins et. al. (2003), in tourism and hotel industry have been found unskilled worker or very shortage of skill worker and the yearly turnover statistics of staff show the out flow compare to intake.(HEFCE, 1998). But it is very important to trained staff to cope complexity and chaos within the industry to give better service to the customer/ guests and also deal in complex and active environments. But the main concern is that as employees salaries are relatively lower than other industry alternatively also the highly labour oriented serviceEnd Match therefore getting complexity Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04andEnd Match chaos in this industries. Begin Match to source 5 in source list: (3-18-09) http://www.chinapost.com.tw/commentary/washington-post/2009/03/14/200066/Political-and.htmWhen the Democrats held their national convention last August, 50,000 delegates, politicians, journalists and others descended on the Mile High City for several days. Forty thousand hotel rooms were booked. Restaurants and entertainment venues were packed. In the end, Denver benefited from more than US$260 million in revenue, creating significant tax income for the city and state.End Match Begin Match to source 5 in source list: (3-18-09) http://www.chinapost.com.tw/commentary/washington-post/2009/03/14/200066/Political-and.htmWhat would have happened if no one attended the convention? In real terms, a lot of Denver businesses would have suffered but their employees would have suffered more. Waitresses would have had no customers. Housekeepers would have had no rooms to clean. Taxi drivers wouldn't have had passengers to ferry. And instead of addressing 84,000 people when he accepted his party's nomination for president, Barack Obama would have been looking out into an empty stadium.End Match . Conclusion In this discussion the main concern is future strategic development. This can manifest itself in a number of ways one the idea that hotel groups are moving out of the property business in terms of ownership and working on sale and management leasing schemes, where they sell the property but contract to run the property on a management lease arrangement. Why would hotel groups do this? Is it because they now wish to focus on the core activity of managing hotels rather than owning real-estate? is it because they wish to release capital from those assets and invest in new ventures and developments? or to remove any debt liabilities from the balance sheet? The answer may be all or none of the above but clearly the management thinking behind these ideas is major changes in management philosophy, not merely improvements. Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04According to the Mulcahy, (1999), at present hospitality and tourism industries service is technologically complex as a result few customers able to technical quality of service experience but they can make assessment regarding skill and service of the staff. Therefore complexity of the structural changes of organization, technology and political environments are big challenge for the industry.End Match Total word count: 2,382 Bibliography: International Herald Tribune (2008), Hotels offer guests the latest technology tools.[Online]AccessedfromBegin Match to source 21 in source list: Submitted to De Montfort University on 2008-01-16:http://www.iht.com/articles/End Match2008/11Begin Match to source 21 in source list: Submitted to De Montfort University on 2008-01-16/12/End Matchtechnology/11technologyBegin Match to source 21 in source list: Submitted to De Montfort University on 2008-01-16.php?End Matchpage=1 [Accessed on 16 march ,2009] Hotel Executive.Com (2008), Insider: Crisis Management: Are We Safer Today?[OnlineAccessfromBegin Match to source 20 in source list: Submitted to Leeds Metropolitan University on 2008-12-23:http://www.hotelexecutive.com/bus_rev/pub/003/End Match991Begin Match to source 20 in source list: Submitted to Leeds Metropolitan University on 2008-12-23.asp, [AccessedEnd Match on 10 March 2009] Entrepreneur (2009), Begin Match to source 19 in source list: (6-2-08) http://www.lawpays.com/crisis-management/restaurant-crisis-management.htmCrisis management and recovery: how Washington, D.C., hotels responded to terrorism.[End MatchOnline]Accessed from: Begin Match to source 19 in source list: (6-2-08) http://www.lawpays.com/crisis-management/restaurant-crisis-management.htmhttp://End Matchwww.entrepreneurBegin Match to source 19 in source list: (6-2-08) http://www.lawpays.com/crisis-management/restaurant-crisis-management.htm.com/End Matchtradejournals/article/94598821.html [Accessed on 12 March 2009] Hotels Combined (2008) Begin Match to source 17 in source list: Effects of Political Instability in Thailand on Hotel Operators[End MatchOnline]AccessedfromBegin Match to source 17 in source list: :http://www.hotelscombined.com/aboutus/press/thailand.aspx[End MatchAccessed on 12 March 2009] The china Post (2009) Begin Match to source 5 in source list: (3-18-09) http://www.chinapost.com.tw/commentary/washington-post/2009/03/14/200066/Political-and.htmPolitical and business travel restrictions doing more harm[End Matchonline]Accessedfrom:http://www.chinapost.com.tw/commentary/washington-post/2009/03/14/200066/Political-and.htm [Accessed on 10 March 2009] Hotel technology forum (2008) Evaluate the best Distribution and Reservation Technology for your Hotel Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04[online] Accessed from http://www.End Match events.eyefortravelBegin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04.com/End Matchtds/hotel-technology-forum/ [Accessed on 8 March 2009] Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04Paraskevas, A. (2006), "Crisis management or crisis response system"? Management Decision, vol. 44 No. 7, pp. 892-907End Match Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04Anckear, B. and Walden, P. (2001), "Introducing Web technology in a small peripheral hospitality organization", International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 13 No. 5, pp. 241-250End Match Begin Match to source 9 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-10Pine B.J & Gilmore J.H,(1999) The Experience Economy: work is & every business a stage, Harvard Business School Press, Boston Rosenhead J (1998) Complexity Theory and Management Practice, in Complexity, Organisations, Fuzziness, University of Western SydneyEnd Match Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04Edgar, D. A., and Nisbet, L. (1996), "A matter of chaos - some issues for hospitality business",End Match Begin Match to source 13 in source list: Education + Training, Volume 46, Issue 8 (2006-09-19)International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol.End Match 8 Begin Match to source 13 in source list: Education + Training, Volume 46, Issue 8 (2006-09-19)No.End Match 2, Begin Match to source 13 in source list: Education + Training, Volume 46, Issue 8 (2006-09-19)pp.End Match 6-9 Begin Match to source 13 in source list: Education + Training, Volume 46, Issue 8 (2006-09-19)Collins, C., Buhalis, D. and Peters, M. (2003), Enhancing SMTEs' business performance through the internet and e-End Matchlerning platform", Begin Match to source 13 in source list: Education + Training, Volume 46, Issue 8 (2006-09-19)EducationEnd Match and Begin Match to source 13 in source list: Education + Training, Volume 46, Issue 8 (2006-09-19)Training, vol. 45 No. 8/9, pp. 483-End Match494 Begin Match to source 1 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-04Mulcahy, J. D. (1999), "Vocational work experience in the hospitality industry: characteristics and strategies", Education and Training, vol. 41 No. 4, pp. 164-174End Match Begin Match to source 12 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-10Conklin D. & Tapp L, (2000), The Creative Web in Management 21C Ch. 16, Ed Chowdhury S, Pearson, London Go F.M. & Pine R, (1995) Globalization Strategy in the Hotel Industry, Routledge, LondonEnd Match Phillips Begin Match to source 12 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-10P.A.End Match & Begin Match to source 12 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-10Mountinho L, (1999), Measuring strategic planning effectiveness in hotels, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol 11/7 pp 349-345End Match Begin Match to source 9 in source list: Submitted to Thames Valley University on 2008-04-10Daneke G A, (1997) The International Journal of Organisational Analysis, Vol 5, No 3 pp 249-266 Pine B.J & Gilmore J.H,(1999) The Experience Economy: work is & every business a stage, Harvard Business School Press, Boston Rosenhead J (1998) Complexity Theory and Management Practice, in Complexity, Organisations, Fuzziness, University of Western Sydney Stacey R (1996) Complexity and Creativity in Organisations, Berrett-KoehlerEnd Match 9

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