The connotation of community participation

Key words:community participation in rural tourism

The connotation of community participation in rural tourism

In 1985, Murphy (PEMarphy) "Tourism: Community Method" a book the concept of "community participation" concept, in June 1997, the World Tourism Organization, the World Travel and Tourism Council and Earth Council jointly promulgated the "Regulations on Tourism Agenda for the 21st century, "clearly proposed to care for residents as the development of tourism one of the objects, and to residents to participate in the development of tourism as an important element in the process, highlighting the community participation in tourism development in importance.Community participation refers to the residents of public affairs and public participation in community activities,planning,decision-making, implementation, monitoring and evaluation process of such links.Therefore, community participation in rural tourism should be understood in the rural tourism development, community residents through a variety of ways and behavior, active and proactive participation in tourism development in rural areas and the associated level, and in its development, to obtain the corresponding interests, to protect the the local environment and maintenance of traditional social, cultural, and tourism to promote tourism to the sustainable development of tourism.

It can be seen that the core of community participation in rural tourism is reflected in the content and purpose of the participation of two areas: residents who have been involved in community tourism development decision-making rights and equitable access to tourism revenue opportunities.Rural Tourism Community participation embodies the will of the community factors and effective mechanism for the residents, including tourism planning, tourism and economic activities, environmental protection and maintenance of many social and cultural content, it is more emphasis on the community as a tourismplanningand management of the core of a kinds of new tourism development model and development philosophy.

Rural tourism positive significance of community participation

In recent years, the rapid development of rural tourism in China, in particular the National Tourism Administration in 2006 launched the "Year 2006, Rural China," have touched off an upsurge of rural tourism development.Deep in the rural tourism development process, community participation is to achieve its well-developed protection, but also in line with the national development of rural tourism in mind.

Community participation in rural tourism in positive sense, is: First, the reason for urban residents, rural tourism has a strong appeal that the key is that it has and theurbanlandscape completely different "native" villages natural and cultural landscapes.On the natural landscape, the local residents of their owner, protector, so bypassing the involvement of local residents carried out in rural tourism resources development is not viable; This is especially true on the cultural landscape, such as the pastoral scenery, agricultural activities , local customs and so on, these are where the most vivid and most live in rural tourism resources, and local residents is an important carrier of them, through the involvement of local residents in order to make these invisible spiritual resources can be demonstrated.Second, the local population through participation in the development of rural tourism management, decision management, access to tourism receipts.Increase in income residents would be greatly facilitated the development of rural tourism enthusiasm, such support and friendly attitude is the driving force for sustainable development of rural tourism and source.Third, the local residents through a variety of forms of participation in rural tourism would be tantamount to raise their cultural level, the concept of ecological protection and environmental protection, construction of consciousness.In order to better develop local rural tourism, they will consciously protect the local ecological landscape, landscaping, will also pay more attention to the protection of local folk culture to enable them to pass and carried forward.

Community participation in rural tourism in the current problems

community participation throughout the uneven development of

A small number of strategic location, economic openness of the area, an early start in rural tourism, rural use of local tourism resources, and guide the full and effective participation of community residents to tourism development, management,planning,operations to realize the sustainable development of rural tourism .There are some villages at the exploratory stage, using the model of organizations, some of the residents involved, mainly engaged in terms of profits for the purpose of business activities, such as handicrafts and local products for visitors and so on.But at present the majority of China's rural areas, tourism development is a completely government actions, community participation in rural tourism development process more slowly, in the more remote and backward areas, rural tourism is no community participation at all.Can be foreseen that the tourism industry in these areas will eventually be as environmental issues and social problems growing gradually decline.

community residents to participate in a low degree of rural tourism

The full and effective participation of communities, rural tourism is reflected in the following aspects: the scale of participation, we should be all residents, at least most of the residents participation; in participating in the content, means the full participation of local residents to local tourism development , including the development of tourismplanning,decision-making, management, operation, and local environmental protection and cultural preservation and transmission; from participation purposes, the residents will no longer only employment opportunities, increase income for a single purpose, taking into account their future development, residents still depending on environmental protection, and their responsibility to maintain traditional culture, and ultimately achieving their own community, the common development of all three local tourism.

At present from our rural tourism development in general, the extent and level of community participation is generally low in most parts of the performance of a small number of residents in the major profit for the purpose of carrying out economic activities, the real decision-making in tourism and management, the involvement of very few .The reasons contributing to this problem: first, a number of government departments at all levels of decision-making power has led to the rural tourism development process, the positive significance of community participation in lack of knowledge and understanding is not transparent.See it as just a simple peasant economic behavior of individuals, did not fully take into account the interests of the rural population, the demand in the tourism development decision-making more than a "mouthpiece" of the style, did not take any measures to mobilize the enthusiasm of local residents and guide them to full participation.Secondly, from the perspective of local residents, due to travel managers, or planners in the formulation of a number of significant impact on the community tourismplanningwould often excluded from community residents, strengthening of community residents reluctant to participate in the awareness of rural tourism.They believe that the development of tourism is a government conduct, is profit for the company, thereby intentionally or unintentionally, with the tourism development will be self-segregated.Third, because the level of cultural knowledge of rural residents is limited, the overall quality of the poor, an objective limit their participation.

Rural tourism development in the interests of community residents can not be guaranteed

A direct interest in local farmers suffer.Rural tourism development than the residents are most concerned about the distribution of benefits, especially economic distribution of income.However, the low level of participation of rural residents, there is now the following problems:

First of all, the use of resources, including land resources, including available resources, tourism development in the past, the survival of local communities, residents rely on production and living resources, their use rights owned by the farmers.When the tourist areaplanning,these resources will become the scenic area administration for all, while the scenic spots in their operations with little or no economic benefit derived from the distribution to local residents, directly harm their interests.The same time, the use of these resources will be transferred to the ownership of tourismenterprises,the government or the village failed to obtain the best interests of the farmers, and even individual parts of trading power for money and other damages the interests of farmers phenomenon.

Second, employment opportunities, at present rural tourism development, tourism projects throughout most of the commission is operating, contracting, transfer or lease the right to operate in the form of the contractor entrusted to a number of field development and management development company, rather than the community residents subject.Large influx of foreigners, and participation of the rural tourist area hotels, restaurants and souvenirs to operate and so are foreigncompanieshands.Such an outcome, resulting in local residents were excluded from the management decision-making, employment opportunities greatly reduced, and make part of the tourism revenue by way of wages and business profits, the flow field, resulting in loss of local residents in tourism activities should be entitled to direct economic benefits they also weaken the "Pro-Poor Tourism" effect.

The loss of indirect benefit to local residents.Community residents to participate in the benefits derived by rural tourism Apart from economic benefits, but also environmental benefits and social and cultural interests.The environment is a long-term life of local residents, the production place, once they are damaged ecological problems arise, would first threaten their lives and health; local culture by local residents in the attribution of emotional and psychological, but with the tourism development will beurbanculture assimilation.Not a good environment and unique culture, tourism development will be lost "soul."Are not involved in the main body of the local population, or even impossible involved in tourism developmentplanning,decision-making, etc., as the guiding ideology of developers and management reasons, tourism development, there is often focus on economic interests, environmental and social impact of light behavior, and thus make indirect benefit of local residents can not be guaranteed.

community residents involved in tourism activities, the attitude of indifference

As the local residents in rural tourism development in the interests of the lack of protection it has to bear the environmental damage, the normal order of life and values of interference adversely affected by the conflict, the current residents of rural tourism development in the communities involved in rural tourism activities, the attitude of indifference dissatisfaction or even resistance.Community residents on the attitude of the development of tourismresearchshows that: Once the community residents have such a negative mood, will greatly affect the development of local tourism industry, and even lead to failure of the development of local tourism.For example, India's coastal tourist destination Goa, the residents were dissatisfied with the various inconveniences tourists, hostile leaflets distributed to visitors, and evolved into a negative pressure to the government action.Shows the attitude of residents to participate directly related to the success or failure of local rural tourism development.

Community participation in rural tourism to ensure the effectiveness of the measures

The Government should in the rural tourism development in the transformation of functions

If the Government in the rural tourism development process, both the interests of the principal, but also is a policy decision-makers, will inevitably lead to rural tourism revenues scientific and rational allocation of a range of issues will eventually greatly reduce the rural population of "participation."Therefore, the Government up to the leading role in everything and a change in local population as the main rural tourism development play a guiding, coordinating, monitoring and so on.The Government should in the rural tourism development in a neutral position, and actively create a favorable environment for the development and safeguard people's right to participation, norms of behavior and residents to participate in the process of handling the developers and the conflict between local residents and become a bridge to contact them and ties.

further strengthen the Government's role in promoting the

The local administrative departments at all levels should fully understand the connotation of community participation in rural tourism and the importance of increased emphasis.Government, through the development of the implementation of various incentives to support policies, such as through loans, subsidies, tax incentives and other measures to mobilize the broad masses of people's active participation, and give them the creation of multi-level opportunities for participation and employment.When the rural population's income and employment equal distribution of benefits, it will greatly stimulate their participation in tourism development initiative and enthusiasm of rural tourism can be truly sustainable and healthy development.

strengtheningthe trainingin order to enhance the capacity of rural residents to participate

As mentioned earlier, the rural population affected by low levels of education, culture, the comprehensive quality of poor quality and was responsible for their level of participation is not high, sense of participation, another important reason for apathy, so we must increase the local population training and education.Through the whole training, a general increase in environmental awareness among the rural population to participate in awareness, business awareness and sense of competition; through multi-level, targetedtraining,to enhance local different categories, different groups of people involved in the capacity of rural tourism, from basic tourist services and the management to high-level tourism management and decision-making to guarantee the people have the skills to participate in rural tourism activities in order to enable local residents to truly become the main body of the tourism industry.

In summary, community participation in rural tourism rural tourism development in China is currently still in its infancy, there are still many deficiencies and the lack of, but with the depth of China's rural tourism development, to ensure that the local tourism, economic, social cultural and environmental sustainable development, community involvement will play an invaluable role.

Community participation in tourism development refers to the decision-making in tourism, development, planning, management, and supervision of tourism development process, full account of the views and needs of the community, and its development as a major subject and participate in the main body in order to ensure the sustainable development of tourism achieved under the premise of the community's overall development.World Travel and Tourism Council, "on tourism in the 21st century agenda" will be "sustainable tourism development" clearly defined as "the protection and enhancement of future opportunities while meeting the present tourists and host regional needs"; "sustainable tourism product" is "and the local environment, community and culture, consistent product."Can be seen, considering the community factor is necessary to achieve sustainable tourism development one of the requirements.

Occupy the vast land of China's rural areas, rich and unique tourism resources, human and natural.In the new wave of rural construction, many provinces will be village tourism as the characteristics of the local economy industries, tourism development, rural construction and development to become an important part.However, the rural tourism development in the past are mostly top-down implementation of government or corporate behavior, coupled with weak democratic awareness in rural communities, economic development, backward level of knowledge is limited and other reasons, obviously inadequate community participation, tourism development and the community, local people phase out, resulting in some problems.Therefore, the full understanding of community participation in rural tourism development in the meaning, combined with China's actual situation, formulating the correct strategy for community participation for the sustainable development of China's rural tourism industry and the building of new socialist countryside has important practical significance.

A rural community participation in tourism development in the role of

1, is conducive to developing the rural economy and building a socialist new countryside

The rural population in China account for a large proportion of the total population, however, according to China's agriculture of existing technologies, market demand and the level of cultivated land accounting for about 400 million rural labor force need to be transferred.In addition, China's rural communities, in relation to cities and towns, the economy is relatively backward, rural-urban disparities continue to increase in rural communities, exacerbated conflicts of interests within the main body has seriously affected the stability of rural areas and three rural issues.Therefore, rural communities in the extra labor to tourism development, both to resolve the remaining issues labor force, but also for the community residents to increase economic income; economic conditions will gradually improve the community residents to improve the spiritual and cultural quality of life conducive to social neo-rural construction.

2, is conducive to tourism development environment for building a harmonious

Community residents and tourism enterprises, tourism developers have a common value orientation --- the community's natural environment, but in my past, rural tourism development process, to policy implementation based on community and tourism development strategy led to numerous conflicts between enterprises, damage to the tourism industry has occurred frequently.Through community participation can be established not only between communities and tourism enterprises consultative mechanism, but also help promote the formation of democratic decision-making mechanisms to address community participation in tourism development decision-making and tourism income distribution problems, and to build a harmonious and stable environment for the development of tourism.

3, is conducive to protecting natural resources and eco-tourism for the natural and human environment has strong reliability.Within the scenic area and the surrounding community residents to rely on the natural survival of the important subjects, but also the region's natural, social and ecological environment, the most knowledgeable people.With the participation of local residents can make travel planning more in line with local contextual developed to reflect local characteristics of the tourism projects and products.At the same time, community residents directly involved in the development of tourism will make it right the relationship between environmental protection and tourism development, a deeper level of understanding, and thus take the initiative to actively protect the resources and the ecological environment.

Second, community participation in rural tourism development principles and ways to

Community participation in rural tourism development must adhere to two principles: first, to consider the vital interests of the community of farmers, on the one hand enable the farmers involved in tourism development in the whole process, so that farmers get the economic benefits of tourism, on the other make the peasants to participate in the development of tourism-related decision-making at all levels in the management level reflect the will of the community; second to consider the maintenance of rural tourism of the community and the development of optimization problems.Residents will no longer only means of employment in order to gain income goal participation in tourism development, but at the same time as protecting the environment and to maintain traditional culture for community residents in their own development needs and responsibilities, thus consciously involved in tourism development process.In particular, the peasants to participate in rural tourism development should be specifically reflected in the following four aspects: 1, participation in tourism development decision-making

In China's vast rural areas, family and collective consciousness has been strong criticism as a moral standard, resulting in public participation and top-down form of governance is more difficult to carry out.In this case, as the main organizer of community involvement at all levels --- local governments should strive to foster community residents to participate in tourism development mechanisms, guide and enhance the community residents to participate in tourism economic development initiative and enthusiasm.

In the development phase of tourism planning, government and tourism developers through farmers interviews, group meetings, surveys and other channels, the adoption of beneficial tourism planning, and maintaining rural communities, the environment information, including: (1) community development strategy for tourism directions and objectives to make recommendations to the development of tourism to promote tourism to the community development process rather than hinder the objective or to deviate from the normal track; (2) community participation in tourism development of specific goals and measures identified to ensure that tourism in terms of resources and facilities At the same time in line with tourism development and community development needs; (3) community participation in selection of specific forms of tourism and to ensure that their community residents can be accepted.

In planning the development, modification and implementation of dynamic process, to ensure a representative sample of community residents involved throughout, and other residents understand the process through the appropriate channels that reflect their own views.In the course of the long-term tourism development, tourism developers and tourism enterprises in major decisions, should ensure the effective participation of community residents.In addition, the National Rural grass-roots political power due to the constraints of the scope of village self-government organizations are often confined to the village, in order to form a joint force to participate in community-based organizations, the farmers through the establishment of political organizations and other groups will be raising community resident participation.At the same time, pay attention to protect the community to participate in the rights of vulnerable groups, such as the economic conditions of poor farmers, with fewer opportunities to speak to the elderly, women and so on.

involved in the allocation of economic benefits

First of all, pay attention to cultivate their own collective enterprises in rural communities, the implementation of government and enterprises, government-owned separate and collective assets, intensive strategies, all shareholders dividends, so that the residents of collective ownership of assets and income distribution of the right to have legal protection .Second, by engaging in legitimate business activities of the tourism industry to earn income, such as a tourism development to provide a certain degree of consumer goods and raw materials; engaged in individual businesses, such as family run hotels, restaurants; engaged in tourism services or management; production or sale of handicrafts and so on.Finally, in the tourism development process, pay attention to the formal adoption of legal means to protect the legitimate rights and interests of community residents, clear tourism developers and tourism enterprises to the community's duties and obligations and the formation of formal legal protection instruments, such as spots or during project development , will leave the employment opportunities for local farmers, in the course of business as much as possible the use of local migrant workers; to develop incentives to encourage farmers to participate in, or create the conditions for tour operators; through the expropriated land get shares, share the outcome of tourism development and so on.

Economic interests involved in the distribution process, the villagers or village collective organization on behalf of the General Assembly should be able to fairly represent the community residents fight for their rights at the same time to focus on improving the quality of community residents, such as the tourism-related policies, regulations and tourism developments in education and training, guided tours and Reception service skills training, so that farmers grasp the favorable opportunity of the development of tourism and provide standardized services to continue to accumulate experience and improve levels of participation in order to get more reasonable return.

participate in environmental protection

A good environment is a prerequisite for the development of tourism is also the key to achieving sustainable development of tourism.First, the community residents themselves should establish a stronger awareness of environmental protection.Although participation in economic benefits will be allocated to a certain extent, residents of rural communities to improve environmental concerns, however it does not rule out some of the villagers and the destruction of the environment for immediate short-term behavior.Therefore, the Government in addition to strengthening the community residents in the cultivation of awareness of environmental protection and environmental protection knowledge, training, administrative oversight functions should be strengthened on the status of community residents to monitor the implementation of environmental protection.Secondly, the community residents respond to the Government and tourism developers and tourism enterprises have sufficient right to information acts to carry out real-time monitoring of the environmental behavior of a timely manner to reflect the government administration departments, and administrative departments can exercise their right to give the proper supervision, the formation of community residents, tourism developers (tourism enterprises) and government administrative departments of environmental protection management system of mutual restraint and jointly create a favorable social atmosphere to protect the environment.

involved in the maintenance of social and cultural traditions

Social properties of the community first and foremost.If we say that the destruction of tourism on the environment and pollution only affects the tourism community and the pursuit of space vehicle development, the necessary resources, then travel on the local socio-cultural and lifestyle alienation, to induce residents of the community historical and cultural traditions to take nihilism attitude, resulting in the loss of community members to their respective communities in the emotional and psychological sense of identity and sense of belonging, eventually will lead directly to the disintegration of the community.Therefore, the conscious action of community residents is particularly necessary.Community should take initiative in the following actions: (1) to community economic development, social progress and the process of promoting community efforts to change the culture of the host community's disadvantaged status.(2) in the youth education process, the implant and strengthen the community's tradition of cultural content, to ensure that the core of traditional culture and heritage.(3) in their daily lives through public opinion, media and other residents in various ways to strengthen the cultural identity and social identity, promoting community integration.

Residents of rural tourism perceptions and attitudes towards tourism impact analysis - A small village as an example of mutual aid

Abstract: The development of tourism destinations will bring varying degrees of impact, tourism, the perception and attitude of residents to reflect the impact of tourism barometer.Article on mutual aid a small village, for example, analysis of the local residents about the economic impact of tourism perception, social and cultural impact of perception and ecological impacts of perception, the local population's attitude towards tourists, investors and practitioners attitude, the attitude of the tourism industry, which summed up the early residents of rural tourism development in the perception of characteristics of the impact on tourism.

Key words: resident; tourism impact; perception; attitude

Residents perceptions of tourism impact and attitude is the impact on tourism, one of the key factors for sustainable development.

It has the potential to become successful development, marketing, operation of existing or future tourism projects as an important planning and policy factors.With regard to tourist destinations

Residents perception of tourism impact study will help the Government to formulate a scientific and rational tourism development policies to improve the support of the residents of the local tourism industry and ultimately the promotion of tourism to sustainable development.

A longer period of Tourism Research, however, has always regarded as a tourist destination and tourists are the main targets, the local residents are not given adequate attention.With the development of tourism and people the importance of community participation, tourism perceptions and attitudes of residents beginning of the study on the rise.Fung Chi-ming pointed out that research in this area in order to develop tourism in the study area and type, such as rural tourism, the ethnic minority villages tourist destination, eco-museum, etc., and should be carried out in different types of tourism perception of residents in a comparative study to reveal the residents of China's Tourism perception of tourism impact of commonality and individuality.

Mutual aid from a small village a simple structure of the community to the tourism, agriculture and rural communities involved in the development of tourism on the local economic, environmental, social and cultural will have what effect?Tourism in the end will produce what the nature of the impact is positive or negative? Residents of the development of tourism attitude is?In this paper, a survey research methods with a simple interview, through mutual aid residents in the small village tourism impact of the perception and attitude survey to understand the early stages of development in the rural tourism, tourism on local communities resulting from economic, environmental and socio-cultural impact, as well as residents the support of the tourism industry.

the residents perception of tourism impact

residents of the perceived economic impact on tourism

the residents perceived the impact of the use of funds.Mutual surveyed residents of a small village, the residents are engaged in the tourism industry through the majority of households have savings.More than half of the respondents chose to remove the daily household expenses in surplus funds for investment, a high proportion of the population of investors, local residents will be breaking the traditional concept of surplus funds deposited in a bank, while the funds for the venture capital, risk awareness and awareness of greatly increased capital, tourism, residents gradually join the ranks of the entrepreneurial team.Also willing to spare money for other aspects, such as the construction of new houses, buying luxury goods, travel, such as the possession of a certain proportion, indicating along with the development of tourism in the economy under the premise of security, residents also know how to enjoy.Overall, mutual development of tourism in a small village up, more people from the deposit, investment has increased, enjoying spending also increased.

the residents perceived the impact of consumer durables consumption.The development of tourism economy, the lives of local residents have a high degree of improvement.Through the small tourist village residents to carry out the changes after the household consumer durables, tourism development can be seen that the impact on local residents and change.Qinghai's economy only in recent years the rapid development of economic growth in Qinghai had little slower economic growth, people's living standard is not high.Mutual relatively small source of income Zhuang single, relatively modest income, and sometimes even daily expenses are not be resolved, be able to buy less of household durable goods home rarely.However, since the small village, after carrying out the tourism industry, tourism, fire, and the people's income increases, consumer durables into a small village residents at home.With the continuous development of tourism, people's income increased, the ability of residents to buy consumer durables and the level is also rising, refrigerators, washing machines, color TVs, computers, vehicles, electric stove, microwave ovens and other durable consumer goods increased significantly, these consumer goods generally only residents daily expenses of reorganization under which it will buy, we can see that the current residents of the economy is sufficient.Thus, tourism's role in promoting the local economy continues to increase, tourism, economic benefits are very substantial, mutual well-off life of a small village just around the corner.

the residents perceived the impact of housing repairs.In people's minds, the residents have money will try to change their living environment, existing home renovation or a new location.As can be seen through surveys, tourism development, with the hand more money to the increase in population, many residents live near their new houses.A small village population in the economic well-off conditions, no one would choose to live with the original house, about 1 / 3 of residents to choose renovated, one half of the residents choose new homes.

the residents perception of the social and cultural impact of

Tourism can make from different geographical location, social class, socio-cultural and economic conditions of people to contact conditions, while the tourists during their travel, their demeanor will be residents of tourism behavior, family relationships, living habits, moral standards, cultural identity, social relations have a profound impact.

the residents living habits affect the perception.A place, a nation's residential building is the local and national carrier of the culture and customs, which is the transmission of local culture and national culture symbols, and the least prone to change, so even if the other customs and habits of a nation changed or lost, but also from the local architectural style, shape, furnishings, on how local or this nation's cultural symbols, from a certain sense, living habits are a barometer of the local custom.Tourism ago, a small village are mostly of the traditional houses, but with the tourism development, residents to choose building materials or architectural style, the impact of exposure to external ideas, alien culture gradually emerged.However, the small village residents understand that tourists want to see is the pure Turkish residential areas, so local residents although the use of foreign materials, but the style of the Turkish nation Exalted keep the original style.This shows that the tourism development of the local residents living habits have a greater impact.

the residents perceived the impact of food practices.The Turkish nation is unique in Qinghai Province, eating styles and habits have their unique characteristics, therefore, the Turkish food is a major bright spot to attract tourists.But with the development of tourism, the continued influx of foreign culture, the Turkish traditional food culture to a certain extent, has changed.Residents travel to different customs eclectic dining, visitors to the small village of Tujia Tujia although they can consume food, but not necessarily pure earth home cooking, but the Turkish daily diet has been the trend of assimilation of foreign culture.This shows that the development of tourism has greatly affected the eating habits of the Turkish population.

the residents perceived the impact of religious belief.Turkish believe in Tibetan Buddhism, religious activities in the hearts of the residents have a high position.In this paper, the inhabitants go to temples to participate in religious activities, the frequency change to determine the changes in religious belief, residents of a small village.Although this is not very scientific, but it can also explain certain issues.After the monastery to participate in tourism development to large-scale religious activities were declining, the number is also declining, mainly due to travel to most of the time people are engaged in business activities, in the tourist season, on the few people to take part in religious activities.Religious beliefs as the development of tourism on the wane, this is mainly reflected in the allocation of time, when religious activities and business conflict, the more people choose to do business, only a small number of people choose to participate in religious activities.

residents perceived impact on the ecological environment

the residents perceived the use of the ecological environment.Although tourism in the small village with folk customs and tourism, but tourism also involves a number of natural ecological landscape, vegetation, like a field or hillside vegetation, the small village residents think that the natural ecological landscape of the local development of tourism an important part of their natural ecological landscape utilization, conservation awareness is gradually increased.However, the small village is a unique tourism focused national folklore, the small village and therefore the natural ecology of publicity, using it is quite lacking.All in all, the small village tourism in a certain use of the ecological environment, but not very good.

the residents perception of the ecological damage to the environment.The arrival of tourists will travel to the residents happy, but will also have a distressed, because the development of tourism, travel to the ecological environment have to pay a certain price.For a small village in the ecological environment in whether there are changes in the field of tourism, the small village residents think that tourism has brought negative impact on the environment is not very clear, although there are some tourists trampling, pull down acts of ecological destruction of the environment, but local residents still acceptable.

Second, the attitude of residents towards tourism impact

the resident's attitude towards tourists

The residents of small village attitude surveys for visitors to identify the five different options, that is, residents may appear to visitors 5 different attitude: welcome, not welcome, does not matter, annoying, very annoying.These five kinds of attitudes to tourism development and tourism associated with different levels, but also residents in tourism and tourism development, whether it is actually very much related to the beneficiaries.

Through investigation, the small village population's attitude towards tourists welcomed in the vast majority of attitude, the attitude of individuals who are not welcome, and no one who does not matter, nasty, very nasty attitude.This is a five-stage theory Doxey consistent, Doxey that in different stages of tourism development, the attitude of residents towards tourists is different: the joy - cool - anger - confrontation - xenophobia.Development of tourism in the small village is still in the initial stage, the performance of people at this stage are mainly pleased, very much welcome the arrival of tourists.

residents of the attitude of investors and practitioners

A large number of investors and practitioners to enter, will travel to residents have a greater impact, such as is likely to increase employment opportunities, may also be due to competition, create new jobs are unemployed; is likely to increase people's income, but also likely to decline in living standards.Tourist residents of the attitude of investors and practitioners and practitioners and investors to enter the tourism in the lives of local residents after the impact are inextricably linked, and tourism to the stage of development there is a certain relationship.

Through the survey found that residents of a small village on the attitude of investors and practitioners mixed, depending on the investors and practitioners from entering tourist destination after they get benefits from it, depending on surrounding residents benefit from comparison.

the attitude of the residents of the tourism industry

Determine the attitude of the residents to the tourism industry of tourism in local development and future prospects.Residents from the small village tourism development has been well received real benefits from tourism can be said that without tourism there would be no life of affluent residents of a small village, tourism has become a small village the pillar industries for economic growth, the residents support the tourism industry is very high.

the conclusion

First, rural tourism development in the initial stage, the residents perceived a positive impact on tourism and deep understanding of the impact of the negative is not clear.Positive effects: in the economy, such as the promotion of economic development, farmers income; society and culture as the absorption of foreign culture, updating concepts; ecological environment such as raising awareness of ecological protection, improve the ecological environment.Negative impact: tourists increased destruction of the original quiet, the original concept of disruption of the increase in garbage, some bad ideas and style of the introduction, the interests of the pursuit of enabling operators to a certain degree of competition between households and contradictions.In the attitude of the tourism industry as a whole, the majority of residents think that more good than harm.

Second, rural tourism development in the initial stage, the local residents think that the leading role in tourism, the income increased significantly, their perceived impact on the economy is stronger than on the socio-cultural and environmental impact of perceptions.

Third, although the residents of rural tourism continued to retain a large number of ethnic folk, but in the process of tourism development in the acceptance of foreign culture is also very high.

Fourthly, the tour operators directly involved in tourism since farmers were, making them more than the perception of tourism impact of tourism does not operate farmers, their perception of tourism's direct economic interests, followed by the socio-cultural and ecological environment, while perceived positive impact on tourism strong, positive attitude to tourism.

Fifth, residents travel to the most important participants in and beneficiaries.The residents of the development of tourism tourist attitudes and behavior that affect tourist destination image and an important factor in sustainable tourism development, therefore, we must attach great importance to residents in the development of tourism in the role.

Community participation and sustainable development of rural tourism

Source: China Tourism News Article Author: Liu raft raft Release Date :2007-08-23 Font:[Dazhong Xiao]

Community participation in tourism development refers to the decision-making in tourism, development, planning, management, and supervision of tourism development process, full account of the views and needs of the community, and its development as a major subject and participate in the main body in order to ensure the sustainable development of tourism achieved under the premise of the community's overall development.World Travel and Tourism Council, "on tourism in the 21st century agenda" will be "sustainable tourism development" clearly defined as "the protection and enhancement of future opportunities while meeting the present tourists and host regional needs"; "sustainable tourism product" is "and the local environment, community and culture, consistent product."Can be seen, considering the community factor is necessary to achieve sustainable tourism development one of the requirements.

Occupy the vast land of China's rural areas, rich and unique tourism resources, human and natural.In the new wave of rural construction, many provinces will be village tourism as the characteristics of the local economy industries, tourism development, rural construction and development to become an important part.However, the rural tourism development in the past are mostly top-down implementation of government or corporate behavior, coupled with weak democratic awareness in rural communities, economic development, backward level of knowledge is limited and other reasons, obviously inadequate community participation, tourism development and the community, local people phase out, resulting in some problems.Therefore, the full understanding of community participation in rural tourism development in the meaning, combined with China's actual situation, formulating the correct strategy for community participation for the sustainable development of China's rural tourism industry and the building of new socialist countryside has important practical significance.

A rural community participation in tourism development in the role of

is conducive to developing the rural economy and building a socialist new countryside

The rural population in China account for a large proportion of the total population, however, according to China's agriculture of existing technologies, market demand and the level of cultivated land accounting for about 400 million rural labor force need to be transferred.In addition, China's rural communities, in relation to cities and towns, the economy is relatively backward, rural-urban disparities continue to increase in rural communities, exacerbated conflicts of interests within the main body has seriously affected the stability of rural areas and three rural issues.Therefore, rural communities in the extra labor to tourism development, both to resolve the remaining issues labor force, but also for the community residents to increase economic income; economic conditions will gradually improve the community residents to improve the spiritual and cultural quality of life conducive to social neo-rural construction.

is conducive to tourism development environment for building a harmonious

Community residents and tourism enterprises, tourism developers have a common value orientation --- the community's natural environment, but in my past, rural tourism development process, to policy implementation based on community and tourism development strategy led to numerous conflicts between enterprises, damage to the tourism industry has occurred frequently.Through community participation can be established not only between communities and tourism enterprises consultative mechanism, but also help promote the formation of democratic decision-making mechanisms to address community participation in tourism development decision-making and tourism income distribution problems, and to build a harmonious and stable environment for the development of tourism.

is conducive to protecting natural resources and eco-tourism for the natural and human environment has strong reliability.Within the scenic area and the surrounding community residents to rely on the natural survival of the important subjects, but also the region's natural, social and ecological environment, the most knowledgeable people.With the participation of local residents can make travel planning more in line with local contextual developed to reflect local characteristics of the tourism projects and products.At the same time, community residents directly involved in the development of tourism will make it right the relationship between environmental protection and tourism development, a deeper level of understanding, and thus take the initiative to actively protect the resources and the ecological environment.

Second, community participation in rural tourism development principles and ways to

Community participation in rural tourism development must adhere to two principles: first, to consider the vital interests of the community of farmers, peasants to participate in tourism development on the one hand to make the entire process, so that farmers get the economic benefits of tourism, on the other make the peasants to participate in the development of tourism-related decision-making at all levels in the management level reflect the will of the community; second to consider the maintenance of rural tourism of the community and the development of optimization problems.Residents will no longer only means of employment in order to gain income goal participation in tourism development, but at the same time as protecting the environment and to maintain traditional culture for community residents in their own development needs and responsibilities, thus consciously involved in tourism development process.In particular, the peasants to participate in rural tourism development should be specifically reflected in the following four aspects: 1, participation in tourism development decision-making

In China's vast rural areas, family and collective consciousness has been strong criticism as a moral standard, resulting in public participation and top-down form of governance is more difficult to carry out.In this case, as the main organizer of community involvement at all levels --- local governments should strive to foster community residents to participate in tourism development mechanisms, guide and enhance the community residents to participate in tourism economic development initiative and enthusiasm.

In the development phase of tourism planning, government and tourism developers through farmers interviews, group meetings, surveys and other channels, the adoption of beneficial tourism planning, and maintaining rural communities, the environment information, including: (1) community development strategy for tourism directions and objectives to make recommendations to the development of tourism to promote tourism to the community development process rather than hinder the objective or to deviate from the normal track; (2) community participation in tourism development of specific goals and measures identified to ensure that tourism in terms of resources and facilities At the same time in line with tourism development and community development needs; (3) community participation in selection of specific forms of tourism and to ensure that their community residents can be accepted.

In planning the development, modification and implementation of dynamic process, to ensure a representative sample of community residents involved throughout, and other residents understand the process through the appropriate channels that reflect their own views.In the course of the long-term tourism development, tourism developers and tourism enterprises in major decisions, should ensure the effective participation of community residents.In addition, the National Rural grass-roots political power due to the constraints of the scope of village self-government organizations are often confined to the village, in order to form a joint force to participate in community-based organizations, the farmers through the establishment of political organizations and other groups will be raising community resident participation.At the same time, pay attention to protect the community to participate in the rights of vulnerable groups, such as the economic conditions of poor farmers, with fewer opportunities to speak to the elderly, women and so on.

involved in the allocation of economic benefits

First of all, pay attention to cultivate their own collective enterprises in rural communities, the implementation of government and enterprises, government-owned separate and collective assets, intensive strategies, all shareholders dividends, so that the residents of collective ownership of assets and income distribution of the right to have legal protection .Second, by engaging in legitimate business activities of the tourism industry to earn income, such as a tourism development to provide a certain degree of consumer goods and raw materials; engaged in individual businesses, such as family run hotels, restaurants; engaged in tourism services or management; production or sale of handicrafts and so on.Finally, in the tourism development process, pay attention to the formal adoption of legal means to protect the legitimate rights and interests of community residents, clear tourism developers and tourism enterprises to the community's duties and obligations and the formation of formal legal protection instruments, such as spots or during project development , will leave the employment opportunities for local farmers, in the course of business as much as possible the use of local migrant workers; to develop incentives to encourage farmers to participate in, or create the conditions for tour operators; through the expropriated land get shares, share the outcome of tourism development and so on.

Economic interests involved in the distribution process, the villagers or village collective organization on behalf of the General Assembly should be able to fairly represent the community residents fight for their rights at the same time to focus on improving the quality of community residents, such as the tourism-related policies, regulations and tourism developments in education and training, guided tours and Reception service skills training, so that farmers grasp the favorable opportunity of the development of tourism and provide standardized services to continue to accumulate experience and improve levels of participation in order to get more reasonable return.

participate in environmental protection

A good environment is a prerequisite for the development of tourism is also the key to achieving sustainable development of tourism.First, the community residents themselves should establish a stronger awareness of environmental protection.Although participation in economic benefits will be allocated to a certain extent, residents of rural communities to improve environmental concerns, however it does not rule out some of the villagers and the destruction of the environment for immediate short-term behavior.Therefore, the Government in addition to strengthening the community residents in the cultivation of awareness of environmental protection and environmental protection knowledge, training, administrative oversight functions should be strengthened on the status of community residents to monitor the implementation of environmental protection.Secondly, the community residents respond to the Government and tourism developers and tourism enterprises have sufficient right to information acts to carry out real-time monitoring of the environmental behavior of a timely manner to reflect the government administration departments, and administrative departments can exercise their right to give the proper supervision, the formation of community residents, tourism developers (tourism enterprises) and government administrative departments of environmental protection management system of mutual restraint and jointly create a favorable social atmosphere to protect the environment.

involved in the maintenance of social and cultural traditions

Social properties of the community first and foremost.If we say that the destruction of tourism on the environment and pollution only affects the tourism community and the pursuit of space vehicle development, the necessary resources, then travel on the local socio-cultural and lifestyle alienation, to induce residents of the community historical and cultural traditions to take nihilism attitude, resulting in the loss of community members to their respective communities in the emotional and psychological sense of identity and sense of belonging, eventually will lead directly to the disintegration of the community.Therefore, the conscious action of community residents is particularly necessary.Community should take initiative in the following actions: (1) to community economic development, social progress and the process of promoting community efforts to change the culture of the host community's disadvantaged status.(2) in the youth education process, the implant and strengthen the community's tradition of cultural content, to ensure that the core of traditional culture and heritage.(3) in their daily lives through public opinion, media and other residents in various ways to strengthen the cultural identity and social identity, promoting community integration.

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