Meaning of Tourist, Tourism and Tourism Industry note - the order of terms might be reflected in the paragraph
The word 'tourism' is derived from the Anglo-French word 'Tour'. By tourism, we mean the movement of human beings from one place to another for the purpose of entertainment, study, pilgrimage, sport, expedition, meeting their relatives and so on. But the term 'tourism' has been defined differently in modern times. In this context, different organizations also have their own views. Nevertheless, the theme(s?) given by all of them is more or less similar.
In this context, a tourist is a visitor taking the goal of entertainment. The International Union of Official Travel Organization (IUOTO), has defined tourist as, a "tTemporary visitor staying at least twenty-four hours in the particular country having all or at least an aim or a) leisure(creation, holidays, health, study, religion and sport) and b) business (family mission, meeting) is called a tourist". Likewise, UN Conference on Trade and Development has defined tourist as, "Any person visiting a country other than his residential country with any motive other than following an occupation or pecuniary motive and such a person must stay in the country not less than twenty four hours and not more than six months" (UN Conference on Trade and Development, 1971, p.32). try to avoid entire paragraphs as quotes. Also, try to end any paragraph withyour own words rather than a quote.
Be sure that the heading equates to the margins. (left alignment)
The word 'tourism' carries different meaning as per different scholars as well. Hermann Von Schullard, an Australian economist, was the first person to define tourism. According to him, "Tourism is the sum total of operations, mainly of economic nature, which is directly related to the entry, stay and movement of foreigners inside and outside a certain country, city or origin, is tourism" (Scullerd, 1922, p.14) as above
T From the definitions by different organizations and scholars, it can be said reveal that the tourist is the visitor of different places for entertainment. whereas tourism is the business of providing the different survives to the visitors. Through the operation of tourism businesses?, a tourist gets service, an unemployed person gets a job, and the nation collects revenue. Therefore, tourism is the main sources of revenue collection for a nation. (not true for all nations - be careful of your claims)
The management of different sectors, such as hotels, travel agencies, trekking agencies, and social servicing industries, is essential because they provide utmost facilities to the tourists. Therefore, all the economic activities performed with the purpose of providing pleasure and comfort to the tourist can be regarded as the tourism industry.
Tourism is considered to the largest industry in the world which is directly influenced directly by real disposable personal income, price of foreign travel services, publicity, cost and conveniences of means o f transportation, tourist attraction such as sea resorts, mountain resorts, and places of historical or natural interest. In this connection, the IMF newsletter exclaims "Tourism may be influenced by real disposable personal income, price of foreign travel services abroad and at influenced by real disposable personal income, price of foreign travel services abroad and at home, publicity cost and conveniences of means of transportation, location of home country and neighbouring countries with such tourist attraction as sea resorts, sunny skies, mountain resorts and places of historical or natural interests" (IMF The Tourism Statistics, p.17). not to end in quote.
The word "Tourism" has been derived from the French word "Tourisme" literally means to travel to the related fields which originated in the 19th century. Later, this word was popularized (in the decade 1930s), but its significance was not fully realized. "'Tour'" is known as a journey from place to place for pleasure. Tourism has been defined in various ways. Some authors? describes "Tourism" as a system tourism is a system of four inter-related parts? market, travel destination and marketing, (is this three parts?)
Marketing is service related to the customer. The second segment of Tourism is travel, which includes where, when, and how to go. The definition of Tourism identifies the several characteristics of tourism as mentioned below.
- Tourism involves a complex set of interrelationships between people, places, and products.
- These interrelationships evolve thought the transportation of people of various destinations outside of their normal place of residence and their stay at those destinations.
- The duration of the visit must generally be of as short- term nature.
- Tourism is essentially a pleasure activity it's that it doesn't involve related travel even if the associated income is not earned is the destination, region or country.
Herman V. Schullard, aon Austrian Economist, ins the year 1910 gave one of the earliest definitions of tourism. He defined if as the sum total of the operators, mainly of an economic nature, which directly relates to the entry, stay, and movement of foreignness inside and outside a certain country, city or region." Tourism, an umbrella concept, has a history dating back to 1811, or before and continues to change in definitions. The term tourism encompasses travels away from home and the businesses and people who save them by expediting or otherwise making the travel easier or more entertaining. Similarly, Huwmiker Welts and Krab Kart defined tourism as follows: "Tourism is the total relationships and phenomena linked with the stay of foreign persons is a locality on condition that they do not rattle there to exercise a major permanent or temporary activities a lucrative nature." Citation From the above facts, tourism is knowns as a visit a person from one place to another place for their want. International The Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism (IASET) further added few points to make it clear. Tourism arises from a movement of people and their stay in various destinations. There are two in all Tourism "The journey to the destination and the stay including activities at the destinations." The journey and the stay take place outside the normal place or residence and work, so that tourism gives rise to activities which are distinct from those of the resident and marketing populations of the places. The movement to destinations is off to temporary short term characters, with intention to return within a few days few weeks or months. Destinations are visited for the purpose other than taking up permanent residence or employment. Sarwani, the content here is very repetitive.
Classification of Tourism
Tourism is classified into two categories:
- Direct Tourism and
- Indirect Tourism.
Direct Tourism refers with travel procurement in accommodation, while indirect tourism refers with Airlines, Railways etc. In another way, tourism can be classified into two ways: international tourism, which refers to the tour of foreign countries, and domestic tourism that is limited within a country.
Tourism can also be classified as: Passive Tourism, which is not considered so much with the existence of tourist's will. In such tourism, leader's command will be the first and final the first and final what...?. In passive tourism, basically there are two types of tour viz. set tours and package tours. Whereas, Active tourism is directly associated with tourist's will, and such tourism is free of tourscheduled tours.
UN Guidance for Tourism Statistics takes tourist as a visitor, and it states that tourism is completely related with to the types of tourist. It classified visitor into two types: - Excursionists and Tourists. Excursionists are visitors not staying overnight or staying less than 24 hours, whereas those visitors spending more than 24 hours or at least one overnight in the/a country visited are called tourists (UN Guidance for Tourism Statistics, 1971, p. 3.).
Important of Tourism
Tourism is a fundamental and desirable human activating for having satisfaction. Tourism credits friendship and understanding among nations and acts as a medium though which we can share knowledge and create understanding among the people of the world.
The modern tourism is an instrument of human education it is becoming more powerful tool of education and of collective and individual culture. So, tourism provides us an opportunity to understand the society, habits, food dress and the way of life of the people of different countries.
Socially, and culturally, Tourism is a product which encourages intellectually curiosity amongst people and nations and develops a healthy respect for other countries customs. Thus, it keeps a peaceful relationship between nations.
Tourism also play a large part is keeping family and friends in contact, and permits students & teachers to be part of Educational exchange programmers as part of cultural role of tourism the incentive of local crafts and industries an artistic skills of local people is increased because of the demand for local products.
Development of Tourism
Tourism Development in Nepal --
The history of Nepalese tourism can be found from ancient times. People visiting Nepal from different countries of the world for the exchange of culture and for pilgrimage were popular. The recorded history of Nepal begins with the Lichhavis who came to power in 400 A.D. With them the nation began to prosper in art, culture, painting, architecture and sculptures. The Mallas, who succeeded them, gave a new turn to this prosperity by transforming the small kingdoms of Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur into "Open air Museum of art and Architecture". But efforts to earn foreign currency to accelerate development through tourism were nil, and there was no link between tourism and national economy. After centuries, the democratic revolution of 1951 AD marked a new era in Nepalese Tourism for all foreign visitors. Nepal opens its door to international tourists after the dawn of democracy. For convenience, development of tourism in Nepal can be remembered by dividing it into three phases.
- First phase: History of Tourism before 1950.
- Second Phase: History of Tourism from 1950 to 1990.
- Third Phase: History of Tourism after 1990.
First Phase of History of Tourism before 1950
The ancient history of Nepal is the history of Kathmandu valley and the ancient history of tourism is also related to the Kathmandu valley. The Kathmandu valley took birth when a visitor name Manjushree came here from China, cut the edge of the hill in Chovar with a sword and emptied the water of the lake. After this in 249 BC, emperor Ashok of India visited Nepal as a pilgrim and erected a Monastery entitled 'Charumati Bihar', and also four Buddhist stupas in the four corners of Patan. During the Lichhavi period, most of the foreigners visited Nepal as pilgrims. At this period, the great emperor of Tibet named Shrangchong Gampo visited Kathmandu. He met King Anshuvarma and married his daughter, the Nepalese princess Bhrikuti. The Chinese visitor Huan Tsang described in his travel accounts about the Kailaskut Bhawan and Mangriha of Lichhavi dynasty. Similarly, around 6th century, in the Kirati Regime, some foreigners visited Nepal as pilgrims in Malla Regime there was a significant development in art and culture, and then rulers of Nepal were more or less interested in greeting travelers who entered into the kingdom of Nepal as pilgrims. Krishna Mandir of Patan, 55 windows palace of Bhaktapur, Pashupati Temple, Swayambhu and Stupas of Buddhist were built during this period.
After the unification, the rulers of Nepal had not made any attempt to develop tourism in Nepal on the contrary the policy of the government was not let tourist enter into Nepal, except in some special cases. In the Rana's regime for 104 years the policy of the government was not favorable for tourism development. Only during the great festival of Shivaratri, permission was given to Indians to enter into Nepal as pilgrims. Till 1950 only 100 foreigners visited Nepal (Pokhrel & Karki, 2055). The restrictions on tourists to enter into Nepal during the Rana regime of 104 years adversely affected tourism in Nepal. As a result there was a lack of foreign exchange earnings from tourism for the development of infrastructure in the country.
Second Phase: History of Tourism from 1950 to 1990
A great political change took place in 1951 in Nepal. The Rana government was overthrown from power and Nepal got a new birth i.e. democracy was brought in the country. Thereafter, a range of development in the country, internal as well as external communication and transportation tasks began to start. Many foreign countries started to help for the development of Nepal. In actual sense the promotion of tourism started more or less only in the beginning of 1960s. The then government made attempt to the development of tourism with liberal tourism policy relatively than they're before. In 1965, John Copman, who was running 'Tree Top' in Africa, came to Nepal and being impressed with dense forest and wild animals started 'Tiger Top', first Jungle Resort.
Similarly, James Robert, Ex-British Army-man who was in British India came in contact with Nepalese Gorkha soldiers and with their links came to Nepal and introduced trekking tourism by opening company named 'Mountain Travel' in 1965, which still runs to this days. And Edmund Hillary introduced and promoted mountaineering in Nepal. In 1953, Tenjing Sherpa and Sir Edmund Hillary succeed in climbing the world's highest peak Mt. Everest. After getting membership to the UNO in 1955, Nepal gradually became known to the world. In the auspicious occasion of the coronation of His Majesty King Mahendra in 1956, government head and diplomat from different countries of the world visited Nepal. After these travelers, political and commercial delegation began entering in Nepal. Diplomatic, cultural and economic relationship with different countries were set up, with increasing diplomatic relationship with different organizations like UNO, WHO, UNESCO, FAO etc. a congenial atmosphere was created in Nepal for tourism development. A new era of Nepalese tourism started in November 1957 when a 'Tourism Development Board' was established under the chairmanship of minister for trade and Industry. In 1958, this 'Tourism Development Board' has transferred to Ministry of public works, Transportation and Communication. In 1959, this has attached to the 'Department of Construction and Communication Works', and directorate of tourism was opened.
Similarly, 'Tourism Information Center' was established this year. In such organizational development process, in 1961, the government decided to established Department of Tourism' with the establishment of this department, the country got an opportunity to obtain membership of various international tourism development institutions such as International Union of Official Travel Organization (IUOTO), South Asian Travel Commission (SATC), The Pacific Area Travel Association (PATA), and American Society of Travel Agent (ASTA). In 1970, Nepal Tourism Development Committee was constituted under the chairmanship of then prince late Himalaya Bir Bikram Shah. In 1972, the committee published 'Nepal Tourism Master Plan' with technical assistance from the government of Federal Republic of Germany. The master plan had been prepared for further development in the field of tourism, tourism started to be considered as an industry and for its development efforts there have been made distributed posters, booklets to international organization and to provide sufficient hotel facilities and transportation facilities to tourists. As a result, there was 41-fold increase in tourists visiting Nepal, for example, 6179 tourists in 1962.
Third Phase: After 1990
This is the period of globalization. In this period there was institutional and infrastructural development of tourism. Although in Nepal only international tourists are mainly recognized as tourist and all policies and program have been focused around them only. Still a careful analysis of the events related to development of tourism in Nepal suggest that in the decade of nineties there has been much more conscious efforts to globalize the tourism activities with a view to globalizing the economy of Nepal also.
The Eighth Five Year Development Plan was a bold enough to acknowledge the defects of policies pursued and their net efforts on achievements. The plan has designed some objectives for tourism:
- To improve the quality of services and facilities relating to Tourism.
- To develop necessary infrastructures for the tourism sector and expand the tourism activities to other places of the country.
- To undergo a close coordinating link between tourism sector and other sectors of the economy.
- To argument the use of local materials and services in the tourism industry.
Similarly, the ninth plan had noted, "The tourism industry can be developed as an important sector of the national economy on account of its comparative advantage engendered by exiting attractive features and special geographical location of the nation."
The plan also carried out some policies to develop village tourism. The tenth plan has also focused the tourism sector as an important organ of the national economy, which will contribute to the national economy but also will not only provide benefits to foreign tourist as well as increase the income generating and employment opportunities. The plan has set some objective relating to tourism sector such as qualitative promotion of tourism sector, conservation and reservation of historical, cultural, religious and archaeological heritage and enforcing their practical utilization and to make air transportation services easily accessible standard and reliable.
There has been a great change after the success of people's movement II (2006/07) in Nepal. Now the country has been declared as republican nation. It has started to develop the country with a new dimension. Under the 3 years interim plan the first republican government has targeted to explore the new tourism marketing through the extension of transportation. It has planned to construct for railway services from east to west in southern range, Lok Marg from east to west in mountain region and fast track train services from Lhasa to Kathmandu to Lumbini. After the completion of these projects huge areas of tourism marketing will be explored. Thousands of Chinese tourists will visit Nepal through this fast track services.
Development of Tourism Planning
In this section, an attempt has been made to show the systematic planning of tourism development in Nepal. For that we have to review Nepalese development plans
The First Development Plan
In beginning of first plan, there were so many problems to establish the systematic approach and also not experienced and educated persons were there. In spite of them, the established considerations, and administrative machinery was set up. At that time, tourism to Nepal was virtually non-existence and administrative activities were limited as well as certain department in industry 1957 and also established an organized body named "Tourist Development Board" and moved through an Industry. After the establishment of the department, Nepal got membership in different international organizations. In this period, tourist information center was established, survey of hotel was conducted and some training was provided to tourist guides. Likewise, other worthwhile standard, establishment of travels agencies and development of airport in Kathmandu. As the first plan was beginning of the planned efforts of government, not much could be planned an achieved. But, the first plan is succeed to establish the concept in policy makers that tourism industry is a measure industry of Nepal (First Development Plan, NPC, 1957-61:pp.10-11).
The Second Development Plan
The second plan existed only for 3 years due to some problems. Within this short period, it was realized the need of development of tourism. Plans were made to set up more hotels and continued improvement of Tribhuvan International Airport in Kathmandu. Priorities were given to the operations of air services, trained guides and increasing publicity of Nepal in international field. As a result of earlier efforts, the number of hotel beds reached to 270 at the end of this plan period. It provides regulations and development of tourism in Nepal (Second Development Plan, NPC,1962-65: pp. 12-15).
The Third Development Plan
The main aim of the third plan was to increase tourist inflow to 20000 persons per month. The programs included completion of the TIA run way, establishment of hotels in Pokhara and Biratnagar, production of a film to boost tourism, repair, maintenance and reconstruction of temples in Kathmandu valley. These temples provided the main attractions to the tourist and hence a plan for their conservation was purposed. Conservations of historical places particularly Lumbini and Kapilbastu area was also planned. The other programs included a systematic display of Nepalese culture in the meseum, and among other preparations of master plan for Lumbini. An advisory committee for tourism was set up in 1968 only a year later, the committee was replaced by the Nepal Tourism Development Committee.The existence of plans and projects in tourism involved almost all levels of government, and are the joint task of administration and private sector. Later, it was organized as the HAN representing the hotel industry and NATA representing travel agencies (Third Development Plan, NPC, 1965-70: pp. 68-75).
The Fourth Development Plan
The formulation of master plan for the development of tourism in Nepal and the implementation of development projects in accordance with this plan had started after a systematic study of tourism development. Foreign experts were invited to prepare master plan for tourism promotion. The private sector was encouraged to increase the number of tourist by 40 percent annually. Hotels of different standard were planned to establish in Kathmandu valley so that total number of 2066 hotels beds would be available. The fourth plan budget of Rs. 5 million was considered for the master plan of tourist centers outside of Kathamndu valley, extension of information, training and entertainment (Fourth Development Plan, NPC, 1970-75).
The Fifth Development Plan
During the fifth national plan, tourism became a full-fledged ministry in 1997. In the fifth plan, the objective of tourism were to increase foreign exchange earning and thereby improve the balance of payment situation, to employment opportunities and achieving regional development by establishing tourist centers. This plan included providing training for 10500 people of different aspects of tourism and establishing tourism information of country were emphasized not only to promote tourism but also to spread its growth beyond the valley of Kathmandu, to other parts of the country along the lines of recommend in the tourist master plan. The fifth had, therefore, incorporated combined in the master plan as a second phase of tourism development program (Fifth Development Plan, NPC, 1975-80).
The Sixth Development Plan
In the entire plan, increasing in total number of tourist arrival is major aim of tourism related objective. The number of tourist during the sixth plan grew at the rate of 15 percent. Foreign exchange earnings increased to the $104 million. Within the sort space of time, tourism became one of the important sources of foreign exchange. Hotel beds also increased from 1963 in 1975 to 1979. During the plan period, altogether 1095 persons were trained in various field of tourism. Moreover, Nepal Industrial Development Corporation invested US $ 23 million in tourism industry related companies. The sixth plan spilled out many programmes. The major one were formulation of second tourism master plan, development of mountains tourism, tourism survey and research, development of resort area, remote area tourism development, strengthening of tourism information centers, construction of sheds of Arniko Highway, development of Tatopani area, production and promotion of tourism on material, strengthening of Hotel Management and Tourism Training Center (HMTTC), development of Khumbu area as well as formulation and implementation of other district level projects. For different purpose, US $ 12 million were provisioned (Sixth Development Plan, NPC, 1980-85).
The Seventh Development Plan
The seventh plan aimed to increase the inflow of upper class tourist so as to enable the country to foreign currency and also to create new employment opportunities by utilizing the tourism industry to the fullest possible capacity. It aimed at increasing the length of stay of tourist by extending tourism industry whenever tourism infrastructure had come into existence. The plan also emphasized the production of goods required for the tourism locally, than curtailing imports. This plan period also launched effective tourism promotion, and other charges. Similarly, the plan emphasized some activities such as tourism survey and research, extension of resort areas, strengthening of tourist services, and development of Pokhara Tourism, publicity production and distribution, providing more tourism training through HMTTC. Effective policies were provided in tourist areas so as to provide more security to the tourists (Seventh Development Plan, NPC, 1985-90).
The Eighth Development Plan
The eighth was also recognized tourism as a major foreign currency earning industry. It reviewed the progress during the fiscal year 1990/91 and 1991/92 and identified the existing problems. This plan planned to develop Nepal as a final destination for tourist and operate the tourism industry as major sources of employment generation by implementing the policy wise activities in regard to the following:
- Adventure tourism development
- Private sector mobilization and facilities
- Extension of services of Nepal Airlines Corporation
- Developing Tribhuvan International Airport as a focal point
- Standard domestic and international air services
- Private sector encouragement in air service in Nepali skies
- Manpower development for standard civil aviation service
- Extension of physical facilities of different airport
- Implementation of tourism promotion of development projects and tourism manpower development project
- International contact and market management
This plan also proposes various reforms in the organizational structure of the ministry of tourism in order to execute aforementioned policies efficiently. The plan set out various targets and programmes that may be seen in a nutshell. The various policies, targets and programmes of eight plan are unexceptionable but what extent there will be gap in the implementation process as in the case of previous plans are yet to be seen (Eight Development Plan, NPC, 1992-97).
The Ninth Development Plan
Ninth plan is the major plan of tourism development in Nepal. At this period, Visit Nepal '1998 was also celebrated. The main of this celebration was to attract the foreigners and collect foreign exchange earnings by motivating them through different promotional activities. The ninth plan has outlined the objectives, policies and program to address these issues. The long-term objectives of the tourism development in Nepal as mentioned in the ninth plan are as follows:
- To developed tourism sector as an important part of the overall economic development
- To established Nepal as premium destination on the world tourism
- To expand benefit of tourism down to the village level
The Tenth Development Plan
While the movement of the tourism came up to tenth plan, Nepal is known in all over the world. This success is due to tourism business. Tourism has many challenges such as strike, Nepal Banda, lack of infrastructure, lack of communication, lack of advertisement in foreign country, lack of facilities, short period of stay, decrease of foreign income etc. Some of the policies, strategies and targets adopted by tenth plan on tourism are as follows:
- Tourism master plan will be prepared to developed tourism in the world having international standard tourism
- There will be development of co-operation among the related ministry to developed the fundamental things of tourism
- There will be master plan of development and promotion of Lumbini, Pashupatinath and other religious places
- Other places of tourism will be developed along with Kathmandu, Pokhara, Lumbini, Chitwan, and Lukla.
- Tourism activities in the rural areas will be developed
During the period of 2051-2062, the tourism development in Nepal is directly affected due to political conflict. Nepal is oriented towards peace process and it is hoped that Nepal will be the Shangri-La for foreigners and consequently it can achieve the huge amount of foreign exchange earning that ultimately helpful for further national development.
Tourism has been comparatively and rapidly developing in the world and due specific natural and cultural heritages there is a great possibility of tourism industry in Nepal. Nepalese government came up with a tourism policy- 1995 as a deliberate policy for tourism development in Nepal. The policy has been made with a view to increase national production and income, foreign exchange earnings, employment opportunities, set right regional imbalances and publicist national production and in come, to expand the earning of foreign currencies to create opportunities for employment having development and expanded tourism industry. In order to achieve the target from the planned manner, following objectives have been identified in the Tourism Policy-1995:
- To developed the tourism industry as a economic sector of the nation by establishing its interrelation with other sectors of country
- To increase employment, foreign currency earnings and national income and to improve regional imbalance having expanded the tourism industry to the rural areas
- To developed and expand tourism industry by promoting natural, cultural and human environments of the country
- To maintain high image of the nation in interrelation community by providing standard service and necessary securities to the tourist
- To develop and promote Nepal as an attractive tourist center
The above-mentioned objectives of the tourism policy had been to develop tourism as one of the major sector of the country. The policy aims at developing infrastructure, public participation in tourism, giving priority to tourist centers in rural areas, promoting religious tourism, providing standard services and security to the tourist and so on. The policy clearly states that it will provide facilities and consciousness of tourism related industries as per the industrial enterprises act 1993 and foreign investments technology act 1993.
Along with these objectives, the tourism policy formulated the working policies. These policies help us in implementation and execution for planning and necessary arrangement. Some of the working policies are as follows:
- Expansion of investment in the tourism sector gradually be made and mobilization of investment shall be made in construction and development of infrastructures of new tourist spots
- Private sector shall be encouraged to provide sightseeing of the policies of the religious and cultural importance of the country, high Himalayan peaks and cultural beauties to the tourist having utilized existing physical infrastructure in a systematic and effective manner
- Private sector should be encouraged to operate various recreational and adventures tourism activities based on water and air in the various parts of the kingdom without prejudice to the original cultures and traditions of the country
- In order to prevent adverse effects in environment from tourism, Tourism Environment Guideline shall be framed in national level and introduced the same, etc.
Similarly, the Tourism Policy-1995 has provided some facilities and incentives to the Tourism business and industry. Some of them are as follows:
- Hotels and Resorts shall de classified as per the industries of national priority, their operation should be based on Industrial Enterprises Act, and facilities and incentives shall be provided to them accordingly.
- Facilities and incentives as prescribed by Nepalese government shall be provided to other tourism business and industries, excluding hotel and resort, on the basis of value added, creation of employment and creativeness.
- Others prescribed tourism business and industries shall be considering there working capacity and plans are provided to import the prescribed goods at the concession rate.
- Tourism industries shall be provided communication equipments, electricity and water supply on the priority basis.
- Hotels, restaurants and resorts opened in the rural areas, as prescribed by Nepalese government and other tourism business shall be provided facilities and incentives as prescribed etc.
Major Tourist Attractions
Few destination in the world can match Nepal in the variety of world class experience: be it mountaineering, trekking, mountain biking, nature tours, culture tours, pilgrim tours, white-water rafting, cannoning (cascading), kayaking, canoeing, mountain flights, pony trekking, jungle safaris, bird watching, fishing, hang-gliding, ultra-light aircraft ride, bungee jumping etc. In addition, we have several special interest tours like orchid tours, culture trek, honey hunting, village tours, fossil hunting, meditation courses, and shamanism-panimism tour, cave tours, snow leopard and blue sheep trek and many more that take place throughout the year. Some sectors of tourist attraction are as follows:
Nepal is the ultimate destination for the trekking enthusiast -offering a myriad of possibilities from the short and easy to the demanding challenges of the snowy peaks. Easy, moderate or rigorous - there is something for everyone. Nepal has aptly been called "A Trekkers Paradise" as her terrain-mountains, hill and the Terai-offers some of the most spectacular treeing routes in the world. The immense contrasts in altitudes and climates found here support an equally spectacular mix of lifestyles, vegetation and wildlife. Trekking in Nepal is as much as a cultural experience as Himalayan adventures. In the shadows and foothills of the icy pinnacles of the Himalaya, one passes picturesque charming villages inhabited by diverse ethnic groups. Treks vary from expeditions, high altitude treks to simple easy paced walks.
Mountaineering is another prime attraction of Nepal. The Mountains of Nepal have stood as irresistible land marks for the world's adventures since Nepal opened its doors to visitors in the 1950s. Mountaineering can range from climbing the highest peak of the world to climbing lower peaks. With eight of the highest peaks in the world, including Mt. Everest, it is hardly surprising that Nepal has been the stage for some of the most outstanding achievements in the world of mountaineering. The dauntless icy peaks have since decades challenged the bodies and sprits of those daring enough to want to conquer the hulks.
Rock climbing is another challenging sport for outdoor lovers. Most of the areas for rock climbing are situated towards the north of Kathmandu valley in the vicinity of the Nagarjuna forest and the Shivapuri National park. Trip to these places can be combined with hiking, bird watching, nature tours and other activities.
The ultimate thrill of a bungee jump can be experienced at one of the best site in the world. This is second longest jump in the world and 1st longest in Asia. Nepal's bungee jumping site is situated 160meters over the wild river Bhote koshi. The site located close to the Nepal-Tibet border at Barabise, which is about 100 km from Kathmandu. This is the perfect place for those adventure lovers who have guts to feel their life very closely.
Nepal's diverse terrain is what mountain bikers dream are made of Biking offers an environmentally sound way of exploring the country. It is possible to go biking the entire length of Nepal. Centuries old dirt roads and trails offer a chance to go on extended trips to exotic locals like Annapurna and Kanchan- junga areas.
The tropical jungles of Nepal's Terai preserve some of the best wildlife habitat in the subcontinent. Chitwan National park, Bardiya National park and Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve offer exciting safari holidays. Jungle activities here include venturing into deep jungle on elephant back or four-wheel drive to view wild animals in their natural habitat, canoe rides on the Jungle Rivers, nature walks, bird watching and village tour excursions.
Rafting is one of the most exciting ways of exploring the wilderness of Nepal. Being the extremely popular water sport rafting could be the most famous tourist attraction because we have so many thundering course of glacier river origination from the vast glacier of the great Himalayas. The river gush through the twisted canyons, winding through calm valleys where small settlements are perched on the banks, tarning out only as the spill out into the Indian plains to merge with the Ganges.
Village tours allow visitors to experience a stay in a typical Nepali village. This gives visitors an opportunity to observe the rich Nepalese cultural tradition from the closest quarter and intermingle with the locals. Besides, any expenses made at that level directly contribute to the welfare of the local community.
Cultural Heritage Tour:
Nepal offers an incomparable scope to connoisseurs of art and culture to see and study the different aspects of fine art in its painting, sculpture, woodcarving and architecture. The three main historic cities of Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur with numerous historical monuments, old palaces and palace squares, shrines and temples, ageless traditions and legends make it a vertical living museum. The Kathmandu Valley boasts seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites all within a radius of 20 km.
- Pashupatinath Temple
- Boudhanath Stupa
- Changunarayan Temple
- Swyambhunath Stupa
- Kathmandu Darbar Square
- Bhaktapur Darbar Square
- Patan Darbar Square
Beside this Lumbini is regarded as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Lumbini is one of the major places of the world where the great person of the peace. Lord Gautam Buddha was born. Therefore, all Nepalese people are proud of Lumbini located in small country, Nepal.
There are several places of tourist attractions in Nepal. UNESCO Natural World Heritage Sites has defined the following places as the major place those are to be reserved as imported places of the world.
- Chitwan National Park (932 Sq.Km)
- Everest National Park (1,148 Sq.Km)
Other National Parks:
- Bardiya National Park (968 Sq.Km)
- Khaptad National Park (225 Sq.Km)
- Lantang National Park (1,710 Sq.Km)
- Makalu-Barun National Park (2,330 Sq.Km)
- Rara National Park (106 Sq.Km)
- Shey-Phoksundo National Park (3,550 Sq.Km)
- Shivapuri National Park (144 Sq. Km)
- Koshi -Tapu Wildlife Reserve (176 Sq.Km)
- Parsa Wildlife Reserve (499 Sq.Km)
- Sukla Panta Wildlife Reserve (305 Sq.Km)
- Annapurna Conservation Area (7,629 Sq.Km)
- Kanchanjunga Conservation Area (1,663 Sq.Km)
- Manaslu Conservation Area (1,663 Sq.Km)
Dhorpatan (1,325 Sq.Km)
Policies and Programs under Globalization in Nepal
Analysis of the event related to development of tourism in Nepal suggests that in the decade of nineties there have been much more conscious efforts to globalizing the economy of Nepal. However, here we are taking up only some important events that reflect upon globalization of tourism related activities in Nepal. These are: (Upadhyaya, 2003: 194)
- Formation of Tourism council (1992)
- National Civil Aviation policy (1993)
- Tourism policy (1995)
- Visit Nepal year (1998)
- Formation of Nepal tourism Board (NTB) in 1999.
- Destination Nepal 2002-2003.
Formation of Tourism Council (1992)
Tourism Council is an apex body for tourism ministries and department, is an attempt to integrated and consolidated development of tourism. Prime Minister chairs this apex body, which have 30 members. It is expected that this apex body will help to remove obstacles during the process of implementation, provide correct directives and formulate policies by bringing about coordination among different ministries and departments for the sake of the development of tourism industry. But the major for the tourism council is that it does not enjoy the executive power and attention to implement its well intention and well planned programs. If this problem is removed, it provides to be of immense help for galvanizing the tourism sector Vis-à-vis the Nepalese economy.
National Civil Aviation Policy (1993)
Nepal government announced National Civil Aviation Policy (1993) to make air transport services competent and efficient in order to attract more international tourism during the Eight five year development plan. The policy was formulated to assist tourism development in accordance with the tourism policy. The major objectives of Civil Aviation Policy (1993) are:
- To develop international air transport service
- To encourage private sector in airline service
- To develop and expand air transport and air ports in the remote areas of the country.
- To encourage recreational, adventure and research oriented air facilities.
- To make air transport reliable and safe through installation of modern equipments at airports.
Tourism Policy (1995)
It is during the eight five-year development Plan (1992-97) period that the government of Nepal announced an independent tourism policy (1995). It was announced with the aim of increasing national income and productivity, increasing foreign currency, creating employment opportunities, improving regional imbalance and projecting the image of Nepal in the international area through diversification of travel and tourism industries.
Visit Nepal year (VNY) 1998
This was first national campaign in the history of tourism in Nepal. The central theme of the campaign has been "a sustainable habitat through sustainable tourism" similarly its marketing slogan was " A world of its own" which reveals that there is a 'world' in Nepal that needs to be discovered in its natural resources, living cultural heritage and friendly and hospitable host.
Some major objectives of VNY '98 were:
- To raise the image of Nepal throughout the world.
- To protect and conserve the natural and cultural centers in integrated form.
- To diversify the tourism product.
- To develop Nepal as one of the important tourist destination.
- To raise the public awareness about tourism.
- To distribute the fruits of tourism up to the grass root.
- To increase the volume of domestic tourism.
- To increase the length of tourist to 13 days.
- To improve the quality of tourism.
- To welcome 500,000 tourists.
VNY '98 helped Nepal to rebuild its image internationally, and also contribute to introduce professionalism in tourism in general and helped to raise awareness among the Nepalese people about the importance of tourism.
Destination Nepal Campaign (DNC) 2002-2004
As the impact of VNY it was not of desired program 'Destination Nepal 2002- 2004' had been planned to initiate DNC started from December 2002 and ended on December 2004 as a two year program. The international year of mountain 2002, International year of eco-tourism 2002 and visit south Asia 2003 were also integrated under this campaign.
It was implemented with the partnership between the government and private sector to promote tourism industry and create awareness among the people. The main objectives of DNC 2002-04 were:
- To promote public awareness among people about tourism.
- To promote and maintain Nepal as a reliable attractive and secured destination.
With wide international publicity, Nepal has started to pay more attention to this industry. However, it does not seem that proper program and planning has been made and the industry may not be professionally managed as is needed for the sector's proper development. Besides, its true potentiality can be realized only by proper marketing strategies and in this respect Nepal does not seem to have extended adequate attention.
Nepal has ample opportunities to develop international tourism as it consists of rich natural resources, beautiful landscapes and bio as well as cultural diversities. Thus tourism can be a good source of income for developing country like Nepal. Keeping in view of those facts, Nepal government has taken important steps and made long-term plans, policies and strategies for development of tourism in Nepal. In this context, Nepal Tourism Board Act 2053 B.S. was passed by both the houses of the parliament in December 1996, and obtained the Royal Seal in February 1997. The Board designed as a partnership between then Nepal Govt. and the private sector travel industry of Nepal has been empowered to work as a National Tourism Organization commencing on 31st of December 1998. The Board has certain statutory responsibilities assigned by the Nepal Tourism Board Act, 2053 as mentioned below:
- To develop and introduce Nepal as an attractive tourist destination in the international marketplace.
- To promote the tourism industry in the country while working for the conservation of natural, environmental and cultural resources.
- To work towards increasing the gross domestic product and foreign exchange income by means of promoting the tourism industry. To work towards increasing employment opportunities in the same industry.
- To develop Nepal as a secure, dependable as well as attractive travel destination by establishing a respectable image of Nepal in international travel trade community.
- To work towards providing equality service to the tourists visiting Nepal.
- To study the bottlenecks against the same by means of conducting research and implementing and getting implemented results of such research in order to do away with these bottlenecks.
- To promote and develop institutions for the promotion of tourism industry.
Putting all those objectives in strong consideration, NTB has designed its overall organizational structure in such a way that collective actions of each unit emphasizes in overall marketing & promotion of its diversified potential as well as existing tourism products. Nepal Tourism Board had prepared its Tourism Marketing Strategy for Nepal and its three main objectives are as follows:
- To recover and expand the overall volume and value of tourism to Nepal by concentrating on inherent products strengths
- To reposition Nepal firmly as a varied and multi-faceted destination with world class cultural and special interest products.
- To improve the seasonal and spatial distribution of visitors and foster the growth of new tourism areas.
In order to achieve these objectives, NTB has presented its core product strengths through its overall marketing campaign. Nepal's core product strengths are seen as the following:
- Rich ethnic culture with world heritage sites still in actual daily use.
- Spectacular Himalayan landscapes including Mt. Everest
- Pleasant year round climate
- Unique religious traditions
- Fine natural attractions and its welcoming and friendly people.
These product strengths are further grouped in five main product clusters as:
- Culture tradition and people
- Cities and leisure
- Outdoors, trekking and adventure
- Religion and pilgrimage
- Nature and wildlife