Tourism as a discipline

Question 1: Tourism as a Discipline

Answers: Tourism has been significant factors in the developed economics since the mid nineteenth century, if not earlier (Feifer 1986, Lofgren 1999).Theoretical development have many important changes within and without academic. The proliferation of vocational and degree course in tourism, leisure and hospitality management. The researcher impacts of tourism is the growth of tourism studies within higher education(Tribe 1997).The evident expansion of journal, books and conferences specifically devoted to tourism, at a general analytical level it remains under-theorised, eclectic and disparate. Meethan is not agreeing with tribe because in many ways this is an accurate reflection of the current state to play within tourism analysis. According to him one possible outcome of adopting this position is the risk of falling into a form of relativism, where we can say some theories are different from others. Secondly the related problem of falling into a complacent attitude of simply accepting diversity rather than attempting to account for it. The danger here is that the uncritical adoption of different disciplinary or analytical approaches and even methodologies may result in the worst of each discipline not the best, coming together. The idea that complexity should be accepted, rather than analysed, may become uncritically accepted as the prevailing orthodoxy .This point leads to a consideration of the differences between diversity at an empirical level, and diversity at a theoretical level. The diversity that is current within the study of tourism from a social science perspective lies not so much at a theoretical level, where in fact it is rather thin, but rather at an empirical level. Other disciplines or fields or fields of study the amount of empirical work mostly descriptive, far outweighs the attempts to synthesize it into some kind of theoretical framework or even frameworks. It appears that this is s fundamental problem, which needs to be addressed rather than simply filed away under diversity or whatever. He says, there would be argue is to be counterproductive in terms of developing a more coherent analytical framework. He approaches tourism from a perspective derived largely, but not exclusively, from two closely related social science disciplines, anthropology and sociology ,which both individually and collectively have made significant contributions towards the understanding of tourism as a global phenomenon .The global economics and cultural have impact on the nature of social sciences. Sociology for example is beginning to look beyond the confines of the nations state as the prime location of society (Robertson 1995) while anthropology has been coming home for many years (Goddard et al. 1994). Both disciplines are also beginning to assess the development and impact of diasporic or transnational cultures (Clifford 1997, Hall 2000, Hannerz 1996). All of these academic fields have concerns that are some extent common, even accounting for the different epistemological traditions between them. He argues that diversity of tourism that is evident in the world that focus on these dynamics. His approach here is to build on these developments in order to provide a more theoretically driven and interdisciplinary.

Question 2: Symbolism:

The restructuring of the spaces of modernity have resulted in the development of a symbolic economy of space, within which the role of culture and aesthetics has become central. The interrelation between spatial and social structure also requires approaches that can account for the ways in which values are both imposed upon, and derived from the environment, in the other words, a symbolic system. The development of tourist space means change at level of lived experiences for those whose space of home, or work, is the space of leisure for others. To analyse space them means focusing on the material production of places, of sites, of economics and social practices as much as the symbols and representations they gives to, and which are also derived from them (Harvey 1989a, b, 1993, Lefebvre 1991, 1996).The construction of space and the circulation of commodities which are both material and symbolic (Bourdieu 1984, Baurdrillard 1988, Harvey 1989a, b, Featherstone 1991, Lagopoulus 1993, Zukin 1995). The production of tourist space therefore inloves the matters environment and the socio economic circumstances which give rise to its form as well as encapsulating symbolic orders of meanings for both hosts as much as guests. Tourism is irreducibly associated with the production and consumption of specific socio spatial forms. The production of tourist spaces is a general process f co modification mediated at various spatial and institutional levels the global and transnational to the national, regional and local. The important point is that all process of spatial co modification has involved the development of a new aesthetic, which is some ways constitutes a break with the past. The processes of co modification have extended further into the realm style. The motivations for civic embellishment have changed, it is now a matter of economics necessity for place to commodity their aesthetic attributes, which then become assets to be capitalised and exploited in the rust for growth, of which tourism is one element (Judd 1995, Judd and Fainstein1999). Meethan main theme is to argue that tourism is the part of the process of co modification and consumption inherent in modern capitalism. Tourism is therefore best conceptualised as a global process of co modification and consumption involving flows of people, capital, images and cultures ( Appaduri 1990, Clifford1997, lanfant et al.,1995).1, Lagopoulus 1993, Zukin 1995). The circulation between realms of the symbolic and realms of the material without reducing one to another, while simultaneously of allowing capacity of people to think and act. Meethan follows trought Lefebvre's analysis of the symbolic economy of space with the threefold distinction between 'spatial practice', 'representation of space', representational spaces'. Meethan goes on to apply this more directly to tourism. Tourism policies and marketing strategies assign symbolic values to the material attributes of space.Meethan is ultimately seeking a more sophisticated and less reductionist analysis of tourism that encapsulates both material and symbolic elements of the production of specific, co modified and dynamic tourism spaces. The importance of place, and the ways in which it is lived in and lived through, is not diminished by globalisation (Lovell 1998) but, arguably, may even be reinforced by it. To belong to a place is to know the signifies of such symbolic forms, the collective meaning of the particular places which may encapsulate some notion of collectively, perhaps sites, such as shrines, monuments, building or workplaces, the raw materials.

Question 3: Agency of Disney

George Washington may be the father of this country, Dad, but the Walt Disney is its guardian. - Dick Schaap's son Stephen M. Fjellman author of "Vinyl Leaves: Walt Disney World and America," tells that Disney's theme parks portray not history as it was, but history as it should have been. He says Disney hastried to become more socially conscious, but it still sugar coats reality. Culture with capital C- that is received and explicit canon of activities and their products of putatively. "Correct Value ". The His work most known is 1992 book titled Vinyl Leaves: Walt Disney World and America. In his book he describe culture is a public place, more or less shared set of symbols, meaning, and understanding, belief people use to make sense and to reduce their normal daily lives. Walt Disney is an important venue for production of culture as ideology. The author says Walt Disney is an epicentre of decontextualization. His book provide good definitions for all his ideas post modernism, decontextualization and recontextualization, commodification of culture, tautological defense mechanisms.Fjellman is criticing Disney manipulating history,geographyand time. Fjellman analyzes every part of WDW, he writes that Disney creates a "rhetorical metastory of corporate ideology The most important aspect of this work is how "fake" becomes the real. Citing several theorists of postmodern culture (Frederic Jameson included), Fjellman emphasizes how decontextualized WDW is how it places Japan next to Russia in the World Showcase of EPCOT,how amusement is possible through a Disneyfied version of history, how amusement and secure consumption is actually possible in America. The experience of Disney is real and we become surrounded by so many images that are a mixture of the real and the imaginary, the fleshly and the robotic, that we find ourselves clapping for a performance given by electronic dummies and smile spitefully at the young goofy-looking Disneyite who is trying to help us get seated, who is actually a human being. This is the postmodern, Fjellman asserts, this is the decontextualized, and "even when people can tell the difference between the real and the fake, increasingly they do not care. We are ready to reintegrate ourselves back into the world outside of the Magic Kingdom and live our lives herding about, consuming and "being" by consuming. And when life gets disappointing again, when we feel unsafe, unclean, and un-American, we can always go back, for another 50 bucks, and enter our temporary paradise of. Fjellman does not subscribe to the view often associated with postmodernism that one shared culture is as good as another. He suggests that the centralization and hierarchical organization of Western technological systems is not value-neutral and that modern technocracy itself (rather than simple commodification) is a primary cause of the postmodern fascination with appearance and division - that the technocratic Disney culture we've been consuming is bad for us. Fjellman is suggesting, is that the trend of deconstruction, as it developed amidst the discontents of civilization, began to dissolve the "essences" of things where one no longer felt secure and stable with what something "meant" .

Question 4


The orientalism is the theory and practice of representing a controversial and a problematic concept. He has provides us in" the contemporary practice of orientalism "a concise text on the evaluation and development of the theory of orientalism, the practice of orientalism in history and its persistence and reformulation in the present world. He has also talks about the highly original historical perspective and shows how orientalism was reworked and reinvested during the middle ages, the enlightment, colonialism and under the impact of modernity. The author has also identified that the continuous interaction and transmission of ideas from one era to another makes orientalism complicit, an integral part of the history of ideas across the whole spectrum of western scholarship.

He says that orient which is the part of the movement of ideas in the west. According to author the orientalism scholarship will keeps pace between the shifts and changes of language, and moves towards the agenda of 'improving' the orient, making it 'modern'; which is the yardstick to measured the orient. The concept of modernity and development are built out of accepted elements of the west and used as a comparative device with the rest. The spirit of euro centrism is alive by kind of questions the orientalises raise and the basis remains same but the manner become mild and polite. This is the reality merely a reformulation of the old, that Islam is incompatible with the modern world.

In a fiction he is telling us views of western on east and Muslim nation. For example in the John Randall's 'the jihad ultimatum' according to story the group of a Iranian terrorist went to New York with atom and it is believed that the bomb were supplied by Kaddafi of Libya, to threaten the united states and force them to surrender. The leader of the Iranian jihad leader is an evil killer and he was motivated by revenge and obsession with Muslim. Same in Frederick foryth's 'The fist of God' has talked about the Saddam Hussein who want to build the 'supergun' with the help of Canadian gun designer. All these story and description are divided into two division first, the white character; civilized, polite, humane and second, Muslim; a bloodthirsty, alien, barbaric and savage.

The author is tell us that how the western entertainment company has describe or elucidate the world from the film. The western are trying to justify that the Muslim are evil terrorists and inhuman individuals. The famous film production company of the world, Hollywood are producing a movie which does not have any links and connection with the orient whatsoever. The movies such as the unseen terrorist in 'Back to the Future' (1985); tells that the terrorist are from Libya. In the film the American ninja are presented to beat Arab villains with the skills of martial arts. Like in the case of china 'the good earth' which was based on the Chinese economic, agriculture, piles stereotype of imagery. In all films china is presents as a cruel, despotic, wrapped in tradition, chaotic, a corrupt, run on the edge of the world. It is a matter of emphasis and choice determined by those with authority over this tradition, the writers and artists of the west.

Question 1: Politics and Aesthetics


Thought provoking account of the history of Hawaii's indigenous people.... [Buck] examines the transformations of successive social structures and the various relationships of power and domination in Hawaiian history before and after contact with the West. Buck uses the changing contexts of the production, practice and meaning of the chant and hula, and the later emergence of Hawaiian music, to inform our understanding of the cultural and social implication of political and economic change.... Well worth reading." —Journal of American History

In her book she describe that the politics of competing cultures and myths in a colonized nation. Elizabeth Buck considers the transformation of Hawaiian culture, with a focus on the indigenous population rather than on the colonizers. In Paradise Remade, the she reframes Hawaiian history, focusing on how Hawaii's established religious, social, political, and economic relationships have changed in the past two hundred years as a result of Western imperialism. This account of the politics of island culture and history is particularly timely in light of current Hawaiian demands for sovereignty one hundred years after the overthrow of the monarchy in 1893. Drawing on a wide range of critical theories of social structure and change, language and discourse, and practices of representation, Buck examines the social transformation of Hawaii from a complex hierarchical, oral society to an American state dominated by corporate tourism and its myths of paradise. She pays particular attention to how contemporary Hawaiians are challenging the use of their traditions as the basis for eroticized entertainments by establishing new institutions such as hula halau (schools) and the annual hula competition of the Merrie Monarch Festival to recover their history and culture. Buck demonstrates that sacred chants and hula were an integral part of Hawaiian social life; as the repository of the people's historical memory, chant and hula practices played a vital role in maintaining the links between religious, political, and economic relationships. As colonizers concentrated on transforming the economic and political organization of the islands and missionaries undertook conversion to Christianity, the suppression of these cultural practices became a key element in establishing European dominance. Tracing the ways in which Hawaiian culture has been variously constructed by Western explorers, New England missionaries, the tourist industry, and ethnomusicology.

She focuses on changes in Hawaiian chant, hula, and music as a means of interpreting Hawaiian history. She covers Hawaiian prehistory and the impact of Western contact, missionaries, and the sandalwood, whaling, and sugar industries on Hawaiian society--and on music in particular. Buck discusses Hawaiian music emphasizing the impact of tourism and the recording industry. She closes by examining the way in which Hawaiian chant, hula, and music have become symbols of modern Hawaiian political awareness and ethnic pride. Buck examines the social transformation Hawaii from a complex hierarchical, oral society to an American state dominated by corporate tourism and its myths of paradise. The contemporary Hawaiians are challenging the use of their traditions as the basis for eroticized entertainment. Buck demonstrates that sacred chants and hula were an integral part of Hawaiian social life; as the repository of the people's historical memory, chants and hula practices played a vital role in maintaining the links between religious, political, and economic relationships.

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