The Cell

The Cell

Chapter 3

o Recommend reading chap 1 and 2. {will not be tested}

· Cell:

* Macroscopic they can be described as self reproducing bag of chemicals.

* Spherical like structure

* 3.4 in textbook: The cell structure

* Fundamental structure or building block of all organisms.

* All organisms at least consist of one cell.

* We have more bacteria cells then body cells.

* Cells are composed of protoplasm.

* Protos: (first)

* Plasma: (formed or molded)

* Protoplasm is the essential material of cells in living organisms. ( all cells)

* The life depends on and arises out of protoplasm.

* The life depends on continuous chemical activities in the protoplasm.

* Protoplasm is a solution of water and dissolved materials.

* It is a complex colloidal system:

o Permeanant suspension of finally divided

o Particles.

o Ex:-egg yolk

* Particles include large molecules of carbohydrates, protein, lipids, nucleic acids/DNA +RNA.

* Protein made up of amino acids (20).

* Nucleic acids building blocks are DNA+RNA.

* Protoplasm is the contents of the cells taken together. (in simple terms) Not including cell membrane.

* Matter- weight or mass, takes up space.

* Can't weight energy. ( light electricity)

* Chemistry is a study of matter.

* Building Blocks of matter are atoms.

* 118 elements in the periodic table.

* 94 natural elements.

* Our body made up of 20 elements.

* Elements- various kinds of matter.

* If 2 atoms are combined it is compound. Ex: O2, N2, H2 Not A compound. 2 or more kinds of elements chemically put together.

* If 1 piece of H20 it is a molecules.

* H20 water is condensed in winter( you could see them)

* 02, n2, h2 not a compound, are also molecules.

* H20,CO2 are compounds

* O2, n2, h2 are not compounds.

* Organisms are divided into 5 kingdoms or major groups.

* Everything that is alive is either prokaryote or earthquakes.

* Pro refers to before. Karyo refers to nucleus

* Ev=true

* Prokaryotic cells are bacteria and blue green algae they don't have true nucleus.

* Eukaryotic other 4 kingdoms they have true nucleus.

* Prokaryotic still have DNA.


* 1) Monera = bacteria blue green algae capable of making photosynthesis

Ø Cells are prokaryotic

Ø There is no nucleus

Ø There is nucleus but not true nucleus

Ø DNA within the cell cytoplasm

Ø No organelles: mean little organ.

* An organ has a certain function made up of certain tissues.

* Whole bunch of similar cells make tissue

Ø Skin, bone tissues etc..

* Several tissues make an organ. Ex: heart - muscle tissue, cardiac, tissue, nerve tissue, etc...

* Organs work with other organs: Organ Systems. Ex: circulatory, lung, heart , capillary, blood.

* Organs have particular functions.

* Cytoplasm

2) Protists-Protoso

* Single celled (pond water organisms)

* Have eukaryotic cells

* True nucleus and organelles

3) Fungi

* Used to be considered plants. Multicelluar

* Eukaryotic cell with cell wall

* Cell wall made up of cellules (acts as skeleton)

* Have cell membrane

* Cannot make own food have to absorb it

* Consist molds, yeast, mushrooms.

4) Plants

Ø Multicelluar and have eukaryotic cells

Ø Cells surrounded by cell wall

Ø One of organelles within the cell is chloroplasts. With green pigment chlorophyll

Ø Usually drawn as a box

Ø They have inner cell membrane & outer cell

Ø Chloroplast capsule containing pauder

Ø Chlorophyll is chemical

5) Animals

Ø Multicelluar , eukaryotic cells

Ø No cell wall only surrounded by membrane

Ø Incapable of making food. They have to eat

o Viruses are either RNA or DNA molecule surrounded by protein coat

o Viruses don't take in nutrition or oxygen

o Cannot reproduce unless take over a host cell

o Extreme form of parasites...

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