founding fathers of management


Behind every successful business there must be excellent management practices to follow as the business continues to strive and we all have thank but the three[3] founding fathers of management who are Frederick Winslow Taylor inventor of Scientific Management, Max Weber on Bureaucracy and Elton Mayo for the Human Relations Movement.

Below there is a little more insight on each of our founding fathers



Frederick Winslow Taylor who was born in March 20, 1856 in Germantown (now part of Philadelphia) Pennsylvania was an industrial engineer who originated Scientific Management in Business and modern Prototype. In 1878 he began working at the Midvale Steel Company where he became foreman and studied measurement of industrial productivity.

Taylor developed detailed systems intended to gain maximum efficiency from both workers and machines in the factory which relied on time and motion studies, which help determine the best methods of performing a task in the least amount of time .In 1898 he became joint discoverer of the Taylor White process, a method of tampering steel. Taylor served as a consulting engineer for several companies and then later on died in March 21, 1915 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.


His methods are greatly used around the world today Principles Of Scientific Management, some of his greatest theories were maximum prosperity for each employee (vice-versa).To the employer it would mean not only large dividends for the company or owner but also the development of every branch in the business to its highest state of excellence making the prosperity permanent. As the same for each employee means not only higher wages but also it means development of each man to his state of maximum efficiency where he can work at his best so employer in companies today can get a large output from his/her employees.

Improvement of management as a means of increasing productivity means to always allow managers to up grade themselves in whatever area to increase the productivity in work. It works well in today's society so the managers can maneuver themselves around their work structure and employees with the correct training. Monetary incentives could increase productively that is what every employee is working for at the end of the day and it will always encourage the employee to want to work harder causing greater productivity especially in today's world where cost of living is so high. Specialization is where each job is broken down into component parts, each part timed, and the parts rearranged into the most efficient method of work which would find the true science of each person's work replacing the old rule to thumb method Rational economic needs concept of motivation.

The Scientific selection, training and development of the workers employees should be carefully trained and given jobs to which they are best suited so in today's society the workers can perform the job at its best Cooperation with the workers to ensure work is carried out in the prescribed way should result in maximum productivity

The division of the work and responsibility between managers and employees


  • Federick Taylor, June 13.1997,Earll Entry management Consultant. The Wall Street Journal
  • Taylor ,Principles Of Scientific Management, cited by Montgomery 1989-229, Italics with Taylor


Max Weber is a German sociologist and political economist was born on April 21, 1864 Erfurt, Prussia (Germany) as the eldest son of a liberal politician of a wealthy family in the German linen industry. In Weber life home leaving his mother Helene Weber and the remainder of his family to enroll at the University of Heidelbery in 1883 interrupting his studies, after two years to fulfill a year of military service at Strassburg (Strasbourg).Darning this time he became very close to his mother's sister Ida Baumgarten, and who influence on Weber's intellectual development was profound

After his release from the military, Weber was asked by his father to finish his studies at the University of Berlin, where he could live at home from 1884 until his marriage in 1893, Weber left his father's house only for a semester of study at Gottingen in 1885 and for some periods of military maneuvers with his reserve unit

Weber paid unwritten homage to his Calvinist forebears by continuing a compulsive work regimen that he had begun after his return to Berlin in1884 .Only after a year after his appointment at Berlin, he became a full professor in political and political economy at Freiburg, and then the following year (1896),at Heidelberg .Weber wrote on a comprehensive analysis of the agrarian problems of the German east for one of Germany's most important academic societies the Union Of Social Policy (1890),and antiquity. He was also politically active in these years, working with the left-liberal Protestant Social Union (Evangelisch-Soziale Verein)

The high point of his early scholarly career was his address at Freiburg in 1885 which he pulled together five (5) years of study on the agrarian problems of Germany east of the Elbe into a devastating indictment of the ruling Junker aristocracy as historically absolute.

Following his father's death in August 1897, an increasing nervousness plagued the young scholar. Webber returned to teaching which ended in the first months of 1898 with the first signs of his nervous collapse that was to prostate him between mid 1898 and 1903; he later on suffered sudden re-lapses.

During the years he spent in Heidelberg, he published many books like Die Protestantische Ethic Und Der Geist Des Kapilalismus (1904-1905), the Protestants Ethic And The Spirit Of Capitalism (1903).

Weber political sociology is concerned with the distinction with the charismatic, traditional, and legal forms of authority.

In 1910, Weber had a series of discussions with Stefan George and his close disciple, the Poet Friedrick Gundvif, at the same time, he embarked on an extra marital affair, which he published ("Theorie Der Stufen Und Richtungen Religioser Weltablehnung", "1916", "Religious Rejections Of The World And Their Directions").

Webber tied to gain respect for sociology de supline by defining a value free methodology and the analysis of the Religious culture of India and China for purposes of comparison with the western religious traditions.

Weber argued from 1916 to 1918 against German annexation war goals in favour of a strengthened parliament. He stood bravely for sobriety in politics and scholarships against the apocalyptic mood of right wings. Students in the months following Germany's defeat.

After assisting in the drafting of the new constitution and the founding of the German Democratic Party, Weber died of lung infection in June 1920.


Bureaucracy is the rule conducted from a desk office; therefore by the preparation and dispatch of written documents or, these days their electronic equivalence. In modern countries, the ruler does not have to fight in person or travel around much, he or she rules by sending messages through a bureau, usually acted on mainly because of Government's morale authority or prestige (a status phenomena) which can also be backed by police or soldiers.

Division of labor directed by explicit rules impersonally who live off a salary, not from income derived from the programme of their jobs .The modern bureaucrat does not own his job (SEO, p 332). Some governments have sold, to raise money for e.g. Judicial positions in the 18 century France of commissions in the army and navy in most European countries into the 19 century.

Weber speaks of "credentials" the pre occupation evident in modern societies with formal education qualifications .All these credentials, fixed salaries, tenure, stability of staffing. They are all required. He believes, for the efficient functioning of an administration machine. In today's society qualification can give you a clear understanding of how well the employee can handle and understand the job.

Another feature is the impersonal application of general rules, both to the outsider, the organization deals with, and its own staff. The Taxation commissioner's staff impersonally, objectively, apply the rules to the taxpayer so there can be some order in today' work place.

Bureaucracy is the most efficiency way of implementing the rule of law .The legal rules are recorded, studied, and carefully considered and applied to individual cases which any legal norm may be established on grounds of expediency or rational values or both, with a claim to obedience, SEO, P 329, which is a main form of nationality and 'rational values' and is a synonymous with efficiency and extremely efficient in conducting administration

Weber does not believe that there is no point in resisting the inevitable .Weber contracts the status of honor of the bureaucrat with the responsibility of politicians, see ES, pp1403-4, 1417 and 1438. If a bureaucrat's superior gives him a directive he considers wrong he should object, but if the superior insists it is his duties and even his honor to carry it out as if it corresponded to his innermost conviction on the other hand the politician must publicly reject the responsibilities for political actions that run center to his convictions and must sacrifice his office to them .A genuine political leader will be ready to accept responsibility for morally dubious action , since the different parts of our value system are irreconcilably in conflict, GM pp. 118-28 , 147ff. To attain power, political leaders must be selected through competitive struggle.


  • 'ES refers to Max Weber 1968, Economy and Society, ed G Roth and C.Wittich,New York
  • Beetham refers to David Beetham 1974,Max Weber AND THE Theory of Modern Politics,LONDON
  • 'SEO'REFERS TO Max Weber 1947,The Theory of Social and Economic Organizations, tr.Henderson and Persons ,New Work



George Elton Mayo was born in Adelaide, South Australia, on December 26th 1880. He was the second child whose father was a civil engineer of a respect colonial family. After failing to follow in his grandfather's foot steps to study medicine, he was sent to Britain. There he began to write about Australian Politics for the Pall Mall Gazette and taught at the Working Men's College in London. After he returned to University he became the most brilliant student of the philosopher, Sir William Mitchell. Although his views on management caused him to be unpopular, George Mayo married Dorothea Mc Connell and then had two daughters, Patricia Elton Mayo, who would follow her father's management thinking as a sociologist, and Ruth who became a British artist and novelist.

George Elton Mayo died in Guilford Surrey on 1st September, 1949.


George Elton Mayo who is known as the founder of the Human Relations Movement and his research including the Hawthorne Studies which he wrote a book in 193, The Human Studies Of An Industrialized Civilization, with the intention of bring about a greater understanding of the effects of working conditions on worker productivity which turned out to be contrary to management theories, but were important in creating an understanding of motivation factors in workers.

Mayo's employees Rothliserg and Dickison conducted the practical experiments. He carried out a number of investigations to look at ways of Improving productivity. Some of his experiments were

THE ILLUMINATION EXPERIMENTS: Lighting, especially from electricity , was not as cheap and widely available as it is today when compared with the 1920s and 1930s . These were also the depression years. Nevertheless, two groups of employees were put in an experiment to determine how light intensity would impact worker's productivity as was expected .Actually , when the lighting conditions got worse productivity got better and surprise the researchers . So, further experiments were necessary to try to ascertain the exact cause of this phenomenon.

THE RELAY ASSEMBLY TEST ROOM :In a separate experiment, a group of women were taken from the boring assembly work with telephone relays and placed in a separate room but with conditions similar to the original assembly room and observed with researchers being friendly, consulting with the workers , listening to their complaints ,and keeping them informed of the experiment .In almost every case but one , there was a continuous increase in the level of production. The researchers attributed to change in productive behavior to the extra attention given ti the workers and the apparent interest in them shown by management.

THE INTERVIEWING PROGRAMME: The above two experiments seem to suggest that attention from supervisors might be affecting productivity in a positive direction .So, a third experiment involving interviewing the workers was conducted .However, as the researchers started to ask the workers various questions thy objected to the types of questioned that were designed by the researchers and asked instead whether they would ask their own questions. Specifully , they wanted to talk about issues other than supervision. The researchers readily agreed. These questions were spontaneous in nature and the workers talked freely from their hearts. The researchers took an impartial and confident approach to the worker's questions. The workers wanted to let off steam in friendly atmosphere. This experiment showed that management needed to pay more attention to worker's feelings and concerns at work

THE BANK WIRING OBSREVATION ROOM:A forth experiment was conducted and carried out by observing a group of 14 men working in a bank wiring room. It was decided that, where more work could be produced then more money would be paid to the men.

However, the men tacitly and quietly agreed among themselves that they going to do only so much work and no more regardless of the monetary incentive offered. It was noticed that an informal organization had developed among the men .They had their own norms ,sub-groups and cliques, and natural leaders emerged with the consent of their members . The major finding then was that group pressure on individual workers to conform to the group's identity and goals was stronger than financial incentives.

These findings were probably the forerunner to the development of modern day human resource management to make life at work much more understandable and easier for us all


*Elton Mayo,1984. Gael, The Mad ,Mosaic:A Life Story Quartet, London

*Mayo, George Elton (http://, Austrailian Dictionary of Biography

*Daniel Bell,1947"Adjusting Men To Machines:Social Scientists Explore the World OF THE FACTORY,"Commentary 3

Please be aware that the free essay that you were just reading was not written by us. This essay, and all of the others available to view on the website, were provided to us by students in exchange for services that we offer. This relationship helps our students to get an even better deal while also contributing to the biggest free essay resource in the UK!